Ethylene glycol

Ethylene glycol is an organic compound with the formula 2. It is used for two purposes, as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and for antifreeze formulations, it is an odorless, sweet-tasting, viscous liquid. Ethylene glycol is toxic. Household pets are susceptible to ethylene glycol poisoning from vehicle antifreeze leaks. Ethylene glycol is produced from ethylene, via the intermediate ethylene oxide. Ethylene oxide reacts with water to produce ethylene glycol according to the chemical equation: C2H4O + H2O → HO−CH2CH2−OHThis reaction can be catalyzed by either acids or bases, or can occur at neutral pH under elevated temperatures; the highest yields of ethylene glycol occur at neutral pH with a large excess of water. Under these conditions, ethylene glycol yields of 90% can be achieved; the major byproducts are the oligomers diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol. The separation of these oligomers and water is energy-intensive. About 6.7 million tonnes are produced annually.

A higher selectivity is achieved by use of Shell's OMEGA process. In the OMEGA process, the ethylene oxide is first converted with carbon dioxide to ethylene carbonate; this ring is hydrolyzed with a base catalyst in a second step to produce mono-ethylene glycol in 98% selectivity. The carbon dioxide can be fed back into the process circuit; the carbon dioxide comes in part from the ethylene oxide production, where a part of the ethylene is oxidized. Ethylene glycol is produced from carbon monoxide in countries with large coal reserves and less stringent environmental regulations; the oxidative carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate provides a promising approach to the production of C1-based ethylene glycol. Dimethyl oxalate can be converted into ethylene glycol in high yields by hydrogenation with a copper catalyst: Methanol is recycled. Therefore, only carbon monoxide and oxygen are consumed. One plant with a production capacity of 200 000 tons ethylene glycol per year is in Inner Mongolia, a second plant in China with a capacity of 250 000 tons per year was scheduled for 2012 in the province of Henan.

As of 2015, four plants in China with a capacity of 200 000 t/a each were operating with at least 17 more to follow. The caterpillar of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, has gut bacteria with the ability to degrade polyethylene into ethylene glycol. According to most sources, French chemist Charles-Adolphe Wurtz first prepared ethylene glycol in 1856, he first treated "ethylene iodide" with silver acetate and hydrolyzed the resultant "ethylene diacetate" with potassium hydroxide. Wurtz named his new compound "glycol" because it shared qualities with both ethyl alcohol and glycerin. In 1859, Wurtz prepared ethylene glycol via the hydration of ethylene oxide. There appears to have been no commercial manufacture or application of ethylene glycol prior to World War I, when it was synthesized from ethylene dichloride in Germany and used as a substitute for glycerol in the explosives industry. In the United States, semicommercial production of ethylene glycol via ethylene chlorohydrin started in 1917.

The first large-scale commercial glycol plant was erected in 1925 at South Charleston, West Virginia, by Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Co.. By 1929, ethylene glycol was being used by all dynamite manufacturers. In 1937, Carbide started up the first plant based on Lefort's process for vapor-phase oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide. Carbide maintained a monopoly on the direct oxidation process until 1953, when the Scientific Design process was commercialized and offered for licenses. Ethylene glycol is used in antifreeze formulations and as a raw material in the manufacture of polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate; the major use of ethylene glycol is as a medium for convective heat transfer in, for example and liquid-cooled computers. Ethylene glycol is commonly used in chilled-water air-conditioning systems that place either the chiller or air handlers outside, or systems that must cool below the freezing temperature of water. In geothermal heating/cooling systems, ethylene glycol is the fluid that transports heat through the use of a geothermal heat pump.

The ethylene glycol either gains energy from the source or dissipates heat to the sink, depending on whether the system is being used for heating or cooling. Pure ethylene glycol has a specific heat capacity about one half that of water. So, while providing freeze protection and an increased boiling point, ethylene glycol lowers the specific heat capacity of water mixtures relative to pure water. A 1:1 mix by mass has a specific heat capacity of about 3140 J/, three quarters that of pure water, thus requiring increased flow rates in same system comparisons with water; the formation of large bubbles in cooling passages of internal combustion engines will inhibit heat flow from that area, thus allowing nucleation heat transfer to occur is not advisable. Large bubbles in cooling passages will be self-sustaining or grow larger, with the complete loss of cooling in that spot. With pure MEG that hot spot has to get to 200 °C. Cooling due to other effects such as air draft from fan etc. will assist in preventing large-bubble formation.

The mixture of ethylene glycol with water provides additional benefits to coolant and antifreeze solutions, such as preventing corrosion and acid degradation, as well as inhibiting the growth of mos

Antanas Kriščiukaitis

Antanas Kriščiukaitis known by his pen name Aišbė was a Lithuanian writer and judge, who served as the chairman of the Lithuanian Tribunal from 1918 to his death. Kriščiukaitis was born in Suvalkija to a family of well-off Lithuanian farmers; as a student at the Marijampolė Gymnasium, he started contributing articles to the Lithuanian press. He studied law at the University of Moscow and joined a secret society of Lithuanian students, chaired by Petras Leonas. After the graduation in 1890, he worked as interrogator and judge in Moscow, Mitau and Novgorod raising to the rank of State Councillor, he became chairman of the Lithuanian Tribunal. He became professor of criminal law at the newly established University of Lithuania in 1922 and advisor to the State Council of Lithuania in 1929, he edited various legal texts, working to create new Lithuanian legal terms and standardize terminology. He received the Order of Vytautas the Great, the highest state award in Lithuania, in 1931. Kriščiukaitis died in 1933.

