The rosids are members of a large clade of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification and these orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families. Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous period, molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. The name is based upon the name Rosidae, which had usually been understood to be a subclass, in 1967, Armen Takhtajan showed that the correct basis for the name Rosidae is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling. The clade was renamed Rosidae and has been variously delimited by different authors, the name rosids is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN. The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis, three different definitions of the rosids were used.
Some authors included the orders Saxifragales and Vitales in the rosids, others excluded both of these orders. The circumscription used in this article is that of the APG IV classification, which includes Vitales, the rosids and Saxifragales form the superrosids clade. This is one of three groups compose the Pentapetalae, the others being Dilleniales and the superasterids. The rosids consist of two groups, the order Vitales and the eurosids, the eurosids, in turn, are divided into two groups and malvids. The rosids consist of 17 orders, in addition to Vitales, there are 8 orders in fabids and 8 orders in malvids. Some of the orders have only recently been recognized and these are Vitales, Crossosomatales and Huerteales. The phylogeny of Rosids shown below is adapted from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group website, the nitrogen-fixing clade contains a high number of actinorhizal plants. Not all plants in this clade are actinorhizal, media related to Rosids at Wikimedia Commons
Glossary of leaf morphology
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants. Leaves may be simple or compound, the edge of the leaf may be regular or irregular, may be smooth or bearing hair, bristles or spines. For more terms describing other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leaf article, leaves of most plants include a flat structure called the blade or lamina, but not all leaves are flat, some are cylindrical. Leaves may be simple, with a leaf blade, or compound. In flowering plants, as well as the blade of the leaf, there may be a petiole and stipules, leaf structure is described by several terms that include, Being one of the more visible features, leaf shape is commonly used for plant identification. Edge and margin are both interchangeable in the sense that they refer to the perimeter of a leaf. Leaves may be folded or rolled in various ways, the folding of leaves within a bud is vernation, ptyxis is the folding of an individual leaf in a bud
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the back to the heart, exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins. In contrast to veins, arteries carry blood away from the heart, veins are less muscular than arteries and are often closer to the skin. There are valves in most veins to prevent backflow, veins are present throughout the body as tubes that carry blood back to the heart. Veins are classified in a number of ways, including superficial vs. deep, pulmonary vs. systemic, superficial veins are those closer to the surface of the body, and have no corresponding arteries. Deep veins are deeper in the body and have corresponding arteries, perforator veins drain from the superficial to the deep veins. These are usually referred to in the limbs and feet. Communicating veins are veins that directly connect superficial veins to deep veins, pulmonary veins are a set of veins that deliver oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. Systemic veins drain the tissues of the body and deliver deoxygenated blood to the heart, most veins are equipped with valves to prevent blood flowing in the reverse direction.
Veins appear blue because the subcutaneous fat absorbs low-frequency light, permitting only the highly energetic blue wavelengths to penetrate through to the dark vein and reflect back to the viewer. The colour of a vein can be affected by the characteristics of a skin, how much oxygen is being carried in the blood. When a vein is drained of blood and removed from an organism, the largest veins in the human body are the venae cavae. These are two large veins which enter the right atrium of the heart from above and below. The superior vena cava carries blood from the arms and head to the atrium of the heart, while the inferior vena cava carries blood from the legs. The inferior vena cava is retroperitoneal and runs to the right, large veins feed into these two veins, and smaller veins into these. Together this forms the venous system, whilst the main veins hold a relatively constant position, the position of veins person to person can display quite a lot of variation. The pulmonary veins carry relatively oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart, the superior and inferior venae cavae carry relatively deoxygenated blood from the upper and lower systemic circulations, respectively.
The portal venous system is a series of veins or venules that directly connect two capillary beds, examples of such systems include the hepatic portal vein and hypophyseal portal system
Allan Cunningham (botanist)
Allan Cunningham was an English botanist and explorer, primarily known for his travels in Australia to collect plants. Cunningham was born in Wimbledon, the son of Allan Cunningham, who came from Renfrewshire, Allan Cunningham was educated at a Putney private school, Reverend John Adams Academy and went into a solicitors office. He afterwards obtained a position with William Townsend Aiton superintendent of Kew Gardens, on Banks recommendation, Cunningham went to Brazil with James Bowie between 1814 and 1816 collecting specimens for Kew Gardens. On 28 September 1816 he sailed for Sydney where he arrived on 20 December 1816, among other explorations, he joined John Oxleys 1817 expedition beyond the Blue Mountains to the Lachlan and Macquarie rivers and shared in the privations of the 1,200 miles journey. He was able to collect specimens of about 450 species and gained experience as an explorer. Cunningham traveled as the ships botanist aboard HMS Mermaid under Phillip Parker King from 1817 to 1820, the Mermaid was of only 85 tons, but sailing on 22 December 1817 they reached King George Sound on 21 January 1818.
