Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Eureka is an interjection used to celebrate a discovery or invention. It is a transliteration of an exclamation attributed to Ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes. "Eureka" comes from the Ancient Greek word εὕρηκα heúrēka, meaning "I found", the first person singular perfect indicative active of the verb εὑρίσκω heuriskō "I find". It is related to heuristic, which refers to experience-based techniques for problem solving and discovery; the accent of the English word is on the second syllable, following Latin rules of accent, which require that a penult must be accented if it contains a long vowel. In the Greek pronunciation, the first syllable has a high pitch accent, because the Ancient Greek rules of accent do not force accent to the penult unless the ultima has a long vowel; the long vowels in the first two syllables would sound like a double stress to English ears. The initial /h/ is dropped in some European languages, including Spanish and English, but preserved in others, such as Finnish and German.
The exclamation'Eureka!' is attributed to the ancient Greek scholar Archimedes. He proclaimed "Eureka! Eureka!" after he had stepped into a bath and noticed that the water level rose, whereupon he understood that the volume of water displaced must be equal to the volume of the part of his body he had submerged. He realized that the volume of irregular objects could be measured with precision, a intractable problem, he is said to have been so eager to share his discovery that he leapt out of his bathtub and ran naked through the streets of Syracuse. Archimedes' insight led to the solution of a problem posed by Hiero of Syracuse, on how to assess the purity of an irregular golden votive crown. Equipment for weighing objects with a fair amount of precision existed, now that Archimedes could measure volume, their ratio would give the object's density, an important indicator of purity; this story first appeared in written form in Vitruvius's books of architecture, two centuries after it took place.
Some scholars have doubted the accuracy of this tale, on the grounds that the votive crown was a fine item, thus an impure crown would displace water only minutely, compared to a pure one. Precise means needed to measure this minute difference was not available at the time. For the problem posed to Archimedes, there is a simple method which requires no precision equipment: balance the crown against pure gold on a scale in the air, submerge both the crown and the gold in water simultaneously. If the volumes are the same, the scale remains in balance, meaning that their densities are the same and therefore the crown must be pure gold, but if the volume of the crown is greater, increased buoyancy results in imbalance. Greater volume of the crown means its density is less than that of the gold, therefore the crown could not be pure gold. Galileo Galilei himself weighed in on the controversy, suggesting a design for a hydrostatic balance that could be used to compare the dry weight of an object with the weight of the same object submerged in water.
The expression is the state motto of California, referring to the momentous discovery of gold near Sutter's Mill in 1848. The California State Seal has included the word eureka since its original design by Robert S. Garnett in 1850. In 1957 the state legislature attempted to make "In God We Trust" the state motto as part of the same post WWII anti-Communist movement that added the term "under God" to the American Pledge of Allegiance in 1954, but this attempt did not succeed and "Eureka" was made the official motto in 1963; the city of Eureka, founded in 1850, uses the California State Seal as its official seal. Eureka is a considerable distance from Sutter's Mill, but was the jumping off point of a smaller gold rush in nearby Trinity County, California in 1850, it is the largest of at least eleven remaining US cities and towns named for the exclamation, "eureka!". As a result of the extensive use of the exclamation dating from 1849, there were nearly 40 locales so named by the 1880s in a nation that had none in the 1840s.
Many places, works of culture, other objects have since been named "Eureka". "Eureka" was associated with a gold rush in Ballarat, Australia. The Eureka Stockade was a revolt in 1854 by gold miners against unjust mining license fees and a brutal administration supervising the miners; the rebellion demonstrated the refusal of the workers to be dominated by unfair government and laws. The Eureka Stockade has been referred to as the "birth of democracy" in Australia. Another mathematician, Carl Friedrich Gauss, echoed Archimedes when in 1796 he wrote in his diary, "ΕΥΡΗΚΑ! num = Δ + Δ + Δ", referring to his discovery that any positive integer could be expressed as the sum of at most three triangular numbers. This result is now known as Gauss' Eureka theorem and is a special case of what became known as the Fermat polygonal number theorem. Heuristic Eureka effect
Six Flags St. Louis
Six Flags St. Louis Six Flags Over Mid-America, is a theme park located in Eureka, Missouri. Owned and operated by Six Flags, the park opened on June 5, 1971, as the third of the company's three original theme parks; the park was conceived by Six Flags founder Angus G. Wynne in the 1960s and was designed by Randall Duell, its layout consists of eight themed areas, each of which contain numerous attractions, dining locations and live entertainment. The adjacent Hurricane Harbor water park is free with park admission. Since its original opening in 1971, the park has undergone many changes, most notably of which are the replacement or renaming of all six of the park's original areas in the 1990s, as well as the addition of two new ones. Six Flags Over Mid-America opened on June 5, 1971, the third and last of the three "true" Six Flags parks as envisioned by Angus G. Wynne; the park was divided into six uniquely themed sections, the namesake "Six Flags" over Mid-America: Spain, England, USA, Missouri.
