The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character. Quotation marks have a variety of forms in different languages and in different media, the double quotation mark is older than the single. By the middle sixteenth century, printers had developed a form of this notation. In most other languages, including English, the marginal marks dropped out of use in the last years of the eighteenth century, the usage of a pair of marks and opening, at the level of lower case letters was generalized. By the nineteenth century, the design and usage began to be specific within each region, in Western Europe the usage became to use the quotation marks in pairs but “pointing” outside. In Britain those marks were elevated to the height of the top of capital letters. In France, by the end of the century those marks were modified to a more angular shape. Some authors claim that the reason for this was a one, in order to get a character that was clearly distinguishable from the apostrophes, the commas.
Other authors claim that the reason for this was an aesthetical one, while other languages do not insert a space between the quotation marks and the word, the French usage does insert them, even if it is a narrow space. The curved quotation marks usage was exported to some non-Latin scripts, the angular quotation marks usage was exported to some non-Latin scripts, like Greek, Cyrillic and Ethiopic. The Far East angle brackets quotation marks are a development of the angular quotation marks. In Central Europe, the practice was to use the marks in pairs. The German tradition preferred the curved quotation marks, the first one at the level of the commas, these marks still “pointed” inside but could be angular and in-line with lower case letters. Some neighboring regions adopted the German tradition but some adopted the second mark as “pointing” to the right. In Sweden, both marks “pointed” to the right but both were at the top level, neither at the bottom, in Eastern Europe there was a hesitation between the French tradition and the German tradition.
The single quotation mark emerged around 1800 as a means of indicating a level of quotation. One could expect that the logic would be the corresponding single mark everywhere, British English tends to reverse the usage — single quotation marks are primary, and double quotation marks are secondary —this distinction, dating back to around the 1960s. In some languages using the quotation marks, the usage of single ones became obsolete, being replaced by double curved ones
The afghani is the currency of Afghanistan. It is nominally subdivided into 100 pul, although there are no pul coins currently in circulation, the first afghani was introduced in 1925. In addition to being subdivided into 100 pul,20 afghani were equal to one amani, the rate of conversion from the rupee is sometimes quoted as 1 afghani =1 rupee 6 paisa, based on the silver contents of the last rupee coins and the first Afghani coins. The Afghani initially contained 9 grams of silver, except during World War I Afghanistans foreign exchange rate has been freely determined by market forces. Bank-e Milli agreed to exchange afghanis at 4 Afs against 1 Indian rupee in 1935, after the establishment of Da Afghanistan Bank as the Central Bank of Afghanistan, such a preferential official fixed exchange rate continued to be practiced. Since 2002, Da Afghanistan Bank has adopted a floating exchange rate regime and has let the exchange rate to be determined freely by market forces, ehsan accused the firm of sending new shipments of Afghani notes to ousted president Burhanuddin Rabbani in northern Takhar province.
In April,2000, the afghani traded at 6400 AFA per USD, by 2002, the afghani was valued at 43,000 AFA per USD. In 1930, bronze and brass 1 and 25 pul were added, along with bronze 3 pul, in 1952, aluminium 25 pul and nickel-clad steel 50 pul were introduced, followed by aluminium 2 and 5 afghani in 1958. In 1961 nickel-clad steel 1,2 and 5 afghani were minted, the 1 and 2 afghani coins show years of SH1340, in 1973, the Republic of Afghanistan issued brass-clad-steel 25 pul, copper-clad steel 50 pul and cupro-nickel-clad steel 5 afghani coins. These were followed, between 1978 and 1980, by issues of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan consisting of aluminium-bronze 25 and 50 pul, a number of commemorative coins were issued by the Islamic State of Afghanistan between 1995 and 2001. Between 1925 and 1928, Treasury notes were introduced in denominations of 5,10 and 50 afghanis, in 1936,2,20 and 100 afghani notes were added. The Bank of Afghanistan took over paper money production in 1939, the 2 and 5 afghani notes were replaced by coins in 1958.
