Essen is the central and second largest city of the Ruhr, the largest urban area in Germany. Its population of 583,109 makes it the ninth largest city of Germany, as well as the fourth largest city of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. On the Ruhr and Emscher rivers, Essen geographically is part of the Rhineland and the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region; the Ruhrdeutsch regiolect spoken in the region has strong influences of both Low German and Low Franconian. Essen is seat to several of the region's authorities, as well as to eight of the 100 largest publicly held German corporations by revenue, including two DAX corporations. Essen is considered the energy capital of Germany with E. ON and RWE, Germany's largest energy providers, both headquartered in the city. Essen is known for its impact on the arts through the respected Folkwang University of the Arts, its Zollverein School of Management and Design, the Red Dot industrial product design award. In early 2003, the universities of Essen and the nearby city of Duisburg were merged into the University of Duisburg-Essen with campuses in both cities and a university hospital in Essen.

In 1958, Essen was chosen to serve as the seat to a Roman Catholic diocese. Founded around 845, Essen remained a small town within the sphere of influence of an important ecclesiastical principality until the onset of industrialization; the city — through the Krupp family iron works — became one of Germany's most important coal and steel centers. Essen, until the 1970s, attracted workers from all over the country. Following the region-wide decline of heavy industries in the last decades of the 20th century, the city has seen the development of a strong tertiary sector of the economy; the most notable witness of this Strukturwandel is the Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex, which has once been the largest of its kind in Europe. Closed in 1993, both the coking plant and the mine have been inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2001. Notable accomplishments of the city in recent years include the title of European Capital of Culture on behalf of the whole Ruhr area in 2010 and the selection as the European Green Capital for 2017.

Essen is located in the centre of the Ruhr area, one of the largest urban areas in Europe, comprising eleven independent cities and four districts with some 5.3 million inhabitants. The city limits of Essen itself are 87 km long and border ten cities, five independent and five kreisangehörig, with a total population of 1.4 million. The city extends over 21 km from north to south and 17 km from west to east north of the River Ruhr; the Ruhr forms the Lake Baldeney reservoir in the boroughs of Fischlaken, Kupferdreh and Werden. The lake, a popular recreational area, dates from 1931 to 1933, when some thousands of unemployed coal miners dredged it with primitive tools. Large areas south of the River Ruhr are quite green and are quoted as examples of rural structures in the otherwise densely populated central Ruhr area. According to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, Essen with 9.2% of its area covered by recreational green is the greenest city in North Rhine-Westphalia and the third-greenest city in Germany.

The city has been shortlisted for the title of European Green Capital two consecutive times, for 2016 and 2017, winning for 2017. The city was singled out for its exemplary practices in protecting and enhancing nature and biodiversity and efforts to reduce water consumption. Essen participates in a variety of networks and initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the city's resilience in the face of climate change; the lowest point can be found in the northern borough of Karnap at 26.5 m, the highest point in the borough of Heidhausen at 202.5 m. The average elevation is 116 m. Essen comprises fifty boroughs which in turn are grouped into nine suburban districts named after the most important boroughs; each Stadtbezirk is assigned a Roman numeral and has a local body of nineteen members with limited authority. Most of the boroughs were independent municipalities but were annexed from 1901 to 1975; this long-lasting process of annexation has led to a strong identification of the population with "their" boroughs or districts and to a rare peculiarity: The borough of Kettwig, located south of the Ruhr River, and, not annexed until 1975, has its own area code.

