Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States. Santa Barbaras climate is described as Mediterranean, and the city has been promoted as the American Riviera. The population of the county in 2010 was 423,895. In 2004, the sector accounted for fully 35% of local employment. Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, as does Amtrak, U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located approximately 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago, an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area, portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring briefly in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name Santa Barbara to the channel, a land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited in 1769, and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town Laguna de la Concepcion. Cabrillos earlier name, however, is the one that has survived, the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other such as England and Russia. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, and those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio, the Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4,1786.
It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans and it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity. The Chumash laborers built a connection between the creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam. During the following decades, many of the natives died of such as smallpox
John Drew Jr.
John Drew Jr. was an American stage actor noted for his roles in Shakespearean comedy, society drama, and light comedies. He was the eldest son of John Drew, who had given up a career in whaling for acting, and Louisa Lane Drew. As such, he was the uncle of John, Ethel and he was considered to be the leading matinee idol of his day, but unlike most matinee idols Drews acting ability was largely undisputed. John Drew Jr. was educated at an academy in Philadelphia. His first role as a boy was Plumper in Cool as a Cucumber at the familys Arch Street Theater, Drew had a long association with Charles Frohman and leading lady Maude Adams. In these years under Frohman, John Drews stardom was established and his first play with Frohman was The Masked Ball, a comedy adapted from a French play. This show was primarily a vehicle to establish Drews stardom under Frohman, Drew was associated originally with the company of Augustin Daly in the 1880s, a man known for managing and training with grim efficiency.
Under Dalys management, John Drew developed his reputation for versatility, appearing in many varieties of plays and his frequent leading lady with Daly was Ada Rehan. His memoirs, titled My Years on the Stage, were published in 1922 and his final Broadway play was The Circle co-starring fellow veteran star Mrs. Leslie Carter and proved to be a popular comeback for the two Victorian actors. The Circle was made into a silent film in 1925 by MGM directed by Frank Borzage, highly esteemed by his fellow actors, John Drew was elected lifetime president of New York Citys Players Club. The abbreviation Jr. distinguishing him from his long deceased father, is usually dropped. He died in San Francisco on July 9,1927 shortly after having been visited by his nephews John, after cremation his remains were taken to Philadelphia and interred at Mount Vernon Cemetery. Drew and his wife Josephine had one daughter, Louise Drew, Louise married Broadway actor Jack Devereaux and they had a son John Drew Devereaux
Drew Blythe Barrymore is an American actress, director and producer. She is a member of the Barrymore family of American stage and film actors, Barrymore began acting on television, and soon transitioned to film with roles in E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial and Irreconcilable Differences. Following a turbulent childhood that was marked by drug and alcohol abuse with two stints in rehab, she wrote her autobiography, Little Girl Lost and she appeared in a string of hit films, including Poison Ivy, Boys on the Side and Ever After. She has co-starred with Adam Sandler in The Wedding Singer,50 First Dates, Other acting credits include Music and Lyrics, Hes Just Not That Into You, Going the Distance and Miss You Already. Barrymore won the Screen Actors Guild Award and the Golden Globe Award for her portrayal of Little Edie in Grey Gardens, Barrymore currently stars with Timothy Olyphant in the Netflix comedy series Santa Clarita Diet. She was named an Ambassador Against Hunger for the UN World Food Programme, since then, she has donated over $1 million to the program.
A recipient of a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, Barrymore was born in Culver City, California, to actor John and Jaid, an aspiring actress. Barrymores mother was born in a displaced persons camp in Brannenburg, West Germany and her parents divorced in 1984, when she was nine years old. She is one of four children with a half-brother and her godfather is Steven Spielberg while her godmother is Anna Strasberg, Lee Strasbergs widow. Meanwhile, Barrymore is the god-daughter of director Steven Spielberg, Barrymore recounted in her 1989 autobiography, Little Girl Lost, early memories of her abusive father, who left the family when Barrymore was six months old. They never had anything resembling a significant relationship and seldom spoke to each other, Barrymore grew up on Poinsetta Place in West Hollywood until the age of 7, when she moved to Sherman Oaks. In her 2015 memoir Wildflower, she says she talks like a girl because she grew up in Sherman Oaks. She moved back to West Hollywood upon becoming emancipated at 14, Barrymore attended elementary school at Fountain Day School in West Hollywood and Country School.