On June 5, 1999, the 12-acre Six Flags Hurricane Harbor water park opened adjacent to the main park. At a cost of $17 million, it was the largest single investment in Six Flags St. Louis' history. In 2014, Six Flags sold 180 acres of undeveloped land east of the park to home developer McBride & Sons, reducing the land owned from 503 acres to 323 acres. According to the Six Flags 2015 Annual Report, the park now owns 323 acres of land. Six Flags St. Louis is divided into eight themed sections, all of which were added or renamed; the park is laid out in a "duell loop", a name given to a specific design concept used by park designer Randall Duell. 1904 World's Fair is the main area of the park, named after the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, which ran from April 30 to December 1, 1904; the area features the "Mall of Mid-Americas", a shopping mall complex that features many foods introduced or present at the fair, as well as buildings themed to the time period of the early 1900s. The area was named "Missouri" from the park's opening until 1994 season.
Colonnades First Cone Looney Tunes Main Street Market LaClede's Mart Toy Circus Studio 6F Flags Emporium Gateway to the West is themed to the early years of the state of Missouri, features many references to locales and people that lived in the state. The area opened in 1993, taking over a part of what was the Missouri section of the park. Colonel Cobbs Chouteau's Market is themed after a French market, it is named after the founder of the city of St. Louis; the area opened in 1993. In 2014, the area expanded to take over a section, part of Studio Backlot. Mooseburger Lodge Outpost Snacks Studio Backlot is themed to the backlot of a movie studio; the area was renamed "Warner Bros.. Backlot" the following year. In the first couple years, the area featured five interactive movie set experiences based on various Warner Bros. films, including Bonnie and Clyde, Little Shop of Horrors and Maverick, all of which were retired after the 1997 season. The area's name was changed again to its current name in 2002, though it retains its previous theme.
Chop Six Johnny Rockets Hollywood Studio Store Studio Sports DC Comics Plaza celebrates the worlds of DC Entertainment, with multiple attractions based on various DC characters and properties. The area opened in 1996. JB's Smoke House BBQ & Sports Bar Hero's Snacks Super Heroes vs. Villains Justice League Headquarters Britannia is based on Great Britain as it was in its medieval period; the area was named "England" from 1971 to 1992, "Great Britain" in 1993 and it was given its current name in 1994. Friar Tuck's Primo's Pizzeria Illinois is loosely themed to the city of Illinois; the area was known as "Old Chicago" before the 1990s. Cotton Candy Factory Primo's Pizzeria Bugs Bunny National Park is a kiddie area based on the Looney Tunes franchise, it opened in 2006 as the successor to Looney Tunes Town. It replaced some former land. Go Fresh Café Totally Kickin' Chicken Funnel Cake Factory Hurricane Harbor is a water park, connected to the southeast portion of Six Flags St. Louis and is adjacent to Studio Backlot, but is not part of the main park.