As a writer, Kriščiukaitis is known for his short stories that moved away from didacticism to literary realism as well as satires and feuilletons. He published his works and translated texts in various Lithuanian periodicals, including Aušra and Varpas. Kriščiukaitis was born on 24 July 1864 to a family of well-off Lithuanian farmers in Paežeriai in Suvalkija part of Congress Poland, a client state of the Russian Empire, his father moved to Būgnai, which gave Kriščiukaitis his pen name Aišbė derived from cryptonym A-iš-B. After graduating from a Russian primary school in Paežeriai in 1876, he continued studies at the Marijampolė Gymnasium. According to Juozas Tumas-Vaižgantas, Kriščiukaitis was interested in architecture and drew architectural plans of all churches in the area and made a detailed model of the church in Alvitas; as a gymnasium student, he started writing in Lithuanian. His popular science text on the mathematical description of the earth was published in three issues of Aušra in 1884.

He sent a translation of The Gypsies by Alexander Pushkin, but it was not published. Like most Lithuanian parents of the time, his parents wanted him to become a priest, but he felt no calling and first chose mathematics at the University of Saint Petersburg in fall 1883, he dropped the studies and considered studying architecture but started studying law at the University of Moscow the following year. There he joined a secret society of Lithuanian students, chaired by Petras Leonas, was its librarian, he graduated in 1890 and served eight months in the Imperial Russian Army leaving it as a reserve praporshchik. Due to Russification policies, as a Catholic, Kriščiukaitis could not get a government job in Lithuania. In April 1891, he was appointed as a court candidate in Moscow. After about six months he was transferred to Mitau where he met Jonas Jablonskis, Juozas Tumas-Vaižgantas, other Lithuanian activists. After five years, he was assigned as a court interrogator in Tikhvin. At the same time, he married a Lithuanian woman, but she died a year after giving birth to his son Jonas.

He remarried in 1899. He was promoted to a district judge in 1904 and relocated to Novgorod in 1912 where he worked until the Russian Revolution, he ended his career with the Russian Empire courts as a State Councillor. During World War I, he worked with the Red Cross in Novgorod to help Lithuanian war refugees. Kriščiukaitis returned to Lithuania in September 1918 and started drafting laws for the Council of Lithuania; the Party of National Progress suggested Kriščiukaitis as the first Minister of Justice. Petras Leonas became the minister and Kriščiukaitis was appointed as the chairman of the Lithuanian Tribunal, the highest court in interwar Lithuania, on 10 December 1918. In 1920, he became co-founder and chairman of the Society of Lithuanian Jurists and editor of its journal Teisė. In total, he edited 23 volumes of Teisė. In October 1922, he was invited to become a professor of the criminal law and procedure at the newly established University of Lithuania and started teaching in January 1923.

His students summarized the lectures which edited and approved by Kriščiukaitis were published in 1928. From 1929, he was a specialist advisor to the State Council of Lithuania and worked with special commissions on legal terminology, new criminal code, civil registration, he was one of the major designers of the 1933 judicial reform. As the chairman of the Supreme Tribunal, Kriščiukaitis was a member of the advisory council to the Minister of Justice. On three occasions, he was acting Minister of Justice, he was a member of the commissions on state awards. Directed by Minister Antanas Tumėnas, Kriščiukaitis worked on translating and editing the 1903 criminal code of the Russian Empire, still in effect in Lithuania in hopes of drafting a new criminal code, he was editor of two volumes of an unofficial collection of laws and regulations compiled by Antanas Merkys in 1922 and 1925 and of an anniversary book devoted to the first decade of the Lithuanian courts. As an editor and judge, he paid particular attention to the purity and correctness of the Lithuanian language, working to standardize Lithuanian legal terminology and create new terms.

He worked to enforce the rule that Lithuanian language would be used for all legal proceedings despite complaints from Russian-speaking attorneys. He received the Order of Vytautas the Great

They Came from the Shadows

They Came from the Shadows is the fourth studio album by the American punk rock band Teenage Bottlerocket. It was released on September 2009, on Fat Wreck Chords, their first release for the label; the album was recorded at Blasting Room in May through July 2009. Music videos were made for'Skate or Die" and "Bigger than KISS." The songs "Skate or Die" and "Bigger Than KISS" are available as a DLC for the Rock Band series via the Rock Band Network. The former is exclusive to the Xbox 360, while the latter is available on PlayStation 3. "Skate or Die" "Don’t Want to Go" "Bigger than KISS" "Do What?" "Not OK" "Forbidden Planet" "Call in Sick" "Fatso Goes Nutzoid" "Without You" "Tonguebiter" "Be with You" "The Jerk" "They Came from the Shadows" "Todayo" Ray Carlisleguitar, vocals Kody Templeman – guitar, vocals Miguel Chenbass Brandon Carlisle – drums