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Eurasia

Eurasia is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Located in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, by Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Indian Ocean to the south; the division between Europe and Asia as two different continents is a historical social construct, with no clear physical separation between them. In geology, Eurasia is considered as a single rigid megablock. However, the rigidity of Eurasia is debated based on paleomagnetic data. Eurasia covers around 36.2 % of the Earth's total land area. The landmass contains well over 5 billion people, equating to 70% of the human population. Humans first settled in Eurasia between 125,000 years ago; some major islands, including Great Britain and Ireland, those of Japan, the Philippines and Indonesia, are included under the popular definition of Eurasia, in spite of being separate from the contiguous landmass.

Physiographically, Eurasia is a single continent. The concepts of Europe and Asia as distinct continents date back to antiquity and their borders are geologically arbitrary. In ancient times the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, along with their associated straits, were seen as separating the continents, but today the Ural and Caucasus ranges are more seen as the main delimiters between the two. Eurasia is connected to Africa at the Suez Canal, Eurasia is sometimes combined with Africa to make the largest contiguous landmass on Earth called Afro-Eurasia. Due to the vast landmass and differences in latitude, Eurasia exhibits all types of climate under the Köppen classification, including the harshest types of hot and cold temperatures and low precipitation and various types of ecosystems. Eurasia formed between 375 and 325 million years ago with the merging of Siberia and Baltica, joined to Laurentia, now North America, to form Euramerica. Chinese cratons collided with Siberia's southern coast.

Eurasia has been the host of many ancient civilizations, including those based in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and China. In the Axial Age, a continuous belt of civilizations stretched through the Eurasian subtropical zone from the Atlantic to the Pacific; this belt became the mainstream of world history for two millennia. “Eurasia” is a geographical notion: in this sense, it is the biggest continent. However, the word has several different meanings, reflecting the specific geopolitical interests of each nation. “Eurasia” is one of the most important geopolitical concepts. A power that dominates “Eurasia” would control two of the world’s three most advanced and economically productive regions. A mere glance at the map suggests that control “Eurasia” would automatically entail Africa’s subordination, rendering the Western Hemisphere and Oceania geopolitically peripheral to the world’s central continent. About 75 per cent of the world’s people live in “Eurasia”, most of the world’s physical wealth is there as well, both in its enterprises and underneath its soil.

“Eurasia” accounts for about three-fourths of the world’s known energy resources.” The Russian concept of “Eurasia” corresponded more or less to the land area of Imperial Russia in 1914, including parts of Eastern Europe. One of Russia's main geopolitical interests lies in closer integration with those countries that it considers part of “Eurasia.” This concept is further integrated with communist eschatology by author Alexander Dugin as the guiding principle of "self-sufficiency of a large space" during expansion. The term Eurasia gained geopolitical reputation as one of the three superstates in 1984, George Orwell's novel where constant surveillance and propaganda are strategic elements of the heterogeneous dispositif such metapolitical constructs use in order to control and exercise power. Across Eurasia, several single markets have emerged including the Eurasian Economic Space, European Single Market, ASEAN Economic Community and the Gulf Cooperation Council. There are several international organizations and initiatives which seek to promote integration throughout Eurasia, including: Every two years since 1996 a meeting of most Asian and European countries is organised as the Asia–Europe Meeting.

The Commonwealth of Independent States is a political and economic association of 10 post-Soviet republics in Eurasia formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It has an estimated population of 239,796,010; the CIS encourages cooperation in economical and military affairs and has certain powers to coordinate trade, finance and security. In addition, six members of the CIS have joined the Collective Security Treaty Organization, an intergovernmental military alliance, founded in 1992. Similar in concept to the European Union, the Eurasian Union is an economic union established in 2015 including Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and some of their neighbors, headquartered in Moscow and Minsk, Belarus; the union promotes economic integration among members and is theoretically open to enlargement of any country in Europe or Asia. The Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges is an international organization comprising the main stock exchanges in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.

The purpose of the Federation is to contribu

Shira Ichilov

Shira Ichilov is an Israeli ice dancer. With her former skating partner, Vadim Davidovich, she is the 2019 Israeli national champion and has competed in the final segment at two ISU Championships. Shira Ichilov was born on 8 August 2002 in Israel, she is an only child. Her mother is an artistic figure skating coach for roller and ice skating and her father is the general secretary of the Israel Ice Hockey Federation. Ichilov was homeschooled after seventh grade, she speaks Hebrew and Russian. In 2018, she received her U. S. high school certificate. Ichilov trained in roller skating, coached by Anna Kantor, she switched to ice skating in 2014. After a year in Holon, she relocated to the United States to train with the Israeli national Olympic team. Ichilov began skating with Vadim Davidovich in July 2016, coached by Galit Chait in the U. S. In November, making their international debut, Ichilov/Davidovich finished tenth in junior ice dancing at the 2016 Tallinn Trophy. In March, they placed 26th in the short dance at the 2017 World Junior Championships in Taipei, Taiwan.

