Eugene is a city in the U. S. state of Oregon, in the Pacific Northwest. It is at the southern end of the verdant Willamette Valley, near the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers, about 50 miles east of the Oregon Coast; as of the 2010 census, Eugene had a population of 156,185. The Eugene-Springfield, Oregon metropolitan statistical area is the 146th largest metropolitan statistical area in the US and the third-largest in the state, behind the Portland Metropolitan Area and the Salem Metropolitan Area; the city's population for 2018 was estimated to be 171,245 by the US Census. Eugene is home to the University of Oregon, Northwest Christian University, Lane Community College; the city is noted for its natural environment, recreational opportunities, focus on the arts. Eugene's official slogan is "A Great City for the Arts and Outdoors", it is referred to as the "Emerald City" and as "Track Town, USA". The Nike corporation had its beginnings in Eugene. In 2021, the city will host the 18th Field World Championships.
The first people to settle in the Eugene area were known as the Kalapuyans written Calapooia or Calapooya. They made "seasonal rounds," moving around the countryside to collect and preserve local foods, including acorns, the bulbs of the wapato and camas plants, berries, they stored these foods in their permanent winter village. When crop activities waned, they returned to their winter villages and took up hunting and trading, they were known as the Chifin Kalapuyans and called the Eugene area where they lived "Chifin", sometimes recorded as "Chafin" or "Chiffin". Other Kalapuyan tribes occupied villages that are now within Eugene city limits. Pee-you or Mohawk Calapooians, Winefelly or Pleasant Hill Calapooians, the Lungtum or Long Tom, they were close-neighbors to the Chifin and were political allies. Some authorities suggest, it is that since the Santiam had an alliance with the Brownsville Kalapuyans that the Santiam influence went as far at Eugene. According to archeological evidence, the ancestors of the Kalapuyans may have been in Eugene for as long as 10,000 years.
In the 1800s their traditional way of life faced significant changes due to devastating epidemics and settlement, first by French fur traders and by an overwhelming number of American settlers French fur traders had settled seasonally in the Willamette Valley by the beginning of the 19th century. Their settlements were concentrated in the "French Prairie" community in Northern Marion County but may have extended south to the Eugene area. Having developed relationships with Native communities through intermarriage and trade, they negotiated for land from the Kalapuyans. By 1828 to 1830 they and their Native wives began year-round occupation of the land, raising crops and tending animals. In this process, the mixed race families began to impact Native access to land, food supply, traditional materials for trade and religious practices. In July 1830, "intermittent fever" struck the lower Columbia region and a year the Willamette Valley. Natives traced the arrival of the disease new to the Northwest, to the U.
S. ship, captained by John Dominis. "Intermittent fever" is thought by researchers now to be malaria. According to Robert T. Boyd, an anthropologist at Portland State University, the first three years of the epidemic, "probably constitute the single most important epidemiological event in the recorded history of what would become the state of Oregon". In his book The Coming of the Spirit Pestilence Boyd reports there was a 92% population loss for the Kalapuyans between 1830 and 1841; this catastrophic event shattered the social fabric of Kalapuyan society and altered the demographic balance in the Valley. This balance was further altered over the next few years by the arrival of Anglo-American settlers, beginning in 1840 with 13 people and growing each year until within 20 years more than 11,000 American settlers, including Eugene Skinner, had arrived; as the demographic pressure from the settlers grew, the remaining Kalapuyans were forcibly removed to Indian reservations. Though some Natives escaped being swept into the reservation, most were moved to the Grand Ronde reservation in 1856.
Strict racial segregation was enforced and mixed race people, known as Métis in French, had to make a choice between the reservation and Anglo society. Native Americans could not leave the reservation without traveling papers and white people could not enter the reservation. Eugene Franklin Skinner, after whom Eugene is named, arrived in the Willamette Valley in 1846 with 1,200 other settlers that year. Advised by the Kalapuyans to build on high ground to avoid flooding, he erected the first Anglo cabin on south or west slope of what the Kalapuyans called Ya-po-ah; the "isolated hill" is now known as Skinner's Butte. The cabin was used as a trading post and was registered as an official post office on January 8, 1850. At this time the settlement was known by Anglos as Skinner's Mudhole, it was relocated in 1853 and named Eugene City in 1853. Formally incorporated as a city in 1862, it was named Eugene in 1889. Skinner ran a ferry service across the Willamette River; the first major educational institution in the area was Columbia College, founded a few years earlier than the University of Oregon.
