Savigny-sur-Orge is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 19.1 km from the center of Paris in the département of Essonne. During the 2005 civil unrest in France, Savigny was the first city to implement a curfew, it is home to the Jean-Baptiste Corot High School, a twelfth-century château converted into a school and the former property of Marshal Davout. Inhabitants of Savigny-sur-Orge are known as Saviniens. Writer Patrick Erouart-Siad won the 1993 Prix Ève Delacroix of the Académie française; the city hosts. Savigny-sur-Orge is served by Savigny-sur-Orge station on Paris RER line C. Communes of the Essonne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use
Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region. The department is situated to the southeast of the city of Paris. Val-de-Marne is, together with Seine-Saint-Denis and Hauts-de-Seine, one of three small departments in Île-de-France that form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne. Since January 1, 2016 Val de Marne is included in Métropole du Grand Paris Val-de-Marne is made up of 3 departmental arrondissements and 47 communes: Val-de-Marne was created in January 1968, through the implementation of a law passed in July 1964. Positioned to the south-east of the Paris ring road, it was formed from the southern-eastern part of the Seine department, together with a small portion taken from the broken-up department of Seine-et-Oise. Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Prefecture General Council Citizen Blog
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Étampes is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 48.1 km south-southwest from the center of Paris. Étampes is a sub-prefecture of the Essonne department. Étampes, together with the neighboring communes of Morigny-Champigny and Brières-les-Scellés, form an urban area of 26,604 inhabitants. This urban area is a "satellite city" of Paris. Étampes existed at the beginning of the 7th century and in the early Middle Ages belonged to the crown domain. During the Middle Ages it was the scene of several councils, the most notable of which took place in 1130 and resulted in the recognition of Innocent II as the legitimate pope. In 1652, during the war of the Fronde it suffered at the hands of the royal troops under Turenne. Étampes lies on the river Chalouette, a tributary of the Juine, which borders the eastern outskirts of the serene town. Inhabitants of Étampes are known as Étampois. Étampes is served by two stations on Paris RER line C: Saint-Martin-d'Étampes. A fine view of Étampes is obtained from the Tour Guinette, a keep built by Louis VI in the 12th century on an eminence on the other side of the railway.
Notre-Dame du Fort, the chief church, dates from the 12th centuries. The interior contains other artistic works. St Basile, which preserves a Romanesque doorway, St Martin, with a leaning tower of the 16th century, are of less importance; the civil buildings offer little interest, but two houses named after Anne de Pisseleu, mistress of Francis I, Diane de Poitiers, mistress of Henry II, are graceful examples of Renaissance architecture. In the square there is a statue of the naturalist, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, born in Étampes. Hôtel Anne de Pisseleu Théâtre buily by the architect Gabriel Davioud in 1851-1852, paid for by a public subscription Regional leisure park Sculptures created by André Deluol: Vénus anadyomène, La Terre, Le Corbeau et le Renard, Jeune fille et oiseau, Un Ange, Deux danseuses nues Église Notre Dame du Fort Église Saint-Basile Église Saint-Martin, famous for its leaning tour Église Saint-Gilles Chapelle de Gérofosse Chapelle de Guinette Louise Abbéma, painter and designer Jean-Marc Fessard, classical clarinetist Theobald of Étampes Yacouba Sylla, footballer Bilal Ouali, footballer Michel Crépu, writer and literary critic, winner of the 2012 Prix des Deux Magots Arnaud Beltrame, gendarme killed in the Carcassonne and Trèbes attack, 23 March 2018 OhMonDieuSalva The subprefecture, a tribunal of first instance, a communal college are among the public institutions of Étampes.
Communes of the Essonne department Counts and Dukes of Étampes Georges Saupique INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association The "Pergola de la Douce France" is located in the gardens of the Tour Guinette in Étampes and was part of a larger composition created in 1925 for the Exposition des Arts décoratifs et industriels. It was acquired by Étampes in 1934; the work comprises four large stone blocks on which sixteen bas-reliefs have been created by various sculptors. Georges Saupique executed the reliefs "Le Saint Graal" and "L’Aurochs"; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Étampes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 803–804. Étampes city council website Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use La Base des Loisirs, The city's park's website
Palaiseau is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 16.9 km from the center of Paris. Palaiseau is a sub-prefecture of the Essonne department and the seat of the Arrondissement of Palaiseau. Inhabitants of Palaiseau are known as Palaisiens; as of 2016, the primary schools in Palaiseau have 2,770 students. There are 10 public elementary schools. Public secondary schools: Junior high schools: Collège César-Franck, Collège Charles-Péguy, Collège Joseph-Bara Senior high schools: Lycée professionnel Henri-Poincaré, Lycée Camille-ClaudelThe Institution Saint-Martin is a private school from preschool to high school. ParisTech has a strong presence in Palaiseau, with three member institutes: the École Polytechnique, École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées, Institut d'optique Graduate School which are now located in Palaiseau, on the Plateau de Saclay. Palaiseau is served by 3 stations on Paris RER line B: Palaiseau, Palaiseau -- Lozère; the station Massy-Palaiseau is located in the nearby town of Massy.
