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Ethiopian birr

The birr is the unit of currency in Ethiopia. Before 1976, dollar was the official English translation of birr. Today, it is birr in English as well. In 1931, the Emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie I, formally requested that the international community use the name Ethiopia instead of Abyssinia, the issuing Bank of Abyssinia became the Bank of Ethiopia. Thus, the pre-1931 currency could be considered the Abyssinian birr and the post-1931 currency the Ethiopian birr, although it was the same country and the same currency before and after. 186 billion birr were in circulation in 2008. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Maria Theresa thalers and blocks of salt called "amole tchew" served as currency in Ethiopia; the thaler was known locally as the ታላሪ taleri. The Maria Theresa thaler was adopted as the standard coin in 1855, although the Indian rupee and the Mexican dollar were used in foreign trade; the talari became the standard unit on 9 February 1893 and 200,000 dollars were produced at the Paris Mint in 1894 for Menelik II.

The talari, equivalent to the Maria Theresa thaler, was divided into 40 bessa. A new Ethiopian coinage appeared about 1903; the new silver birr maintained the same weight and fineness as the old, but there was now a quarter-birr and a silver ghersh, the latter 1/16 the weight of the birr. The money of account now became 1 birr' = 16 ghersh = 32 bessa; the Bank of Abyssinia was established in 1905 by Emperor Menelik and the European banking group behind the National Bank of Egypt. The Ethiopian coinage gained acceptance only and Bank of Abyssinia imported Maria Theresa thalers. By the time World War I broke out, the bank was still importing about 1,200,000 of these coins annually. Bank of Abyssinia put banknotes into circulation in 1915; these notes were denominated thaler in English. They were used by merchants and by foreigners but were not accepted generally. However, Note circulation increased after 1925. Emperor Haile Selassie bought out the Bank of Abyssinia in 1931 for £235,000 in order to make it a purely Ethiopian institution.

It was reorganized as Bank of Ethiopia. At the same time, the currency was decimalized and token nickel and copper coins were introduced, the birr becoming equal to 100 metonnyas; the text on the bank's notes appeared in French. By the mid-1930s circulation consisted chiefly of Maria Theresa and Menelik talari. Not long after the Italian occupation and the attempted transformation of Ethiopia into Italian East Africa, the Italian lira was introduced and Ethiopian banknotes were withdrawn from circulation at 3 lire per talar. In an effort to increase the use of Italian paper money, the exchange rate for silver coin was raised to 4.50 lire to 5.00, in stages, to 13.50. Still, many people kept their Ethiopian banknotes. Regular Italian coins and banknotes of Banca d'Italia circulated after 15 July 1936. Special notes with a red overprint were authorized for Italian East Africa on 12 September 1938, a large quantity was printed, it is not clear, when, to what extent these special notes circulated. During the East African Campaign of 1941, British forces brought with them Indian, Egyptian and British East African currency, all were received in official payments.

Italian coins and notes of up to 50 lire were allowed to continue in circulation to serve as small change. Maria Theresa thalers were allowed to circulate with a value of 1s 10½d; the East African shilling became the money of account on 1 July 1942. Regular notes of the East African Currency Board were used for circulation in Ethiopia; the birr was reintroduced in 1945 at a rate of 1 birr. The name Ethiopian dollar was used in the English text on the banknotes, it was divided into 100 santim. The name birr became the official name, used in all languages, in 1976. Between 1894 and 1897 copper coins were introduced in denominations of ​1⁄100 and ​1⁄32 birr, together with silver 1 ghersh, ​1⁄8, ​1⁄4, ​1⁄2 and 1 birr, gold ​1⁄4, ​1⁄2 and 1 werk. In 1931, a new series of coins was introduced consisting of copper 1 and 5 metonnyas, nickel 10, 20 and 50 metonnyas. In 1944, coins were reintroduced, with copper 1, 5, 10 and 25 silver 50 santim. A second series was issued in 1977, it consisted of aluminium 1 santim, brass 5 and 10 santim, cupro-nickel 25 and 50 santim.

The most recent issues are: 5 santim EE1998 10 santim EE1996 25 santim EE1996 50 santim EE1996 1 Birr EE2003 The dates, like the rest of the legend, appear in Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia. Besides having all the legends in Amharic, there are two features that help to identify an Ethiopian birr. Early dated coins, those dated before EE1969, feature a crowned rampant lion holding a cross; this can be seen in the adjacent picture. Dated coins, those dated EE1969 or after, picture the head of a roaring lion, with a flowing mane. Coins were struck at several mints, including Paris and Addis Ababa. Coins without mintmarks were struck at Addis Ababa; the coins st

Chadwyck-Healey baronets

The Chadwyck-Healey Baronetcy, of Wyphurst in the parish of Cranleigh in the County of Surrey and of New Place in the Parish of Luccombe in the County of Somerset, is a title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 6 May 1919 for the lawyer Charles Chadwyck-Healey, he died in the same year and his eldest son inherited the baronetcy, becoming the second Baronet. His eldest son, the third Baronet, died childless in 1979 and was in his turn succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Baronet, he was a Lieutenant Colonel of the Royal Artillery. As of 2010, the baronetcy is held by the fourth Baronet's son, who succeeded in 1986; the television presenter Cherry Healey is descended from her grandfather. Sir Charles Edward Heley Chadwyck-Healey, 1st Baronet Sir Gerald Edward Chadwyck-Healey, 2nd Baronet CBE, DL. Chadwyck-Healey was a soldier; the son of Sir Charles Chadwyck-Healey, 1st Baronet, Rosa Close, he was educated at Eton College and Trinity College, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1896 and a Master of Arts in 1900.

Chadwyck-Healey served in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. He fought in the First World War and was made a Commander of the Order of the Crown of Italy and a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1919. In the same year, he succeeded to his father's baronetcy. Chadwyck-Healey was further a Deputy Lieutenant for Ayrshire. On 2 March 1897, he married daughter of George Arthur Watson, they had three children: 3rd Baronet. Sir Edward Randal Chadwyck-Healey, 3rd Baronet Sir Charles Arthur Chadwyck-Healey, 4th Baronet Sir Charles Edward Chadwyck-Healey, 5th Baronet, member of the Executive Board of the World Oral Literature Project, president of Cambridge Rivers Project, University of Cambridge; the heir apparent is Edward Alexander Chadwyck-Healey. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets "thePeerage". Retrieved 4 February 2007

FĂ©lix Cruz

Félix Cruz Barbosa Ríos is a Mexican football defender who played for Mexico in the 1986 FIFA World Cup. Cruz began his footballing career in Mexico with UNAM Pumas in 1980. However, having his opportunities limited with Pumas he played in Japan for Yokohama Nissan where he remained for two seasons. Other clubs Cruz played for were Atlante F. C. UANL Tigres, C. F. Monterrey and Toros Neza, he represented the Mexico national football team as a player in the 1986 FIFA World Cup tournaments and earned a total of 51 caps, scoring 1 goal. Félix Cruz at National-Football-Teams.com FIFA profile Félix Cruz – Liga MX stats at MedioTiempo.com