In 1993,5000 and 10,000 afghani notes were introduced. A pothole cave or mouth of a shaft is said to be visible on the 10,000 afghanis banknote as a dark area in the hillside above the ancient pol or gateway at the ruins near Lashkar Gah. This is possibly the entrance to one of the man-made undergrounds at Qala-i-Bost, between October 7,2002, and January 2,2003, a new afghani was introduced with the ISO4217 code AFN. It replaced the previous afghani at two distinct rates. S. dollar, prior to the reissue, there were more than 15 trillion afghani in circulation after unrestrained printing under Taliban rule and during wars and occupation. This was in preparation for October 8 when all prices in the Afghan marketplace were to be specified in afghani. After depreciating during the last quarter of 2003/04, the afghani has been appreciating steadily and this appreciation, at a time of increasing inflation, appears to reflect a greater willingness by the population to use the afghani as a medium of exchange and as a store of value
The numero sign or numero symbol, №, is a typographic abbreviation of the word number indicating ordinal numeration, especially in names and titles. For example, with the sign, the written long-form of the address Number 22 Acacia Avenue is shortened to №22 Acacia Avenue. Typographically, the numero sign combines the upper-case Latin letter N with a usually superscript lower-case letter o, sometimes underlined, in Unicode, the character is U+2116 № Numero sign. The Oxford English Dictionary derives the sign from Latin numero. In Romance languages, the sign is understood as an abbreviation of the word for number, e. g. Italian numero, French numéro. The numero sign, despite its widespread usage internationally, is not a standard symbol in virtually any European language. In English, the abbreviation No. of numero is often used in place of the word number, in American English the hash # is used as a prefix to designate numbers, and at the end of a number to designate pounds of weight in some publications.
In online usage, the hash may cause complications because of its usage for hashtags and HTML anchors, the numero symbol is not in common use in France and does not appear on a standard AZERTY keyboard. Instead, the French Imprimerie nationale recommends the use of the form no, the plural form nos can be used. In practice, the o is replaced by the degree symbol. The numero sign is not typically used in Spanish, and it is not present on standard keyboard layouts, according to the Real Academia Española and the Fundéu BBVA, the word número is abbreviated per the Spanish typographic convention of letras voladas. The first letter of the word to be abbreviated are followed by a period, and this gives the abbreviations n. o and n. os. The abbreviation no. is not used, because it might be mistaken for the Spanish word no, nro. and núm. are acceptable abbreviations for número. The sign is replaced with the abbreviations n. or nº. Similar superscript is used for primo 1º and prima 1ª, secondo 2º and seconda 2ª, although the letter N is not in the Cyrillic alphabet, the numero sign is typeset in Russian publishing, and is available on Russian computer and typewriter keyboards.
Because of more than three centuries of Spanish colonisation, the word número is found in almost all Philippine languages, No. is its common notation in local languages as well as English. Nomor in Indonesian and nombor in Malaysian, therefore No. is commonly used as an abbreviation with standard spelling, in some languages, Nr. is used instead, reflecting the abbreviation of the languages word for number. German Nummer is represented this way, and this language capitalises all nouns and abbreviations of nouns, lithuanian uses it as well, and it is usually capitalised in bureaucratic contexts, especially with the meaning reference number but in other contexts it follows the usual sentence capitalisation
An obelus is a symbol consisting of a short horizontal line with a dot above and below, and in other uses it is a symbol resembling a small dagger. In mathematics it is used to represent the mathematical operation of division. It is therefore called the division sign. Division may be indicated by a line or a slash. In ISO 80000-2-9.6 it says, The symbol ÷ should not be used. In editing texts an obelus takes the form of a mark and is used as a reference mark, or to indicate that a person is deceased. In mathematics, the symbol has been used to represent subtraction in Northern Europe. The word obelus comes from ὀβελός, the Ancient Greek word for a stick, spit. This is the root as that of the word obelisk. Originally this sign was used in ancient manuscripts to mark passages that were suspected of being corrupted or spurious, the dagger symbol, called an obelisk, is derived from the obelus and continues to be used for this purpose. The incident of the Bloody Sweat in Gethsemane and the saying Father forgive them, although previously used for subtraction, the obelus was first used as a symbol for division in 1659 in the algebra book Teutsche Algebra by Johann Rahn.