In the wake of her stardom, Barrymore endured a notoriously troubled childhood. Her nightlife and constant partying became a subject with the media. She was in rehab at the age of fourteen, where she spent eighteen months in an institution for the mentally ill, a suicide attempt, at age fourteen, put her back in rehab, followed by a three-month stay with singer David Crosby and his wife. The stay was precipitated, Crosby said, because she needed to be some people that were committed to sobriety. Barrymore described this period of her life in her autobiography, after a successful juvenile court petition for emancipation, she moved into her own apartment at the age of fifteen
Lionel Barrymore was an American actor of stage and radio as well as a film director. He is remembered as Ebenezer Scrooge in annual broadcasts of A Christmas Carol during his last two decades. He was a member of the theatrical Barrymore family, Lionel Barrymore was born Lionel Herbert Blythe in Philadelphia, the son of actors Georgiana Drew Barrymore and Maurice Barrymore. He was the brother of Ethel and John Barrymore, the uncle of John Drew Barrymore and Diana Barrymore. He attended private schools as a child, including the Art Students League of New York, while raised a Roman Catholic, Barrymore attended the Episcopal Academy in Philadelphia. Barrymore graduated from Seton Hall Preparatory School, the Roman Catholic college prep school and he was married twice, to actresses Doris Rankin and Irene Fenwick, a one-time lover of his brother, John. Doriss sister Gladys was married to Lionels uncle Sidney Drew, which made Gladys both his aunt and sister-in-law, Doris Rankin bore Lionel two daughters, Ethel Barrymore II and Mary Barrymore.
Barrymore never truly recovered from the deaths of his girls, and their loss undoubtedly strained his marriage to Doris Rankin, Years later, Barrymore developed a fatherly affection for Jean Harlow, who was born about the same time as his daughters. When Harlow died in 1937, Barrymore and Clark Gable mourned her as though she had been family. Although reluctant to follow his parents career, Barrymore appeared together with his formidable grandmother Louisa Lane Drew on tour and he recounted that I didnt want to act. I wanted to paint or draw, the theater was not in my blood, I was related to the theater by marriage only, it was merely a kind of in-law of mine I had to live with. Nevertheless, he found success on stage in character roles and continued to act, although he still wanted to become a painter. He appeared on Broadway in his twenties with his uncle John Drew Jr. in such plays as The Second in Command and The Mummy and the Hummingbird. Both were produced by Charles Frohman, who produced plays for Barrymore and his siblings, John.
The Other Girl in 1903–04 was a success for Barrymore. In 1905, he appeared with John and Ethel in a pantomime, starring as the character in Pantaloon and playing another character in the other half of the bill. In 1906, after a series of disappointing appearances in plays and his first wife, the actress Doris Rankin, left their careers and travelled to Paris. He did not achieve success as a painter, and in 1909 he returned to the US, the producers gave appendicitis as the reason for his sudden departure
Helena Modjeska, whose actual Polish surname was Modrzejewska, was a renowned actress who specialized in Shakespearean and tragic roles. Helena Modjeska was born in Kraków, Poland, on October 12,1840 and her name was recorded at birth as Jadwiga Benda, but she was baptized Helena Opid, being given her godfather’s surname. The question of her origins is a complicated one, Modjeska’s mother was Józefa Benda, the widow of a prosperous Kraków merchant, Szymon Benda. In her autobiography, Modjeska claimed that her father was a musician named Michael Opid, while it is true that the Benda family did employ a music teacher named Michal Opid, who stood as Helena’s godfather, Opid was not the father of Józefa Benda’s two youngest children. There is evidence to suggest that Helena and her older brother Adolf were the results of an affair between Józefa and Prince Władysław Sanguszko, a wealthy and influential Polish nobleman. Also glossed over in Modjeskas autobiography were the details concerning her first marriage, to her former guardian, Gustave was an actor and the director of a second-rate provincial theater troupe.
The date of Modjeska’s marriage to Gustave is uncertain and she discovered many years that they had never been legally married, as he was still married to his first wife when they wed. Together the couple had two children, a son Rudolf, and a daughter Marylka, who died in infancy, Gustaw Zimajer used the stage name Gustaw Modrzejewski. It was the version of this name that Modjeska adopted when she made her stage debut in 1861 as Helena Modrzejewska. Later, when acting abroad, she used a version of her name. In her early Polish acting career, Modrzejewska played at Bochnia, Nowy Sącz, Przemyśl, Rzeszów, in 1862 she appeared for the first time in Lwów, playing in her first Romantic drama, as Skierka in Juliusz Słowackis Balladyna. From 1863 she appeared at Stanisławów and Czerniowce, in plays by Słowacki, in 1865 Zimajer tried to get her a contract with Viennese theaters, but the plan came to naught due to her poor knowledge of the German language. Later that year Helena left Zimajer, taking their son Rudolf, once there she accepted a four-year theatrical engagement.