It fell victim to two major fires in four years, after the second fire, the college
In many periodizations of human history, the late modern period followed the early modern period. It began in the mid-18th century and depending on the author either ended with the beginning of contemporary history after World War II, or includes that period up to the present day. Notable historical milestones included the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the Great Divergence, the Russian Revolution, it took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion. As a result of the Industrial Revolution and political revolutions in the early modern period, the world-views of modernism emerged; the industrialization of many nations was initiated with the industrialization of the Kingdom of Great Britain. Particular facets of the late modern period include: Increasing role of science and technology Spread of social movements Institution of representative democracy The abolition of slavery New Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa, decolonization Industrialization Urbanization Increasing role of medicine and sanitation Mass literacy and proliferation of mass media Women's rights Socialism and the Cold War Demographic transition Green Revolution in agriculture Information Age in the latter 20th and the early 21st centuryOther important events in the development of the Late modern period include: The Opium Wars and Unequal Treaties in China The failed Revolutions of 1848 in Europe The development of the telegraph and the adoption of Morse code The American Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the US The Meiji Restoration in Japan The Franco-Prussian War, the Unification of Germany, the Unification of Italy The Congress of Berlin, of 1878 and the subsequent Scramble for Africa.
The development of radio telecommunication The Spanish–American War and the American annexation of the Philippines The First World War and the fall of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires The Sykes–Picot Agreement between the British and French empires create the modern boundaries of Syria and Iraq The Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War The Turkish War of Independence. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria and the Second Sino-Japanese War The Second World War and the Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Europe The Founding of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations The Bengal Famine and the Partition of India from the British Empire The Chinese Civil War and the Chinese Communist Revolution The Cold War De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev Thaw in the Soviet Union, subsequent Sino-Soviet split The Great Leap Forward campaign, the subsequent Great Chinese Famine, the Cultural Revolution in China Bangladesh Genocide and Bangladesh War of Independence from Pakistan The Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War in Israel, the subsequent OPEC oil embargo against Western countries The Cambodian genocide The Islamic Revolution in Iran, the Iran–Iraq War Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the Persian Gulf War The dissolution of the USSR and the Eastern Bloc, reunification of West Germany and East Germany Dates are approximate range, consult particular article for details Modern Age Other The development of the steam engine started the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
The steam engine was created to pump water from coal mines, enabling them to be deepened beyond groundwater levels. The date of the Industrial Revolution is not exact, but some studies suggest it occurred after the East India Company's conquests of Mughal Bengal, Kingdom of Mysore and the rest of India, which were observing the proto-industrialization. Eric Hobsbawm held that it "broke out" in the 1780s and was not felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred between 1760 and 1830; the great changes of centuries before the 19th were more connected with ideas, religion or military conquest, technological advance had only made small changes in the material wealth of ordinary people. The first Industrial Revolution merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships and railways, in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electric power generation.
The Second Industrial Revolution was a phase of the Industrial Revolution. From a technological and a social point of view there is no clean break between the two. Major innovations during the period occurred in the chemical, electrical, p
"Miss You" is a 1929 song by the Tobias brothers: Charles Tobias, Harry Tobias and Henry Tobias. It was the three brothers' first published song, their first hit, but one of the few songs where all three collaborated; the song was revived for the 1942 film Strictly in the Groove when it was sung by The Dinning Sisters and played by Ozzie Nelson and Orchestra. The topical chord produced by the song during World War II produced several hit recordings of the song in 1942. Dinah Shore's version reached No. 8 in the Billboard charts in 1942 and others to chart that year were Bing Crosby, Eddy Howard and Freddy Martin. Other versions Rudy Vallée & His Connecticut Yankees Geraldo and his Orchestra - vocal Beryl Davis Flanagan and Allen a single release by Decca Bill Haley and His Comets included in the album Rockin' the Oldies; the Mills Brothers - included in their album Mmmm... The Mills Brothers Jaye P. Morgan - charted at #78 on Billboard Hot 100 in February 1959. Dinah Washington included in her album Dinah'62 Nat King Cole included in his album Dear Lonely Hearts.