Additionally, the Archbishop of Cologne managed to keep Kettwig directly subject to the Archdiocese of Cologne, whereas all other boroughs of Essen and some neighboring cities constitute the Diocese of Essen. Essen has a "true"/typical oceanic climate with mild winters and cool summers. Without large mountains and the presence of inland seas, it ends up extending a predominantly marine climate is found in Essen a little more extreme and drier in other continents in such geographical location, its average annual temperature is 10 °C: 13.3 °C during the day and 6.7 °C at night. The average annual precipitation is 934 mm; the coldest month of the year is January, when the average temperature is 2.4 °C. The warmest months are July and August, with


Cairokee is an Egyptian rock band, launched in 2003 but came to prominence with its revolutionary music following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 due to its politically-inspired lyrics and protest songs released following the uprising. Their title song "Ya El Midan", featuring notable Egyptian singer Aida el Ayoubi who had retired in the 1990s, ranked number one on Facebook worldwide for downloads and number eight on YouTube with more than half a million views on the video channel in just two days following its internet release; the band consists of Amir Eid, Sherif Hawary, Tamer Hashem, Sherif Mostafa, Adam el-Alfy. The initial band members were friends since their school days, Tamer was a drummer back then. In 2003, Hawary Tamer and Haytham had started an English band called Black Star, they started playing covers of English songs, with only one Egyptian Masry song called "Ghariba", admired by their audiences. They decided to continue making Egyptian songs because they felt it was shameful to keep playing English music as it wasn't their mother tongue.

They were influenced by the works of Pink Floyd and The Beatles and regard Pink Floyd's music as an inspiration for their own musical career. Following the 2011 revolution, they released their first major hit "Sout El Horeya", a joint collaboration between the band's main vocalist Amir Eid and music producer, sound engineer and vocalist Hany Adel of the band Wust El-Balad; the song had over 2 million views on YouTube and was ranked a world record as one of the most watched videos in the shortest period of time. Another hit song, "Ya El Midan", marked the return of singer Aida el Ayoubi after 20 years of absence from the stage; the song was a tribute to Tahrir Square and personifying it as another living and breathing member of the opposition, its video clip documented the latest protests in an indirect way as the camera was filming inside a protester's house and it roamed over clothes riddled with bullet holes, medical white coats and types vinegar and the plastic shields of the CSF. On 24 January 2012, marking the first anniversary of the revolution, a video was released on YouTube for the song "Ethbat Makanak" and featured prominent Egyptian satirist Bassem Youssef who joined the work in order to support independent voices in the media who were attacked by the former military government because of their work.

Cairokee released their first album "Matloob Zaeem" in June 2011, with sponsorship from Coca-Cola after spending years without any support to release an album. The title track with the same name was an instant hit and was considered an employment advertisement preceding the 2012 presidential election, describing the qualities of the country's next leader in the producer's point of view. During the June 2013 Egyptian protests, they performed on a stage in front of hundreds of thousands who were protesting against President Mohamed Morsi at the country's main presidential palace in Cairo's Heliopolis suburb; the band was invited by volunteer organizers and had tweeted earlier that they would "join the Egyptian people at Ittihadiya". While performing, the people were singing along with them and served as backup singers with lyrics such as "we are the people… and our path is right" and "you say ‘justice’, they call you a betrayer"; the band called their audience during the performance "the best in the world".

On 21 March 2013, Red Bull organized an event in which Cairokee played against Wust El-Balad dubbed "Red Bull Sound Clash" where the spectators were the judge and the winner would be declared according to the intensity of the crowd's cheering. Daily News Egypt noted that "it was clear from the beginning of the evening that Cairokee had the edge on crowd support, although Wust El-Balad had a strong fan base at the event"; the concert featured popular sha'abi singer Ahmed Adaweyah who performed in Wust E-Balad's act and at the end of the event, no victor was announced but the spectators were left satisfied with both performances. Cairokee performed at the Jordanian Dum Tak Alternative Middle Eastern Music Festival, along with several Egyptian bands including Wust El-Balad and Massar Egbari as well as many other Middle Eastern bands such as Lebanon's Mashrou' Leila. In early 2014, Cairokee released their third album "El Sekka Shemal"; the album featured collaborations with different artists, including Algerian singer Souad Massi, Abdel Baset Hammouda and Zap Tharwat.