Though their stay was short many specimens were found but the islands on the west coast were comparatively barren, towards the end of March the Goulburn Islands on the north coast were reached and many new plants were discovered. They reached Timor on 4 June 1818 and, turning for home, Cunninghams collections during this voyage included about 300 species. Shortly after his return, Cunningham made an excursion south from Sydney, ascending the prominent peak of Mount Keira overlooking the Illawarra region, towards the end of the year he made a voyage to Tasmania arriving at Hobart on 2 January 1819. He next visited Launceston and though often finding the botany interesting, he found little that was absolutely new, in May he went with King in the Mermaid on a second voyage to the north and north-west coasts. On this occasion they started up the east coast and Cunningham found many opportunities for adding to his collections, one of these was after the ship reached the mouth of the Endeavour River on 28 June 1819.
The circumnavigation of Australia was completed on 27 August when they reached Vernon Island in Clarence Strait and they again visited Timor and arrived back in Sydney on 12 January 1820. The third voyage to the north coast with King began on 15 June, but meeting bad weather the bowsprit was lost, sailing again on 13 July 1820 the northerly course was followed and eventually the continent was circumnavigated. The Mermaid was condemned and the voyage was on the Bathurst which was twice the size of the Mermaid. They left on 26 May 1821, the route was chosen, and when they were on the west coast of Australia it was found necessary to go to Mauritius to refit. They left after a stay of seven weeks and reached King George Sound on 24 December 1821. A sufficiently long stay was made for Cunningham to make an excellent collection of plants, Sydney was reached again on 25 April 1822. Cunningham provided a chapter on botany to Kings Narrative of a Survey, in September 1822 Cunningham went on an expedition over the Blue Mountains and arrived at Bathurst on 14 October 1822 and returned to Parramatta in January 1823
Such a name is called a binomial name, a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name, more informally it is called a Latin name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs, for example, humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. The formal introduction of system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus. Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. Similarly, both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a name is usually given, at least when it is first mentioned. In zoology Patella vulgata Linnaeus,1758, the original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica, the parentheses indicate that the species is now considered to belong in a different genus.
The ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, in botany Amaranthus retroflexus L. – L. is the standard abbreviation used in botany for Linnaeus. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica, Rothmaler transferred it to the genus Hyacinthoides, the ICN does not require that the dates of either publication be specified. Prior to the adoption of the binomial system of naming species. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature and these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, and second, to be a diagnosis or description, such polynomial names may sometimes look like binomials, but are significantly different. For example, Gerards herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort, The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort, is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia. The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels, the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words.
The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné. It was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word trivial name together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as an epithet or specific name
Wagga Wagga is a major regional city in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. The central business district is focused around the commercial and recreational grid bounded by Best and Tarcutta Streets and the Murrumbidgee River, the main shopping street of Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end. The city is in a valley and much of the city has a problem with urban salinity. The original inhabitants of the Wagga Wagga region were the Wiradjuri people, in 1829, Charles Sturt became the first European explorer to visit the future site of the city. The town, positioned on the site of a ford across the Murrumbidgee, was surveyed and gazetted as a village in 1849, in 1870, the town was gazetted as a municipality. During the negotiations leading to the federation of the Australian colonies, during World War I the town was the starting point for the Kangaroo recruitment march. The Great Depression and the resulting hardship saw Wagga Wagga become the centre of a movement for the Riverina region.
