The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 27 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro, divided into 100 cents, is the second-largest and second-most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, over 200 million people worldwide use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second-largest reserve currency as well as the second-most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of December 2019, with more than €1.3 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid.
The euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a non-binding referendum in 2003, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008, the old map was replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the EU like Norway, Belarus and Turkey; the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map.
All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx. The coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally issued coins, such as the coin to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics issued by Greece. These coins are leg
The Mystic Marriage of St Catherine is a c.1529 oil on panel painting of the mystical marriage of Saint Catherine by Parmigianino, now in the National Gallery, who acquired it in 1974. It was engraved by Giulio Bonasone. Vasari wrote of a "Madonna seen from the side, in a fair pose, with several other figures" made by Parmigianino for a saddler friend of his in Bologna; that work was first linked to the London work in 1784, though some art historians date it a few years earlier during the artist's time in Rome, which ended with the Sack of Rome in 1527. The London work is first recorded in inventories of the Galleria Borghese in 1693 and 1750. In 1800 it was acquired by William Young Ottley, from whom it passed to the Earl of Normanton's collection at Somerley House. Several copies of the painting survive - the best are in Apsley House, the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna and the Museo Davia Bargellini. Another copy is still in a private collection - this lacks the oval window at the top but Mario Di Giampaolo argues that it is autograph copy and that the Apsley House work is a copy of it.
Mario Di Giampaolo ed Elisabetta Fadda, Keybook, Santarcangelo di Romagna 2002. ISBN 8818-02236-9 "Catalogue page"
The seventh season of That'70s Show, an American television series, began September 8, 2004, ended on May 18, 2005. It aired on Fox; the region 1 DVD was released on October 16, 2007. This season is set in 1979; this is the last season to feature Topher Ashton Kutcher as regulars. Grace leaves the show at the end of the season to star in Spider-Man 3, Kutcher to star in The Guardian. However, Kutcher appears five times in the next season as a "Special Guest Star", Grace makes an uncredited cameo in the series finale. All episodes are named after songs by The Rolling Stones. Topher Grace as Eric Forman Mila Kunis as Jackie Burkhart Ashton Kutcher as Michael Kelso Danny Masterson as Steven Hyde Laura Prepon as Donna Pinciotti Wilmer Valderrama as Fez Debra Jo Rupp as Kitty Forman Kurtwood Smith as Red Forman Don Stark as Bob Pinciotti Shannon Elizabeth as Brooke Luke Wilson as Casey Kelso Tim Reid as William Barnett Lindsay Lohan as Danielle Eliza Dushku as Sarah Tommy Chong as Leo Chris Elliott as Mr. Bray Tanya Roberts as Midge Pinciotti Brooke Shields as Pamela Burkhart Jim Rash as Fenton Megalyn Echikunwoke as Angie Barnett Bret Harrison as Charlie Jack Riley as Old Man Shinsky Carolyn Hennesy as Patty Ryals Jenna Fischer as Stacy Wanamaker Jimmy Pardo as Stan That'70s Show Episode Guide at The New York Times That'70s Show – list of episodes on IMDb List of That'70s Show season 7 episodes at TV.com That'70s Show at epguides.com