Some think that John Pell, who edited the book, may have been responsible for use of the symbol. The usage of the obelus to represent subtraction continued in parts of Europe. Other symbols for division include the slash or solidus, and the fraction bar, in Microsoft Windows, the obelus is produced with Alt+0247 on the number pad or by pressing Alt Gr+⇧ Shift++ when an appropriate keyboard layout is in use. In classic Mac OS and macOS, it is produced with ⌥ Option+/, on UNIX-based systems using Screen or X with a Compose key enabled, it can be produced by composing, and -, though this is locale- and setting-dependent. It may be input by Unicode code-point on GTK-based applications by pressing Control+⇧ Shift+U, followed by the codepoint in hexadecimal, in the Unicode character set, the obelus is known as the division sign and has the code point U+00F7. In HTML, it can be encoded as ÷, or ÷, in LaTeX, the obelus is obtained by \div. Commercial minus sign, ⁒, which resembles a tilted obelus Jeff Miller, Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols Michael Quinion
The pilcrow, called the paragraph mark, paragraph sign, alinea, or blind P, is a typographical character for individual paragraphs. It is present in Unicode as U+00B6 ¶ PILCROW SIGN, the pilcrow can be used as an indent for separate paragraphs or to designate a new paragraph in one long piece of copy, as Eric Gill did in his 1930s book, An Essay on Typography. The pilcrow was a type of rubrication used in the Middle Ages to mark a new train of thought, the pilcrow is usually drawn similar to a lowercase q reaching from descender to ascender height, the loop can be filled or unfilled. It may be drawn with the bowl stretching further downwards, resembling a backwards D, the word pilcrow originates from the Greek word paragraphos. This was rendered in Old French as paragraphe and changed to pelagraphe, the earliest reference of the modern pilcrow is in 1440 with the Middle English word pylcrafte. The first way to divide sentences into groups in Ancient Greek was the original paragraphos and this notation soon changed to the letter K which was an abbreviation for the Latin word kaput, which translates as head, i. e. it marks the head of a new thesis.
Eventually, to mark a new section, the Latin word capitulum, which translates as head was used. In the 1100s, C had completely replaced K as the symbol for a new chapter, rubricators eventually added one or two vertical bars to the C to stylize it, the symbol was filled in with dark ink and eventually looked like the modern pilcrow. Scribes would often leave space before paragraphs to allow for rubricators to draw the pilcrow and this is how the indent before paragraphs was created. The pilcrow sign followed by a number indicates the number from the top of the page. It is rarely used when citing books or journal articles, in proofreading, it indicates that one paragraph should be split into two or more separate paragraphs. The proofreader inserts the pilcrow at the point where a new paragraph should begin, kings College, Cambridge uses this convention in the service booklet for the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols. This is analogous to the writing of these instructions in red in some rubrication conventions, online, it is used in some blogs and wikis to denote permalinks.
The pilcrow is used in desktop publishing software such as word processors. It is used as the icon on a button that shows or hides the pilcrow and similar hidden characters, including tabs, whitespace. In typing programs, it marks a return that one must type, the pilcrow symbol is available in the default hardware codepage 437 of IBM PCs at codepoint 20, sharing its position with the ASCII control code DC4. The pilcrow character was in the 1984 Multinational Character Set extension of ASCII at 0xB6, from where it was inherited by ISO/IEC 8859-1, the html entity is ¶, introduced in HTML3.2. In LaTeX, the glyph is invoked by \P or \textpilcrow
The Ghanaian cedi is the unit of currency of Ghana. It is the fourth and only legal tender in the Republic of Ghana, one Ghana cedi is divided into one hundred pesewas. After it gained independence Ghana ALISSA separated itself from the British West African pound, the new republics first independent currency was the Ghanaian pound. In 1965, Ghana decided to leave the British colonial monetary system, the African name Cedi was introduced in place of the old British pound system. Ghanas first President Kwame Nkrumah introduced Cedi notes and Pesewa coins in July 1965 to replace the Ghanaian pounds, the cedi was equivalent to eight shillings and four pence and bore the portrait of the President. After the February 14,1966 military coup, the new leaders wanted to remove the face of Nkrumah from the banknotes, the new cedi was worth 1.2 cedi which made it equal to half of a pound sterling at its introduction. After decades of inflation had devalued the new cedi, it was gradually phased out in 2007 in favor of the Ghana cedi at an exchange rate of 1,10,000.
In 2007 the largest of the new banknotes, the 20,000 note, had a value of about US$2. By removing four digits the Ghana cedi became the currency unit issued in Africa. It has since lost about 75% of its value, the word cedi is the Akan word for cowry shell which were formerly used as currency in what is now Ghana. The Monetaria moneta or money cowry is not native to West African waters but is a species in the Indian Ocean. The porcelain-like shells came to West Africa, beginning in the 14th century, the shells became an important currency in the slave trade. The first modern coins exclusively used at the Gold Coast was produced in 1796 but cowries was used alongside coins, the first cedi was introduced in 1965, replacing the pound at a rate of 2.4 cedi =1 pound, or 1 pesewa =1 penny. The first cedi was pegged to the British pound at a rate of 2.4 cedis =1 pound, the first cedi was replaced in 1967 by a new cedi which was worth 1.2 first cedis. This allowed a decimal conversion with the pound, namely 2 second cedis =1 pound, the change provided an opportunity to remove Kwame Nkrumahs image from coins and notes.