Wagga Wagga became a town during World War II with the establishment of a military base at Kapooka and Royal Australian Air Force bases at Forest Hill. After the war, Wagga Wagga was proclaimed as a city in 1946, in 1982 the city was amalgamated with the neighbouring Kyeamba and Mitchell Shires to form the City of Wagga Wagga local government area. Wagga Wagga is at the end of the Riverina region where the slopes of the Great Dividing Range flatten. The city straddles the Murrumbidgee River, one of the rivers of the Murray-Darling Basin. This location astride some of the transport routes in the nation has made Wagga Wagga an important heavy truck depot for a number of companies including Toll Holdings. Wagga Wagga is upstream from the Riverina plain in the mid-catchment range of the Murrumbidgee River in an alluvial valley confined by low bedrock hills, much of Wagga Wagga is on heavy clay soils in a large drainage basin with a small catchment discharge point. Groundwater therefore cannot leave easily, leading to Wagga Wagga having a problem with waterlogged soil and soil salination, urban salination in Wagga Wagga is now the subject of a large multi-pronged approach to prevent further salination and reclaim salt-affected areas.
The main shopping street of Wagga Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end, the Wollundry Lagoon is the water focus of the city centre and has been a key element in the development and separation of the north and south parts of the city centre. Major industrial areas of Wagga Wagga include the suburb of Bomen. Thomas Mitchell, the surveyor who served under Lord Wellington named many of the streets after Peninsula War veterans, Wagga Wagga has a temperate climate with hot dry summers and cool to cold winters. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a subtropical climate
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
Eucalyptus conica, known as the Fuzzy Box is a common eucalyptus tree of the slopes and plains of New South Wales and adjacent areas in Queensland. Occurring as far north as the Carnarvon Range, growing to 20 metres tall, the bark is grey flaky box type bark with some paler patches, shedding in short ribbons. Adult leaves are lanceolate or narrow-lanceolate in shape,7 to 12 cm long,0.8 to 2.5 cm wide, greyish dull green on both sides. Locally frequent, in grassy or dry sclerophyll woodland, mostly found on decomposed granite, heavily alluvial soils, light loamy soils of medium fertility, north from Wagga Wagga. The gumnuts are conical in shape, a Field Guide to Eucalypts - Brooker & Kleinig volume 1, ISBN 0-909605-62-9 page 259
Eucalyptus crebra, commonly known as the narrow-leaved ironbark or narrowleaf red ironbark, is a type of Ironbark tree native to eastern Australia. A member of the large genus Eucalyptus, this tree is in the Myrtaceae family and it is an important source of nectar in the honey industry and its hard, strong timber is used in construction. The Narrow-leaved ironbark was originally described by Victoria state botanist Ferdinand von Mueller in 1859, the specific epithet is the Latin adjective crebra crowded or close together. Within the genus Eucalyptus, it belongs in the subgenus Symphyomyrtus and this plant is a large spreading tree, which may reach 35 m in height. The rough furrowed bark is mottled with yellow and orange. The trees name ironbark stems from the rough and unyielding texture of the cambium on the outmost layer of the plant, in the early days of colonization wood felling was achieved with axe and saw, ironbark stands usually meant a broken ax head. The narrow lanceolate leaves are a uniform greyish-green in colour and measure 7–15 cm in length by 0. 9–1.7 cm wide, the small white flowers appear from late autumn to spring, and are followed by small pods.
The Narrow-leaved ironbark is found in eastern Australia, from Picton southwest of Sydney north through New South Wales, the narrow-leaved ironbark is one of the key canopy species of the threatened Cumberland Plain Woodlands. Koalas can consume the leaves, and the flowers are pollinated mainly by insects, the southern or shady side of the trunk is habitat for lichens. The tree has a hard and dark red timber, a plank has been recorded as being used for Elizabeth Farm, Australias oldest surviving European dwelling. It is used as a tree or to line roadways. It is useful in production as the flowers are heavy in nectar and pollen
Angophora is a genus of flowering plants in the myrtle family, described as a genus in 1797. It is endemic to Australia, where species are distributed in Queensland, New South Wales, the centre of diversity is along the northern and central coast of New South Wales. Angophora is closely related to Corymbia and Eucalyptus, and all three genera are often referred to as eucalypts, collectively the eucalypts, or gum trees, dominate many Australian ecosystems. Angophora can be distinguished from other eucalypts by its oppositely arranged leaves and flowers which lack opercula, taxonomists have long recognised the relationships between the eucalypt taxa, but have not agreed upon a classification scheme. Some have proposed merging Angophora and Corymbia into genus Eucalyptus as subgenera, some authors maintain Angophora as a genus, while others continue to debate the issue. Among the eucalypts, Angophora species were nicknamed apples by European settlers, many are still known commonly as apples today.
