Etrog is the yellow citron or Citrus medica used by Jews during the week-long holiday of Sukkot, as one of the four species. Together with a lulav and aravah, the etrog is to be taken in each hand. While in Modern Hebrew etrog is the name for citron of any variety or form, whether kosher for the ritual or not, its English usage applies only to those varieties and specimens used as one of the four species; some taxonomic experts, like Hodgson and others, have mistakenly treated etrog as one specific variety of citron. The various Jewish rites utilize different varieties, according to their tradition or the decision of their respective posek; the romanization as etrog according to the Sephardic pronunciation is used in Israel through Modern Hebrew. The Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation, as in Yiddish, is esrig, it has been transliterated as ethrog or ethrogh in scholarly work, according to Yemenite Hebrew. The Hebrew word is thought to derive from the Persian name for the fruit, turunj borrowed via Aramaic.
On the first day you shall take the fruit of majestic trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of leafy trees, willows of the brook. Rabbinic Judaism believes. Grammatically, the Hebrew phrase is ambiguous. Etrogs are selected for the performance of the Sukkot holiday rituals. In modern Hebrew, hadar refers to the genus Citrus. Nachmanides suggests. According to him, the word etrog was introduced over time, adapted from the Aramaic; the Arabic name for the citron fruit, mentioned in hadith literature, is associated with the Hebrew. Etrogim have been cultivated in the Holy Land extensively at the times of the Second Temple and are found in many archaeological sites of that era; those include mosaics of Beth Alpha Synagogue, Hamat Tiberias Synagogue and more. In all those sites it is depicted alongside other important religious symbols, like the shofar or menorah, it is found on numerous Bar Kokhba coins. The earliest reference to etrog in the holy land is still the recent discovery of citron pollen, found in excavations on the Ramat Rachel site.
After the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, exiled Jews planted citron orchards wherever they settled: in Europe as well as in North Africa and Asia Minor. Jews who settled north of warm citron-growing areas were dependent on imported etrogim, which caused much anxiety given the dangers and uncertainties of sea travel. By the seventeenth century some of the most popular sources were the islands of Corfu. Jewish communities in Europe and America turned back to Palestine, where etrog farmers had been marketing etrogim to Europe since the late 1850s through The Fruit of the Goodly Tree Association; some Jewish communities still preferred citrons from Italy, Morocco, or Yemen, but many Jews seeking citrons turned back to Eretz Yisrael, the land of Israel. These days, American Jews continue to import the majority of their holiday etrogim from Israel, except during shmita when there are some halachic problems exporting the produce of Israel. A pitam or pitom is composed of a style, a stigma, falls off during the growing process.
An etrog with an intact pitam is considered valuable, but varieties that shed their pitam during growth are considered kosher. When only the stigma breaks off post-harvest, the citron can still be considered kosher as long as part of the style has remained attached. If the whole pitam i.e. the stigma and style, are unnaturally broken off, all the way to the bottom, the etrog is not kosher for ritual use. Many more pitams are preserved today due to an auxin discovered by Dr. Eliezer E. Goldschmidt, emeritus professor of horticulture at the Hebrew University. Working with the picloram hormone in a citrus orchard, he unexpectedly discovered that some of the Valencia oranges found nearby had preserved perfect pitams. Citrus fruits, other than an etrog or citron hybrid like the bergamot do not preserve their pitam. On the occasions that they do, their pitams tend to be dry and fragile. In this case the pitams were all fresh and solid just like those of the Moroccan or Greek citron varieties. Experimenting with picloram in a laboratory, Goldschmidt found the correct “dose” to achieve the desired effect is one droplet of the chemical in three million drops of water.
This invention was appreciated by the religious Jewish community. In order for a citron to be kosher, it must be neither grafted nor hybridized with any other species. Only a few traditional varieties are therefore used. To ensure that no grafting is used, the plantations are kept under strict rabbinical supervision; the citron varieties traditionally used as etrog are the Diamante citron from Italy, the Greek citron, the Balady citron from Israel, the Moroccan and Yemenite citrons. A general DNA study was arranged by Eliezer E. Goldschmidt and colleagues, who positively testified 12 famous accessions of citron for purity and being genetically related; as they clarify in their joint publication, this is only referring to the genotypic information which could be changed by breeding for e.g. out cross pollination etc. not about grafting, anyway not suspected to change anything in the genes. The fingered and Florentine citrons although they are citron
Legislative elections were held in Austria on 15 October 2017. The Austrian People's Party emerged as the largest party in the National Council, winning 62 of the 183 seats; the Social Democratic Party finished second with 52 seats ahead of the Freedom Party of Austria, which received 51 seats. NEOS finished fourth with 10 seats, PILZ entered parliament for the first time and came in fifth place with 8 seats; the Green Party failed to cross the 4% threshold and was ejected from parliament, losing all of its 24 seats. The SPÖ had been the largest party after the previous elections in 2013, had led the government since 2007; the FPÖ's tally of 51 seats is the second-closest that a third party has come to overtaking either the ÖVP or SPÖ since World War II, behind only its tie with the ÖVP in seat count in the 1999 election. The 2017 result is only the second time since 1966 that the ÖVP has been the largest party in the National Council. Sebastian Kurz, named leader of the ÖVP only five months before the election, claimed victory on election night.