Unlike other Six Flags Hurricane Harbors across the United States, entrance to the Six Flags St. Louis version is included with park admission or a Season Pass. A number of annual seasonal events are held at the park: July 4th Fest was introduced in the 2000s, features multiple nights of fireworks for the Fourth of July. Fright Fest was introduced in 1988 as "Fright Nights", which ran until Fright Nights V in 1992. In 1993, the event became Fright Fest under the ownership of Time Warner, who wanted each Six Flags park's Halloween event to use the same name for branding purposes; the event runs from mid to late September through Halloween and features several haunted attractions and scare zones, as well as live entertainment. Fright Fest celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2018. A holiday event introduced in 2016 which features several themed areas as well as live entertainment; the event extended the park's operating season by two months for the first time in its history. Six Flags St. Louis Six Flags St. Louis at the Roller Coaster DataBase
Pacific is a city in Franklin and St. Louis counties in the U. S. state of Missouri. The population was 7,002 at the 2010 census. Pacific was platted in 1852, it was so named. A post office called Pacific has been in operation since 1854; the Gustav Grauer Farm was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. Pacific is located at 38°28′53″N 90°45′0″W; the city straddles the Franklin/St. Louis county line, which lies halfway on the blocks between Neosho streets. St. Louis is 30 miles northeast of Pacific, the communities comprising the Missouri Rhineland are 20 miles northwest of the city. Pacific is bordered on the southeast by the Pacific Palisades Conservation Area. Access to the Meramec River, through the Pacific Palisades Conservation Area, is located east of the city, adjacent to Eureka on the north side; the majority of the Pacific Palisades Conservation Area is south of the river and can be accessed 1 mile south of the city in Jefferson County. The Union Pacific railroad, BNSF Railway Railroad, historic Route 66, Brush Creek, Fox Creek run through the town.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.93 square miles, of which 5.92 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. A total of 1.7 sq mi of the city is located in St. Louis County; the city is located 5 miles east of Gray Summit. The Old Downtown Commerce Area is located along First and St. Louis streets; the historic downtown buildings, built in the late 1800s, have been or restored, new businesses have moved into the buildings. The Red Cedar Inn, on the east end of town, was a meeting place for people around the country seeking out one of the oldest restaurants still standing on Route 66; the restaurant closed in 2007. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,002 people, 2,368 households, 1,524 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,182.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,645 housing units at an average density of 446.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.4% White, 8.4% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. The population total includes the Missouri Eastern Correctional Facility which houses over 1,000 inmates. There were 2,368 households of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.6% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age in the city was 35.9 years. 20% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 55.6% male and 44.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,482 people, 2,166 households, 1,431 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,011.0 people per square mile. There are 2,343 housing units at an average Value at $97,987.22 /km². The racial makeup of the city was 94.35% White, 2.92% African American, 0.38% Asian, 0.31% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, 1.48% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 2,166 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $39,554, the median income for a family was $44,545. Males had a median income of $32,813 versus $22,529 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,865. About 8.8% of families and 14.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.7% of those under age 18 and 19.4% of those age 65 or over.
Pacific and its surrounding communities are served by the Meramec Valley R-III school system and the St. Louis Community College district, many residents attend nearby East Central College. Elementary and secondary schools in the Meramec Valley School District: Coleman Elementary School Nike Elementary School Robertsville Elementary School Truman Elementary School Zitzman Elementary School Meramec Valley Early Childhood Center Meramec Valley Community School- Pacific Middle School Meramec Valley Middle School - Pacific Junior High School Riverbend School Pacific High School St. Louis Post-Dispatch Meramec Valley Current Washington Missourian Tri County Journal Historic Downtown Pacific Blackburn Park Civil War Cannon Pacific City Park Pacific Youth Association Baseball and Softball Fields Liberty Field Limestone caves Trains Train To
Greater St. Louis
Greater St. Louis is a bi-state metropolitan area that surrounds and includes the independent city of St. Louis, it includes parts of both the U. S. states of Illinois. The city core is on the Mississippi Riverfront on the border with Illinois in the geographic center of the metro area; the Mississippi River bisects the metro area in half geographically between Missouri. St. Louis is the second largest in Illinois. St. Louis County is independent of the City of St. Louis and their two populations are tabulated separately; the St. Louis, MO-IL metropolitan statistical area —and the focus of this page—includes the City of St. Louis; the larger St. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL combined statistical area includes all of the aforementioned MSA, plus the Farmington, MO micropolitan statistical area, which includes all of St. Francois County and the Centralia, IL micropolitan statistical area, which includes Marion County, Illinois; as of 2017 data, the MSA is the 21st-largest in the country that year with a population of 2,807,338.
Due to nearly zero growth in St. Louis paired with rapid growth in the Sun Belt and Florida, the St. Louis MSA fell out of the Top 20 Largest MSAs in the United States in 2017 for the first time since 1840; as of 2018, Greater St. Louis is home to the headquarters of ten of Missouri's eleven Fortune 500 companies, six Fortune 1,000 companies, two of the top 30 Largest Private Companies in America, as ranked by Forbes; the area received the All-America City Award in 2008. The history of St. Louis, Missouri began with the settlement of the St. Louis area by Native American mound builders who lived as part of the Mississippian culture from the 9th century to the 15th century, followed by other migrating tribal groups. Starting in the late 17th century, French explorers arrived. Spain took over in 1763 and a trading company established the settlement of St. Louis in February 1764; the city became part of the U. S. through the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The American Civil War saw St. Louis had a small skirmish on its outskirts, but was held under Union control.