Their placement was not sufficient to advance to the free dance. In September, Ichilov/Davidovich debuted on the ISU Junior Grand Prix series, finishing sixth in Salzburg and fourth in Riga, Latvia. After taking silver in the junior event at the 2017 Minsk-Arena Ice Star and placing fourth at the 2017 Golden Spin of Zagreb, they became the Israeli national junior champions. In March, the duo competed at the 2018 World Junior Championships in Bulgaria, it was Davidovich's final season of age-eligibility for junior events. Making their senior international debut, Ichilov/Davidovich finished ninth at the 2018 CS Finlandia Trophy in October, they placed 12th at the Volvo Open Cup and 10th at the 2018 CS Golden Spin of Zagreb before taking the Israeli national title. In January, the two qualified to the free dance at the 2019 European Championships in Minsk, Belarus, they finished 20th overall. The two split following the 2-10 World Championships, where they finished 25th in the rhythm dance and failed to qualify to the free dance.

Ichilov partnered with France's Laurent Abecassis to compete for Israel. They placed 12th at 2020 Egna Dance Trophy and won gold at 2020 Jégvirág Cup. GP: Grand Prix.

International District (Greater Houston)

The International Management District or the International District is a management district in Harris County and Fort Bend County, Texas. Most of the district is within the city of Houston, while a portion lies within an unincorporated area. Texas State Representative Hubert Vo suggested the creation of a management district; the 80th session of the Texas Legislature created the district in 2007. In 2009 the district stated that at least half of its $1 million budget would be used to enhance security; the district has about 12 square miles of land. It is bounded by Bellaire Boulevard to the north, Texas State Highway 6 to the west, Beltway 8 to the east; the district runs along Bissonnet from Highway 6 to Kirkwood. The district runs along West Bellfort to U. S. Highway 59; the area occupied by the district is known as Alief. As of 2011 seven hotels are located in the district; the International Management District levies taxes on businesses in its boundaries to increase security, to promote international business and trade, to pay for beautification projects.

The Harris County Sheriff's Office serves the unincorporated Harris County side. It operates the Mission Bend Storefront in the International District; the El Franco Lee Health Center in the district, operated by the Harris County Hospital District, opened on May 19, 2009. Prior to the opening, the closest facility was the People's Health Center; the district said in a 2006 Houston Chronicle article that it planned to build a health care facility in Alief. The center has 66,000 square feet of space; the United States Postal Service operates the Beechnut Post Office. The International Trade Center-Houston was established around the time of the formation of the International District; the offices of Sentai Filmworks are in the International District. The Harris County residents are within the Alief Independent School District; the Fort Bend County residents are within the Fort Bend Independent School District. Christina Autry of the IMD wrote that "The International Management District overlaps with Alief ISD".

Alief ISD schools in the district boundaries include: High schools: Alief Kerr High School and Alief Taylor High School 9th grade centers: Elsik Ninth Grade School and Hastings Ninth Grade School Middle schools: Killough, O'Donnell, Olle Intermediate schools: Klentzman and Youngblood Elementary schools: Alexander, Chambers, Hearne, Horn, Liestman and SmithEach area is assigned to a particular elementary school, with several areas assigned to elementary schools outside of the district. Some schools do not have bilingual programs, so bilingual students for those schools are redirected to other schools. In addition to the intermediate schools above, Alief Intermediate, Budewig and Miller serve sections of the district, with bilingual students at Alief Int. Being redirected to Owens. In addition to the middle schools above, Alief Middle and Holub middle schools serve portions of the district. High school students in Alief ISD are randomly assigned to either Elsik, Hastings, or Taylor, with the same institution for all grade levels, while Kerr and Alief Early College serve as magnet schools.

The Fort Bend County portion is served by Arizona Fleming Elementary School, Hodges Bend Middle School, George Bush High School. The Houston Community College System has served the Alief area since 1982; the HCC Alief Campus, a part of the Southwest College, is in the Westchase area of Houston. The HCC Alief Continuing Education Center is located in an unincorporated area in Harris County adjacent to the International District. In 1982 HCCS expanded classes to Alief Elsik High School. In 2001, HCCS opened the Alief Center on Bissonnet. In 2007, the new Alief Campus in Westchase opened. In 2008, the former Alief Center became the Continuing Education Center. Houston Public Library operates the David M. Henington-Alief Regional Library in the district; the Lunar New Year is celebrated in the district. International District