This year brought Cairokee to the record label Sony Music Middle East. The partnership led to the band obtaining its own Vevo channel on YouTube, the first deal of its kind for any artist in the region; the album was their most successful to date, with its first copy sold out in the first three days only, topping the charts on the iTunes Store and in the music market of Egypt and the Middle East. It became the album with the highest number of downloads and purchases on iTunes by the end of the first week, it was featured in the first episode of the third season of Bassem Youssef's popular show El Bernameg. On July 20, 2017, Cairokee hit the summer season with the release of their latest album, Noaata Beda, or Drop of White, which consists of 10 songs; the main song, Noaata Beda, received 1.6 million views on YouTube. Amir Eid - Vocals, songs writer and acoustic guitar Sherif El Hawary - Electric guitar Tamer Hashem - Drums Sherif Mostafa - Keyboards and production Adam El-Alfy - Bass guitar Studio AlbumsMatloob Zaeem Wana Maa Na

Hungarian occupation of Vidin

The Hungarian occupation of Vidin was a period in the history of the city and region of Vidin, today in northwestern Bulgaria, when it was called Banate of Bulgaria under the rule of King Louis I of Hungary from 1365 to 1369. Before 1359–1360, the former heir to the Bulgarian crown Ivan Sratsimir had established himself as the ruler of the Vidin appanage of the Second Bulgarian Empire and had turned it into a independent entity. In early 1365 Louis I of Hungary, who like his predecessors styled himself "king of Bulgaria" among other titles, demanded that Ivan Sratsimir acknowledge his suzerainty and become his vassal. After Sratsimir's refusal, the Hungarian king undertook a campaign to conquer the Tsardom of Vidin. On 1 May 1365, he set off from Hungary; the Hungarians took Ivan Sratsimir and his family captive and imprisoned them in the Humnik fortress in Bosiljevo, Croatia. Shortly afterwards, the Hungarians seized the entire land of the Tsardom of Vidin and turned it into a province of the Kingdom of Hungary governed by a ban.

The area was governed by Peter Himfi, the Count of Pozsony, by Denis Lackfi, styled "voivode of Transylvania, governor of Vidin and ruler of the counties of Temes and Szolnok". After establishing their administrative rule, the Hungarians proceeded to convert the local Bulgarian Orthodox population to Roman Catholicism with the assistance of Franciscan friars. Despite its short duration, this was one of the earliest Hungarian missionary dioceses. According to Hungarian data, the Franciscans converted 200,000 people or a third of the region's population; that religious intolerance was reflected in the negative popular attitude towards the Hungarian overlordship, attested in a marginal note in an Orthodox religious book from the period: "This book was written by the sinful and unintelligent Dragan together with his brother Rayko in the days when the Hungarians ruled Vidin and it was great pain for the people at that time."Ivan Sratsimir's father, Tsar Ivan Alexander, ruler of Bulgaria at Tarnovo, could do nothing to stop the Hungarian invasion and his son's capture.

Several years however, he took advantage of Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos' detention at Vidin and Count of Savoy Amadeus VI's campaign on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast to organize an Orthodox coalition and salvage Vidin. For joining the alliance, Ivan Alexander offered the Byzantine emperor the Black Sea ports south of Nesebar; the Vlach voivode would, in return, cede it to Ivan Alexander. In 1369, the Hungarian occupation of Vidin was brought to an end. Although the initial campaign was not successful because the Hungarians seized the city back, the ensuing negotiations between the Kingdom of Hungary and Ivan Alexander's allies, Vladislav I Vlaicu and Dobrotitsa, the despot of the semi-independent Dobrujan Principality of Karvuna, led to the return of the city to Bulgarian possession, it is thought that Ivan Sratsimir was reinstalled as the region's ruler in the autumn of 1369. Божилов, Иван. "Иван Срацимир, цар във Видин". Фамилията на Асеневци. Генеалогия и просопография. София: Българска академия на науките.

ISBN 954-430-264-6. OCLC 38087158. Engel, Pál. Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1301–1457, I.. História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. Budapest. ISBN 963-8312-44-0. Markó, László. A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig: Életrajzi Lexikon. 2nd edition, Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963-547-085-1