Palaiseau is twinned with: Unna, Germany Communes of the Essonne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Media related to Palaiseau at Wikimedia Commons Official website Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use
The Republicans (France)
The Republicans is a centre-right, conservative political party in France. The party was formed on 30 May 2015 by renaming the Union for a Popular Movement party, founded in 2002 under the leadership of former President of France Jacques Chirac; the party used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic along with the centre-left Socialist Party, following the 2017 legislative election, it remains the second largest party in the National Assembly. LR is a member of the European People's Party, the Centrist Democrat International, the International Democrat Union. After the election in November 2014 of Nicolas Sarkozy, the President of France from 2007 to 2012, as president of the Union for a Popular Movement, Sarkozy put forward a request to the party's general committee to change its name to "The Republicans" and alter the statutes of the party. With the name chosen, vice-president of the UMP Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet presented Sarkozy and the party's political bureau the proposed new statutes.
The proposed statutes provided for, among other provisions, the election of the presidents of the departmental federations by direct democracy, the end of the political currents and consulting members on election nominations. Critics of Sarkozy claimed it was "illegal" for him to name the party "Republicans" because every French person is a republican if they support the values and ideals of the French Republic that emanated from the French Revolution, as such the term is above party politics; the new name was adopted by the party bureau on 5 May 2015 and approved by the party membership on 28 May by an online "yes" vote of 83.3% on a 45.7% turnout after a court ruling in favour of Sarkozy. The new party statutes were adopted by 96.3% of voters and the composition of the new political bureau by 94.8%. The change to the name "The Republicans" was confirmed at the party's founding congress on 30 May 2015 at the Paris Event Centre in Paris, attended by 10,000 activists. Angela Merkel, chairwoman of the centre-right CDU, sent a congratulatory message to the congress.
The Republicans thus became the legal successor of the UMP and the leading centre-right party in France. The organisation has been declared in the préfecture de Saône-et-Loire on 9 April 2015. According to the statement of this declaration, its aim is to "promote ideas of the right and centre, open to every people who wish to be member and debate in the spirit of a political party with republican ideas in France or outside France"; this party foundation was published in the Journal officiel de la République française on 25 April 2015. On 3 July 2016, Nicolas Sarkozy announced that he would resign as leader that year in order to compete to be the right-wing candidate in the 2017 presidential election. After winning the party's presidential primary, François Fillon suffered a historic defeat in the first round of the presidential election, with the candidate of the right failing to continue to the second round for the first time in the history of the Fifth Republic amid "Penelopegate". In the second round of the legislative elections in June, The Republicans and its allies suffered further losses, losing nearly a hundred deputies, which represented its worst performance.
After Emmanuel Macron was elected as president, he appointed three right-wing politicians in his government – Édouard Philippe as Prime Minister, Bruno Le Maire as French Ministry for the Economy and Finance, Gérald Darmanin as Minister of Public Action and Accounts. As a consequence, a parliamentary group including LR dissidents supportive of the government line, "The Constructives", was formed in the National Assembly, separate from the existing group. On 11 July, the political bureau of The Republicans agreed to hold a leadership election for president of the party on 10 and 17 December. Politics of France List of political parties in France The Republicans group The Republicans group Official web site of Les Républicains
Seine-et-Marne is a French department, named after the Seine and Marne rivers, located in the Île-de-France region. Seine-et-Marne is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790 during the French Revolution in application of the law of 22 December 1789, it had belonged to the former province of Île-de-France. With 60% of the region used as farmland, Seine-et-Marne is where most agricultural activity occurs within the Île-de-France. Cereals and sugar beet are the principal exports from Seine-et-Marne; the other key industrial structures are the refinery at the Snecma research plant. The two new towns are the centre of tourism for the department due to theme parks such as Disneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park at Disneyland Paris. Seine-et-Marne has a temperate Atlantic climate; the average rainfall is based upon that of Fontainebleau, giving an average rainfall of 650 mm, higher than the average of Île-de-France. Average temperature in Melun during the 1953–2002 period was 3.2 °C for January and 18.6 °C for July.
The storm of 26 December 1999 caused several trees to fall. Seine-et-Marne forms a part of the Île-de-France region, it is bordered by Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, Essonne to the West. The department has many natural reserves, notably Gâtinais; the highest point of the département is Saint-George's Hill. People from Seine-et-Marne are known as the Seine-et-Marnais. Seine-et-Marne was rural and populated. Over the past 50 years, its population has tripled, due to the development of the Paris conurbation and the building of new towns in the northwest of the region; the population was estimated to be 1,267,496 inhabitants in 2006. The region has changed from consisting only of small villages to forming a large part of the Paris conurbation. Seine-et-Marne as a whole shares a sister city relationship with Orlando, United States, as both host Disney theme parks. Collège de Juilly Forest of Fontainebleau Cantons of the Seine-et-Marne department Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department Arrondissements of the Seine-et-Marne department Lion, Christian, La Mutuelle de Seine-et-Marne contre l'incendie de 1819 à 1969.
Mutualité, assurance et cycles de l'incendie. Prefecture website General Council website