After the war, the city expanded industrial activity. Franklin County MO: Berger, New Haven, Pacific, St. Clair, Union, Washington Jefferson County MO: Arnold, Byrnes Mill, Crystal City, De Soto, Herculaneum, Imperial, Pevely Lincoln County MO: Elsberry, Moscow Mills, Old Monroe, Winfield St. Francois County MO: Bonne Terre, Farmington, Park Hills St. Charles County MO: Cottleville, Dardenne Prairie, Foristell, Lake St. Louis, New Melle, O'Fallon, St. Charles, St. Peters, Weldon Spring, West Alton St. Louis: City of St. Louis St. Louis County MO: Affton, Bel-Nor, Bel-Ridge, Bella Villa, Bellefontaine Neighbors, Berkeley, Beverly Hills, Black Jack, Breckenridge Hills, Bridgeton, Calverton Park, Charlack, Clarkson Valley, Cool Valley, Country Club Hills, Country Life Acres, Creve Coeur, Crystal Lake Park, Des Peres, Ellisville, Fenton, Flordell Hills, Frontenac, Glen Echo Park, Grantwood Village, Green Park, Hanley Hills, Hillsdale, Kinloch, Jennings, Lakeshire, Maplewood, Maryland Heights, Moline Acres, Northwoods, Norwood Court, Olivette, Pacific, Pasadena Hills, Pasadena Park, Pine Lawn, Richmond Heights, Rock Hill, St. Ann, St. John, Spanish Lake, Sunset Hills, Sycamore Hills, Town & Country, Twin Oaks, University City, Uplands Park, Valley Park, Velda City, Velda Village Hills, Vinita Park, Warson Woods, Webster Groves, Westwood, Wilbur Park, Winchester, Woodson Terrace Warren County MO: Foristell, Truesdale, Wright City Bond County IL: Greenville, Sorento Calhoun County IL: Brussels, Kampsville Clinton County IL: Aviston, Breese, Centralia, New Baden, Trenton Jersey County IL: Grafton, Jerseyville Macoupin County IL: Benld, Bunker Hill, Gillespie, Mt. Olive, Virden Madison County IL: Alhambra, Bethalto, East Alton, Godfrey, Glen Carbon, Granite City, Hartford, Livingston, Marine, New Douglas, Pontoon Beach, South Roxana, St. Jacob, Venice, Wood River, Worden Monroe County IL: Columbia, Valmeyer, Waterloo St. Clair County IL: Alorton, Brooklyn, Caseyville, Dupo, East Carondelet, East St. Louis, Fairmont City, Fairview Heights, Freeburg, Marissa, Millstadt, New Athens, O'Fallon, Shiloh, Smithton, St. Libory, Washington ParkAs noted above, the Greater St. Louis area includes two cities named O'Fallon and two cities named Troy.
The nearby Hannibal–Quincy micropolitan areas are technically not located within the metropolitan, but are regionally associated due to their proximity and accessibility to Gr
Wildwood is a suburb of St. Louis, located in far western St. Louis County, United States; as of the 2010 census, the population was 35,517. Wildwood is the home of the Al Foster Trail, numerous other trails and reserves such as Rockwood and Babler State Park. Wildwood is located at 38°34′54″N 90°38′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 67.08 square miles, of which 66.42 square miles is land and 0.66 square miles is water. Wildwood is bounded to the north by Chesterfield; as of the census of 2010, there were 35,517 people, 12,112 households, 10,153 families residing in the city. The population density was 534.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,604 housing units at an average density of 189.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.2% White, 6.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.0% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population. There were 12,112 households of which 45.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 75.2% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 16.2% were non-families.
13.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.24. The median age in the city was 41.5 years. 30.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.5% male and 50.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 32,884 people, 10,837 households, 9,243 families residing in the city. Estimated median house/condo value in 2005: $345,100; the population density was 498.0 people per square mile. There were 11,229 housing units at an average density of 170.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.74% White, 1.62% African American, 0.12% Native American, 2.38% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 0.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.38% of the population. There were 10,837 households out of which 51.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 79.0% were married couples living together, 4.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.7% were non-families.
12.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.02 and the average family size was 3.32. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.2% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 5.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. Estimated median household income in 2007: $113,270. Males had a median income of $75,849 versus $41,224 for females; the per capita income for the city was $38,485. About 1.6% of families and 2.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.1% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over. Wildwood is served by Rockwood School District, with one high school within the city limits, Lafayette High School. St. Louis Community College–Wildwood is a local, two-year public community college located off routes 100 and 109.
