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Estates General (France)

In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly of the different classes of French subjects. It had a separate assembly for each of the three estates, which were called and dismissed by the king, it had no true power in its own right—unlike the English parliament it was not required to approve royal taxation or legislation—instead it functioned as an advisory body to the king by presenting petitions from the various estates and consulting on fiscal policy. The Estates General met intermittently until 1614 and only once afterwards, in 1789, but was not definitively dissolved until after the French Revolution, it is comparable to similar institutions across Europe, such as the States General of the Netherlands, the Parliament of England, the Estates of Parliament of Scotland, the Cortes of Portugal or Spain, the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire or Germanic Empire, the Diets of the "Lands", the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates.

In 1302, expanding French royal power led to a general assembly consisting of the chief lords, both lay and ecclesiastical, the representatives of the principal privileged towns, which were like distinct lordships. Certain precedents paved the way for this institution: representatives of principal towns had several times been convoked by the king, under Philip III there had been assemblies of nobles and ecclesiastics in which the two orders deliberated separately, it was the dispute between Philip the Fair and Pope Boniface VIII which led to the States-General of April 10, 1302. The letters summoning the assembly of 1302 are published by Georges Picot in his collection of Documents inédits pour servir à l'histoire de France. During the same reign they were subsequently assembled several times to give him aid by granting subsidies. Over time subsidies came to be the most frequent motive for their convocation. In one sense, the composition and powers of the Estates General always remained the same.

They always included representatives of the First Estate, Second Estate, Third Estate, monarchs always summoned them either to grant subsidies or to advise the Crown, to give aid and counsel. Their composition, however, as well as their effective powers, varied at different times. In their primitive form in the 14th and the first half of the 15th centuries, the Estates General had only a limited elective element; the lay lords and the ecclesiastical lords who made up the Estates General were not elected by their peers, but directly chosen and summoned by the king. In the order of the clergy, since certain ecclesiastical bodies, e.g. abbeys and chapters of cathedrals, were summoned to the assembly, as these bodies, being persons in the moral but not in the physical sense, could not appear in person, their representative had to be chosen by the monks of the convent or the canons of the chapter. It was only the representation of the Third Estate, furnished by election; the latter was not called upon as a whole to seek representation in the estates.

It was the privileged towns, which were called upon. They were represented by elected procureurs, who were the municipal officials of the town, but deputies were elected for the purpose; the country districts, were not represented. Within the bonnes villes, the franchise was quite narrow; the effective powers of the Estates General varied over time. In the 14th century they were considerable; the king could not, in theory, levy general taxation. In the provinces attached to the domain of the Crown, he could only levy it where he had retained the haute justice over the inhabitants, but not on the subjects of lords having the haute justice; the privileged towns had the right of taxing themselves. To collect general taxes, the king required consent of the lay and ecclesiastical lords, of the towns; this amounted to needing authorization from the Estates General, which only granted these subsidies temporarily for short periods. As a result, they were summoned and their power over the Crown became considerable.

In the second half of the 14th century, certain royal taxes, levied throughout the Crown's domain, tended to become permanent and independent of the vote of the estates. This sprang from one in particular. For instance, it was in this way that the necessary taxes were raised for twenty years to pay the ransom of King John II of France without a vote of the Estates General, although they met several times during this period. Custom confined this tendency, thus during the second half of the 15th century the chief taxes, the taille and gabelle became permanent for the benefit of the Crown, sometimes by the formal consent of the Estates General, as in 1437 in the case of the aids. The critical periods of the Hundred Years' War favoured the Estates General, though at the price of great sacrifices. Under the reign of King John II they had controlled, from 1355 to 1358, not only the voting, but through their commissaries, the administration of and jurisdiction over the taxes. In the first half of the reign of Charles VII they had been summoned every year and had du

George William Curtis

George William Curtis was an American writer and public speaker, born in Providence, Rhode Island, of New Englander ancestry. A Republican, he spoke in favor of civil rights. Curtis, the son of George and Mary Elizabeth Curtis, was born in Providence on February 24, 1824, his mother died when he was two, his maternal grandfather, James Burrill Jr. served in the United States Senate representing Rhode Island from 1817 to 1820. At six he was sent with his elder brother to school in Jamaica Plain, where he remained for five years, his father having again married the boys were brought home to Providence, where they stayed till, in around 1839, their father moved to New York. Three years Curtis, fell in sympathy with the spirit of the so-called Transcendental movement, he joined the communal experiment known as Brook Farm from 1842 to 1843. He was accompanied by his brother, James Burrill Curtis, whose influence on him was strong and helpful, he remained there for two years, met many interesting men and women.

