Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it. It encompasses distinct theoretical and methodical approaches that emphasize cultural, material, cognitive and other dimensions or contexts of musical behavior, instead of only its isolated sound component. Folklorists, who began preserving and studying folklore music in Europe and the US in the 19th century, are considered the precursors of the field prior to the Second World War; the term ethnomusicology is said to have been first coined by Jaap Kunst from the Greek words ἔθνος and μουσική, It is defined as the anthropology or ethnography of music, or as musical anthropology. During its early development from comparative musicology in the 1950s, ethnomusicology was oriented toward non-Western music, but for several decades it has included the study of all and any musics of the world from anthropological and intercultural perspectives. Bruno Nettl once characterized ethnomusicology as a product of Western thinking, proclaiming that "ethnomusicology as western culture knows it is a western phenomenon".
Stated broadly, ethnomusicology may be described as a holistic investigation of music in its cultural contexts. Combining aspects of folklore, cultural anthropology, comparative musicology, music theory, history, ethnomusicology has adopted perspectives from a multitude of disciplines; this disciplinary variety has given rise to many definitions of the field, attitudes and foci of ethnomusicologists have evolved since initial studies in the area of comparative musicology in the early 1900s. When the field first came into existence, it was limited to the study of non-Western music—in contrast to the study of Western art music, the focus of conventional musicology. In fact, the field was referred to early in its existence as “comparative musicology,” defining Western musical traditions as the standard to which all other musics were compared, though this term fell out of use in the 1950s as critics for the practices associated with it became more vocal about ethnomusicology's distinction from musicology.
Over time, the definition broadened to include study of all the musics of the world according to certain approaches. While there is not a single, authoritative definition for ethnomusicology, a number of constants appear in the definitions employed by leading scholars in the field, it is agreed upon that ethnomusicologists look at music from beyond a purely sonic and historical perspective, look instead at music within culture, music as culture, music as a reflection of culture. In addition, many ethnomusicological studies share common methodological approaches encapsulated in ethnographic fieldwork conducting primary fieldwork among those who make the music, learning languages and the music itself, taking on the role of a participant observer in learning to perform in a musical tradition, a practice Mantle Hood termed "bi-musicality". Musical fieldworkers also collect recordings and contextual information about the music of interest. Thus, ethnomusicological studies do not rely on printed or manuscript sources as the primary source of epistemic authority.
While the traditional subject of musicology has been the history and literature of Western art music, ethnomusicology was developed as the study of all music as a human social and cultural phenomenon. Oskar Kolberg is regarded as one of the earliest European ethnomusicologists as he first began collecting Polish folk songs in 1839. Comparative musicology, the primary precursor to ethnomusicology, emerged in the late 19th century and early 20th century; the International Musical Society in Berlin in 1899 acted as one of the first centers for ethnomusicology. Comparative musicology and early ethnomusicology tended to focus on non-Western music, but in more recent years, the field has expanded to embrace the study of Western music from an ethnographic standpoint; the International Council for Traditional Music and the Society for Ethnomusicology are the primary international academic organizations for advancing the discipline of ethnomusicology. Ethnomusicologists have offered varying definitions of the field.
More scholars debate what constitutes ethnomusicology. Bruno Nettl distinguishes between discipline and field, believing ethnomusicology is the latter. There are multiple approaches to and challenges of the field; some approaches reference "musical areas" like "musical synthesis in Ghana" while others emphasize "a study of culture through the avenue of music, to study music as social behavior." The multifaceted and dynamic approaches to ethnomusicology allude to. The primary element that distinguishes ethnomusicology from musicology is the expectation that ethnomusicologists engage in sustained, diachronic fieldwork as their primary source of data. There are many groups who can be connected to ethnomusicology. According to Merriam, some of these groups are "players of ethnic music," "music educators," "those who see ethnic music in the context of a global view of music, vis a vis the study of Western "classical" music," "made up of persons with a variety of interests, all of which are in some sense "applied" like "professional ethnomusicologists," music therapists, the "musicologists" and the "anthropologist."
Folklore and folklorists were the precursors to the field of ethnomusicology prior to WWII. They laid a foundation of interest in the preservation and continuation of the traditional folk musics of nations and an intere
Edward H. Householder was an outfielder in Major League Baseball, he played for the Brooklyn Superbas in 1903. He stood at 5 ft 9 in and weighed 180 lb. Householder was born in Pittsburgh and started his professional baseball career in 1897 in the New York State League, he spent most of 1898 with the Eastern League's Buffalo Bisons and batted.312 in 102 games. The following season, he played for Buffalo but moved to the Rochester Bronchos in July. Householder helped Rochester win the EL pennant. In 1900, he continued to put up big numbers and drove in 94 runs, the seventh-best total in the league. Householder slumped in 1901, he started the year in the Illinois–Indiana–Iowa League but hit just.221 and moved to the California League, where he hit.298. In 1902, he returned to form with a.308 batting average and 220 hits over the long California League season. This earned him a shot in the major leagues, he made his MLB debut on April 17 for the Brooklyn Superbas. Householder was Brooklyn's center fielder for the next two weeks.
He went 9 for 43 with 9 runs batted in and 3 stolen bases. His OPS+ was just 31, he played his final MLB game on April 30 and finished out the campaign with minor league teams in Los Angeles and Little Rock, batting over.300 with both. After spending 1904 with the Little Rock Travelers, Householder returned to the west coast, where he would stay for the rest of his career, he batted under.300 in 1905 and 1906 in the Pacific Coast League and moved to the Aberdeen Black Cats of the Northwestern League. Householder had his best statistical season in 1907, when he was 37 years old, he won his first batting title with a.347 batting average and led the entire league in slugging percentage, total bases, doubles. He played with Aberdeen again in 1908 and made stops in Fresno, Santa Cruz and Victoria. After batting.312 in 1911, Householder retired from professional baseball. He ended his 15-year minor league career with a total of 1,826 hits. Householder died of stomach cancer in 1924. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference
Knockanally railway station known as Martinstown railway station was on the Ballymena and Red Bay Railway which ran from Ballymena to Retreat in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. The station was on the Ballymena and Red Bay Railway route and opened by the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway on 5 April 1886, which had taken ownership in October 1884. On 1 July 1920 it was renamed Martinstown; the station closed to passengers on 1 October 1930. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687