The City of Wildwood contracts for police service with the St. Louis County Police Department. David Freese, former third baseman for the St. Louis Cardinals, grew up in Wildwood and went to Rockwood Valley Middle School graduated from Lafayette High School in 2001. Freese's clutch play in the postseason helped the Cardinals win the 2011 National League pennant over the Milwaukee Brewers and the World Series over the Texas Rangers. Freese was honored by being named the 2011 NL Championship Series MVP and the 2011 World Series MVP. Ryan Howard, former first baseman for the Philadelphia Phillies, grew up in Wildwood and went to Lafayette High School. Luke Voit, baseball player The Big Chief Restaurant is all that remains of a tourist complex that opened on U. S. Route 66 in 1928, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places listings in 2003. City of Wildwood Wildwood Historical Society of Wildwood, Missouri
St. Louis County, Missouri
St. Louis County is located in the far eastern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. It is bounded by the city of St. Louis and the Mississippi River to the east, the Missouri River to the north, the Meramec River to the south; as of the 2016 Census Bureau population estimate, the population was 998,581, making it the most populous county in Missouri. Its county seat is Clayton. Saint Louis County was settled by French colonists in the late 1700s, before switching to U. S. rule following the Louisiana Purchase. Saint Louis County split from St. Louis City in 1877. In the 1960s, with the growing suburbanization in Greater St. Louis, the County's population overtook the City's population for the first time. St. Louis County borders, but does not include, the city of St. Louis, an independent city; the county is included in MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2019 there was a proposal to merge the county after a Saturday-wide vote. During the 18th century, several European colonial settlements were established in the area that would become St. Louis County.
French colonists moved from east of the Mississippi River after France ceded those territories to Spain after losing the Seven Years' War. The earliest of these, Saint Louis, was founded by Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau on February 14, 1764, who became major fur traders in the city. Founded in about 1767 was Carondelet, at the southern end of what is now the city of St. Louis. Florissant known as St. Ferdinand, was established in 1785 about twelve miles northwest of St. Louis on a tributary of the Missouri River. During the 1790s small settlements known as Creve Coeur and Point Labadie were built north and west of St. Louis. Upon the sale and transfer of French Louisiana to the United States on October 1, 1804, President Thomas Jefferson suggested that the territory retain the districts drawn by Spanish officials during their decades-long rule of the territory after an arrangement with the French. During this time, the first governing body of St. Louis County was established; this government, called the Court of Quarter Sessions, was composed of Charles Gratiot, Auguste Chouteau, Jacques Clamorgan, David DeLaunay, all ethnic French or French Canadians.
On October 1, 1812, the District of St. Louis was renamed St. Louis County during a federal reorganization of the Louisiana Territory's status. After the transfer of Louisiana to the United States, the authority to grant incorporation to municipalities was delegated to the Territory and was a state power; the first to gain municipal status in St. Louis County was St. Louis, which incorporated on November 9, 1809, under the territorial legislature, gained city status on December 9, 1822. Only a handful of other municipal incorporations took place prior to the separation of the county and city: St. Ferdinand was granted incorporation in 1829, while Bridgeton, a settlement along the Missouri River near Florissant, gained incorporation in 1843. Two towns grew and incorporated in the 1850s, with their growth stimulated by the construction of the Pacific Railroad: Pacific and Kirkwood. Pacific, a community along the Meramec River, known before the railroad line connection as Franklin, straddles St. Louis and Franklin counties.
Kirkwood was settled in 1853 after Hiram Leffingwell and Richard Elliott platted and auctioned land along the railroad line. Leffingwell organized the town as a planned suburb, Kirkwood was granted incorporation by the state in 1865. Other areas of the county did not incorporate as towns. Among these were Chesterfield, Gumbo, both settled in the 1820s in west St. Louis County, Gravois and Affton, which were settled in south St. Louis County in the 1850s and 1860s; the first St. Louis Public Schools were established in the major city in the 1830s, it was a decade and more before some of the settlements of St. Louis County began providing public education. In 1854, the School District of Maplewood was established, it included all of today's Maplewood district, part of what became Webster Groves, along the south and southwest, a large part of St. Louis in the east, to the north up to Clayton Road; the first school called the Washington Institute and renamed as Maplewood High School, opened as a one-room stone building at the crossing of Manchester Road over the Missouri Pacific Railroad tracks.
Another antebellum school district was Rock Hill, which provided a one-room school across from the Rock Hill Presbyterian Church until about 1870. The first school in Florissant opened in 1819 under the direction of the Religious of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic religious congregation; the instructor, Rose Philippine Duchesne, was a French immigrant, described as "one of the foremost educators in the state of Missouri." A second school an Indian school known as the St. Regis Academy, was operated for young boys from 1823 to 1829; the complex included a Jesuit seminary known as St. Stanislaus Seminary, which continued to operate until 1971; the earliest public school in Florissant was the St. Ferdinand School, authorized by the General Assembly in 1845 and operated until 1871, when the Florissant School District was formed. From 1813 to 1830, the county initiated several c