Came two years, passed in New York in Concord, Massachusetts, in order to be in the friendly neighborhood of Emerson, followed four years spent in Europe and Syria. He married Anna Shaw Curtis at the Unitarian Church of the Redeemer in 1856. Curtis, another New England transplant to Staten Island, was an author, editor of Putnam’s Magazine, columnist for Harper’s, he was an supporter of civil rights for African Americans and Native Americans. He advocated women’s suffrage, civil service reform, public education. Curtis was a Founding Member of the Unitarian Church of Staten Island the Unitarian Church of the Redeemer; the Underground Railroad was in use during this time to help runaway slaves, it is believed that the Curtises and the Shaws were involved in this effort. The Shaw sisters and Josephine, their mother, Sarah Sturgis spearheaded local efforts to help the war effort. George Curtis was targeted by Southern sympathizers and, during the draft riots in NYC during 1863, Anna and her three children left Staten Island temporarily for the safety of her grandparents’ home in Roxbury Massachusetts.

The Curtis and Shaw families, rooted as they were in the liberal soil of New England, counted among their close associates Emerson and Thoreau. Curtis returned from Europe in 1850, attractive and ambitious for literary distinction, he settled on Staten Island and plunged into the whirl of life in New York, obtained a post on the Tribune, became a popular lecturer, started work on Nile Notes of a Howadji, became a favorite in society. He wrote for Putnam's Magazine, he became an associate editor along with managing editor Charles Frederick Briggs. Curtis produced a number of volumes, composed of essays written for Putnam's and for Harper's Weekly, which came in rapid succession from his pen; the chief of these were a satire on the fashionable society of the day. In 1855 he married Anna Shaw, daughter of abolitionist Francis Shaw and sister of Robert Gould Shaw of the famed 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. Not long afterwards he became, through no fault of his own involved in debt owing to the failure of Putnam's Magazine.

In the period just preceding the Civil War, other interests became subordinate to those of national concern. He was involved in the founding of the Republican Party, made his first important speech on the questions of the day at Wesleyan University in 1856. Fremont's presidential campaign of that year, was soon recognized not only as an effective public speaker, but as one of the ablest, most high-minded, most trustworthy leaders of public opinion. In 1862 George William Curtis delivered his "Doctrine of Liberty" address to the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard, on behalf of President Lincoln, encouraging support for the Emancipation Proclamation. In it, he laid out the intellectual foundations for the purpose of American education that would last another thirty years, public schools, nearly one hundred. In 1863 he became the political editor of Harper's Weekly, influential in shaping public opinion. Curtis's writing was always direct, displaying fairness of mind and good temper, he had high moral standards.

From month to month he contributed to Harper's Magazine, under the title of "The Easy Chair," brief essays on topics of social and literary interest, charming in style, touched with delicate humour and instinct with generous spirit. His service to the Republican party was such, that he was offered several nominations to office, might have been sent as minister to England. In 1871 he was appointed, by President Ulysses S. Grant, to chair the commission on the reform of the civil service, its report was the foundation of every effort since made for the purification and regulation of the service and for the destruction of political patronage. From that time Curtis was the leader in this reform, its progress is due

1930 Liverpool City Council election

Elections to Liverpool City Council were held on 1 November 1930. After the election, the composition of the council was: * - Councillor seeking re-election Comparisons are made with the 1927 election results; this was a new ward from 1928, so no councillor was elected in 1927. The term of office of Alderman Henry Morley Miller expired on 10 November 1930 and he was re-elected for a further 5-year term by the Councillors on that date. Following the death of Alderman Thomas Wafer Byrne, Councillor Herbert Edward Rose was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 7 January 1931. Following the death on 17 December 1930 of Alderman John Gordon J. P. Councillor Frank Campbell Wilson J. P. was elected as an alderman by the councillors on 1 April 1931 Following the death on 24 December 1930 of Alderman John George Moyles M. B. E. J. P. Councillor Herbert John Davis was elected as an alderman by the councillors on 6 May 1931. Following the resignation of Alderman Richard Rutherford, reported to the Council on 2 September 1931, Councillor Sir Thomas White was elected as an alderman by the councillors on 7 October 1931.

Following the death of Alderman Thomas Wafer Byrne, Councillor Herbert Edward Rose was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 7 January 1931, causing a vacancy in the Breckfield ward. Following the death on 17 December 1930 of Alderman John Gordon J. P. Councillor Frank Campbell Wilson J. P. was elected as an alderman by the councillors on 1 April 1931, causing a vacancy in the Aigburth ward. Following the death on 24 December 1930 of Alderman John George Moyles M. B. E. J. P. Councillor Herbert John Davis was elected as an alderman by the councillors on 6 May 1931, causing a vacancy in the Allerton ward. Caused by the death on 22 February 1931 of Councillor Miss Margaret Beavan. Following the resignation of Alderman Richard Rutherford, reported to the Council on 2 September 1931, Councillor Sir Thomas White was elected as an alderman by the councillors on 7 October 1931, thereby causing a vacancy in the St. Domingo ward. Caused by the resignation of Councillor Dr. Percy Henry Hayes, reported to the Council on 21 October 1931.

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