Incumbent Chancellor Christian Kern, leader of the SPÖ, announced that he was willing to consider a coalition with the FPÖ—even though he said that the likelihood of such a coalition was small. Kurz was formally invited to form a government on 20 October, began coalition talks with FPÖ leader Heinz-Christian Strache four days later. Negotiation teams on both sides were established to work on a coalition agreement. Kurz planned to have a new government in place by Christmas; the talks proved to be successful and led to the formation of the first Kurz government on December 18. Conservative ÖVP party leader Reinhold Mitterlehner resigned on 10 May. On 14 May Minister for Foreign Affairs and Integration Sebastian Kurz was unanimously elected new leader of the ÖVP by the federal party committee and called a snap election. Kurz announced the creation of an independent list for the elections under the name "List Sebastian Kurz - The new People's Party", which would be open to non-ÖVP experts or otherwise-interested people.
Green Party leader Eva Glawischnig resigned from all her offices on 18 May, citing family and health-related reasons but increasing political pressure over the last months following the expulsion of the Young Greens from the party, as well as the coming challenging election campaign. On 19 May, the Green Party committee unanimously elected current Tyrol state party head Ingrid Felipe as its new party leader. However, MEP Ulrike Lunacek was chosen as the party's candidate for the Chancellorship in the 2017 elections. On 14 June, the Social Democratic Party announced that it would drop a 30-year ban on coalitions with the far-right FPÖ under certain conditions; the party's "values compass" included a set of requirements that any coalition partner had to fulfil, including having a pro-European policy, a commitment to a minimum wage of €1,500 a month, gender equality and upholding human rights. On 27 June, Team Stronach announced that they would not contest the elections after founder Frank Stronach decided to stop all financial contributions to the party and stated his intention to leave politics.
On 8 July, independent 2016 presidential candidate Irmgard Griss joined an electoral alliance with NEOS. Although not a member of the party and despite not participating in their primaries, she was given second place on the NEOS list after party leader Matthias Strolz; this measure was approved by a wide margin among delegates at a party meeting in Vienna. On 14 July, former FPÖ-leader in Salzburg Karl Schnell announced that he would run in the election with a list called "Freie Liste Österreich – Liste Dr. Karl Schnell". Schnell has the support of 3 MPs in parliament and won't need to submit 2600 signatures to be on the ballot. On 17 July, long-time Green Party MP and founding member Peter Pilz decided to leave the parliamentary club. On 25 June, a majority of Green Party delegates at a convention voted not to renew his spot on the party list for the election. Pilz has stated interest for running his own list in the election. On 25 July, he presented Peter Pilz's List, during a press conference.
Pilz has the support of 4 MPs in parliament and won't need to submit 2600 signatures to be on the ballot. On 14 August, the SPÖ ended their co-operation with Israeli election adviser Tal Silberstein after he was arrested in Israel on suspicion of money-laundering and corruption. For several years, Silberstein worked as an opinion poll and campaign strategy consultant on behalf of the Social Democratic Party. On 14 August, popular Austrian comedian Roland Düringer announced that his satirical, anti-establishment list My Vote Counts! Collected more than 2600 signatures and will appear on the ballot in every state. On 16 August, the KPÖ+ election alliance between the Communist Party of Austria and the Young Greens announced that they collected more than 2600 signatures and will appear on the ballot in every state. Following their expulsion from the Green Party in May, the Young Greens joined the alliance with the Communist Party. On 30 September, SPÖ general secretary and campaign manager Georg Niedermühlbichler resigned, following revelations of an internal SPÖ "dirt campaign" directed against ÖVP-leader Sebastian Kurz.
The negative Facebook campaigning websites were initiated by former, controversial SPÖ adviser Tal Silberstein who got fired by the party a month before. In the days following the revelations and a blame-game about the origins and responsibility in the affair, the ÖVP decided to sue the SPÖ and vice versa. On 6 October, PR adviser and former Silberstein associate Peter Puller claimed to have been offered €100,000 b
Erotic Stories for Punjabi Widows is a 2017 novel by Singaporean author Balli Kaur Jaswal, published by Morrow/HarperCollins. It is the third novel written by Jaswal; the main character, Nikki Grewal, is a 22-year-old woman in London, who dropped out of law school and works at O’Reilly's pub, going against the expectations of her Punjabi Sikh family. Nikki is intrigued when her sister Mindi, a nurse, making enough money to support herself, chooses to do an arranged marriage, she chooses to become a creative writing teacher, for the Sikh Community Association, located in Southall. Her students, older women whose husbands had died, have difficulties with English; the women begin to tell stories about their sexual lives after they encounter a copy of Red Velvet: Pleasurable Stories for Women that Nikki brought. The Economist praised the book, stating it is a "funny and moving tale of desire and its discontents."Rosie Milne of the Asian Review of Books gave the book 3.5 stars. Milne stated that the word used are "vivid" and that the author "gives voices to women who are voiceless, ignored, she lets them talk about sex to boot."Kirkus Reviews stated that the story "enchants".
Aparita Bhandari, a columnist for the CBC, stated that it was a "lively and thought-provoking east-meets-west story". Saadia Faruqi, author of Brick Walls: Tales of Hope and Courage from Pakistan, described the book as "a masterpiece" and that " It entertains, it teaches, it shatters all preconceived ideas of what intra-community tensions look like."In 2018 Reese Witherspoon added the book to her reading list. Witherspoon stated it was "a mystery, a romance, a family drama....and yes it's!" Indian community of London Erotic Stories for Punjabi Widows - HarperCollins