The opposite leaves are hairy and glandular when new, and mostly hairless when mature, the inflorescence is an arrangement of several clusters of 3 to 7 flowers each. The flower has 4 or 5 small, green sepals, overlapping white petals, the fruit is a papery or slightly woody capsule, usually with thick ribs and a coat of hairs. The following are accepted species, Angophora bakeri, a tree up to 10 metres tall. A tree up to 30 meters tall with smooth, scaly bark, - NSW Angophora × clelandii - hybrid A. bakeri × A. hispida - NSW Angophora crassifolia, a tree up to 15 meters tall endemic to New South Wales. - NSW Angophora × dichromophloia - hybrid, A. costata × A. hispida - NSW Angophora euryphylla, - NSW Angophora exul, a threatened species known only from a small area at Gibraltar Rock, New South Wales. A tree up to 8 meters tall with compound, terminal inflorescences, a common tree up to 30 metres tall - NSW, and Vic Angophora hispida. A tree or mallee up to 7 meters tall, - NSW Angophora inopina, a vulnerable species.
A tree up to 8 metres tall, - NSW Angophora leiocarpa, a tree up to 25 meters tall. A multi-stemmed tree up to 15 metres tall, - NSW, Qld Angophora paludosa, a tree up to 15 metres tall. - NSW Angophora robur, a vulnerable species, a tree up to 10 metres tall. A tree up to 20 metres tall, - NSW, Qld Angophora woodsiana, a tree up to 20 metres tall. Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, Australian National Herbarium
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae. This includes the plants and other gymnosperms, clubmosses, liverworts and the green algae. Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts and their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although reproduction is common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, green plants provide most of the worlds molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earths ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains and vegetables form humankinds basic foodstuffs, Plants play many roles in culture.
They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in variety, they have served as the source of most medicines. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology, Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided, the other is animals. The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle, who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus created the basis of the system of scientific classification. Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts. When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a group of organisms or taxon. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet settled. Those which have been called plants are in bold, the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors.
Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis, most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown and green algae. Each of these groups includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms
Myrtaceae is the myrtle family, a family of dicotyledonous plants placed within the order Myrtales. Myrtle, the bay rum tree, guava, allspice, all species are woody, with essential oils, and flower parts in multiples of four or five. One notable character of the family is that the phloem is located on both sides of the xylem, not just outside as in most other plants, the leaves are evergreen, alternate to mostly opposite and usually with an entire margin. The flowers have a number of five petals, though in several genera the petals are minute or absent. The stamens are usually conspicuous, brightly coloured and numerous. Recent estimates suggest the Myrtaceae include approximately 5950 species in ca 132 genera, the family has a wide distribution in tropical and warm-temperate regions of the world, and are typically common in many of the worlds biodiversity hotspots. Genera with capsular fruits such as Eucalyptus, Angophora, genera with fleshy fruits have their greatest concentrations in eastern Australia and Malesia and the Neotropics.
Eucalyptus is a dominant, nearly ubiquitous genus in the more parts of Australia. Eucalyptus regnans is the tallest flowering plant in the world, other important Australian genera are Callistemon and Melaleuca. Species of the genus Osbornia, native to Australasia, are mangroves, eugenia and Calyptranthes are among the larger genera in the neotropics. Historically, the Myrtaceae were divided into two subfamilies, subfamily Myrtoideae was recognized as having fleshy fruits and opposite, entire leaves. Most genera in this subfamily have one of three recognized types of embryos. The genera of Myrtoideae can be difficult to distinguish in the absence of mature fruits. Myrtoideae are found worldwide in subtropical and tropical regions, with centers of diversity in the Neotropics, northeastern Australia, in contrast, subfamily Leptospermoideae was recognized as having dry, dehiscent fruits and leaves arranged spirally or alternate. The Leptospermoideae are found mostly in Australasia, with a centre of diversity in Australia, many genera in Western Australia have greatly reduced leaves and flowers typical of more xeric habitats.
Thus, many workers are now using a recent analysis by Wilson et al. as a point to test further analyses of the family. The genera Heteropyxis and Psiloxylon have been separated as separate families by many authors in the past as Heteropyxidaceae and Psiloxylaceae, Wilson et al. included them in Myrtaceae. These two genera are believed to be the earliest arising and surviving lineages of Myrtaceae