In 1868 she began appearing in Warsaw, during her eight years there and her brothers Józef and Feliks Benda were well regarded actors in Poland. An incident illustrates the circumstances under which Polish society labored, at one of Modrzejewskas Warsaw performances, seventeen secondary-school pupils presented her with a bouquet of flowers tied with a ribbon in the red-and-white Polish national colors. The pupils were accused by the Russian Imperial authorities of conducting a patriotic demonstration and they were expelled from their school and banned from admission to any other school. One of the pupils, Ignacy Neufeld, subsequently shot himself, on September 12,1868, Modjeska married a Polish nobleman, Karol Bożenta Chłapowski. Best known in America as Count Bozenta, he was not a count and his family belonged to the untitled landed gentry
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
Theatre Royal Haymarket
The Theatre Royal Haymarket is a West End theatre in the Haymarket in the City of Westminster which dates back to 1720, making it the third-oldest London playhouse still in use. Samuel Foote acquired the lease in 1747, and in 1766 he gained a patent to play legitimate drama in the summer months. The original building was a further north in the same street. It has been at its current location since 1821, when it was redesigned by John Nash and it is a Grade I listed building, with a seating capacity of 888. The freehold of the theatre is owned by the Crown Estate, the Haymarket has been the site of a significant innovation in theatre. In 1873, it was the venue for the first scheduled matinée performance, famous actors who débuted at the theatre included Robert William Elliston and John Liston. It was the public theatre opened in the West End. The theatre cost £1000 to build, with a further £500 expended on decorations and costumes. It opened on 29 December 1720, with a French play La Fille a la Morte, potters speculation was known as The New French Theatre.
In 1730, the theatre was taken over by an English company, among the actors who appeared there before 1737 when the theatre was closed under the Licensing Act 1737 were Aaron Hill, Theophilus Cibber, and Henry Fielding. In the eight to ten years before the Act was passed, the Haymarket was an alternative to John Richs Theatre Royal, Covent Garden and the opera-dominated Drury Lane Theatre. Fielding himself was responsible for the instigation of the Act, having produced a play called The Historical Register that parodied prime minister Robert Walpole, as the caricature, in particular, it was an alternative to the pantomime and special-effects dominated stages, and it presented opposition satire. Henry Fielding staged his plays at the Haymarket, and so did Henry Carey, hurlothrumbo was just one of his plays in that series of anti-Walpolean satires, followed by Tom Thumb. Another, in 1734, was his mock-opera, The Dragon of Wantley and this work punctured the vacuous operatic conventions and pointed a satirical barb at Walpole and his taxation policies.
The piece was a success, with a record-setting run of 69 performances in its first season. The burlesque itself is very brief on the page, as it relied extensively on absurd theatrics, the Musical Entertainer from 1739 contains engravings showing how the staging was performed. Carey continued with Pasquin and others, the Theatrical Licensing Act, put an end to the anti-ministry satires, and it all but entirely shut down the theatre. In 1749 a hoaxer billed as The Bottle Conjuror was advertised to appear at the theatre, the conjurors publicity claimed that, while on stage, he would place his body inside an empty wine bottle, in full view of the audience
Sir Henry Irving, born John Henry Brodribb, sometimes known as J. H. In 1895 he became the first actor to be awarded a knighthood, Irving is widely acknowledged to be one of the inspirations for Count Dracula, the title character of the 1897 novel Dracula whose author Bram Stoker was business manager of the theatre. Irving was born to a family in Keinton Mandeville in the county of Somerset. W. H. Davies, the poet, was a cousin. Irving spent his living with his aunt, Mrs Penberthy. He competed in a recitation contest at a local Methodist chapel where he was bested by William Curnow and he attended City Commercial School for two years before going to work in the office of a law firm at age 13. He married Florence OCallaghan on 15 July 1869 at St. Marylebone, but his personal life took second place to his professional life. On opening night of The Bells,25 November 1871, Irving exited their carriage at Hyde Park Corner, walked off into the night, and chose never to see her again. He maintained a distance from his children as well.
Florence Irving never divorced Irving, and once he had been knighted she styled herself Lady Irving, Irving never remarried and his elder son, Harry Brodribb Irving, usually known as H B Irving, became a famous actor and a theatre manager. His younger son, Laurence Irving, became a dramatist and drowned, with his wife, H B married Dorothea Baird and they had a son, Laurence Irving, who became a well-known Hollywood art director and his grandfathers biographer. In November 1882 Irving became a Freemason, being initiated into the prestigious Jerusalem Lodge No 197 in London, in 1887 he became a founder member and first Treasurer of the Savage Club Lodge No 2190, a Lodge associated with Londons Savage Club. It could be said that Irving found his family in his professional company, whether Irvings long, spectacularly successful relationship with leading lady Ellen Terry was romantic as well as professional has been the subject of much historical speculation. Most of their correspondence was lost or burned by her descendants and we were terribly in love for a while.
But at earlier periods in her life, when there were more people around to be offended, Terrys son Teddy, known as Edward Gordon Craig, spent much of his childhood indulged by Irving backstage at the Lyceum. Craig, who came to be regarded as something of a visionary for the theatre of the future, wrote an especially vivid, George Bernard Shaw, at the time a theatre critic who was jealous of Irvings connection to Ellen Terry, conceded Irvings genius after Irving died. After a few years schooling while living at Halsetown, near St Ives, Irving became a clerk to a firm of East India merchants in London, but he soon gave up a commercial career for acting. On 29 September 1856 he made his first appearance at Sunderland as Gaston, Duke of Orleans, in Bulwer Lyttons play and this name he eventually assumed by royal licence
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States.
Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position.
Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrants
Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women