The second cedi was pegged to the British pound at a rate of 2 cedi =1 pound. However, within months, the cedi was devalued to a rate of 2.45 second cedi =1 pound. This rate was equivalent to 1 cedi =0.98 U. S. dollars, further pegs were set of $0.55 in 1971, $0.78 in 1972, and $0.8696 in 1973 before the currency was floated in 1978
The at sign, @, normally read aloud as at, commonly called the at symbol or commercial at, was originally an accounting and commercial invoice abbreviation meaning at a rate of. In contemporary use, the at sign is most commonly used in email addresses and it is now universally included on computer keyboards. The mark is encoded as U+0040 @ Commercial AT, the earliest yet discovered reference to the @ symbol is a religious one, it features in a Bulgarian translation of a Greek chronicle written by Constantinos Manasses in 1345. Held today in the Vatican Apostolic Library, it features the @ symbol in place of the letter alpha A in the word Amen. Why it was used in context is still a mystery. In terms of the character of the at sign, there are several theories pending verification. One theory is that the developed as a mercantile shorthand symbol of each at. For example, the cost of 12 apples @ $1 would be $12, whereas the cost of 12 apples at $1 would be $1, another theory is that medieval monks abbreviated the Latin word ad next to a numeral.
One reason for the abbreviation saving space and ink, a theory concerning this graphic puts forward the idea that the form derives from the Latin word ad, using the older form of lower case d, ∂, which persists as the partial derivative symbol. It has been theorized that it was originally an abbreviation of the Greek preposition ανά, meaning at the rate of or per. It is used like this in Modern French, Swedish or Czech, in view, the at-symbol is a stylised form of à. The compromise between @ and à in French handwriting is found in street market signs, an Italian academic claims to have traced the @ symbol to the 16th century, in a mercantile document sent by Florentine Francesco Lapi from Seville to Rome on May 4,1536. The document is about commerce with Pizarro, in particular the price of an @ of wine in Peru, in Italian, the symbol was interpreted to mean amphora. Currently, the word means both the at-symbol and a unit of weight. Until now the first historical document containing a symbol resembling a @ as a one is the Spanish Taula de Ariza.
Even though the oldest fully developed modern @ sign is the one found on the above-mentioned Florentine letter, in contemporary English usage, @ is a commercial symbol, called at site or at rate meaning at and at the rate of. It has rarely used in financial documents or grocers price tags. Since 23 October 2012, the At-sign is registered as a mark by the German Patent
In punctuation, a word divider is a glyph that separates written words. However, many languages of East Asia are written without word separation, in character encoding, word segmentation depends on which characters are defined as word dividers. In Ancient Egyptian, determinatives may have used as much to demarcate word boundaries as to disambiguate the semantics of words. Rarely in Assyrian cuneiform, but commonly in the cuneiform Ugaritic alphabet, in Old Persian cuneiform, a diagonally sloping wedge was used. As the alphabet throughout the ancient world, words were often run together without division. However, not infrequently in inscriptions a vertical line, and in manuscripts a single and this practice was found in Phoenician, Hebrew and Latin, and continues today with Ethiopic, though there whitespace is gaining ground. The early alphabetic writing systems, such as the Phoenician alphabet, had only signs for consonants, without some form of visible word dividers, parsing a text into its separate words would have been a puzzle.
With the introduction of letters representing vowels in the Greek alphabet, the interpunct died out in Latin only after the Classic period, sometime around the year 200 CE, as the Greek style of scriptio continua became fashionable. In the 7th century Irish monks started using blank spaces, by the 8th or 9th century spacing was being used fairly consistently across Europe. Alphabetic writing without inter-word separation, known as scriptio continua, was used in Ancient Egyptian and it appeared in Post-classical Latin after several centuries of the use of the interpunct. Traditionally, scriptio continua was used for the Indic alphabets of South and Southeast Asia and hangul of Korea, today Chinese and Japanese are the main scripts consistently written without punctuation to separate words. In Classical Chinese, a word and a character were almost the same thing, space is the most common word divider, especially in Latin script. Ancient inscribed and cuneiform scripts such as Anatolian hieroglyphs frequently used short vertical lines to separate words, in manuscripts, vertical lines were more commonly used for larger breaks, equivalent to the Latin comma and period.
This was the case for Biblical Hebrew and continues with many Indic scripts today, as noted above, the single and double interpunct were used in manuscripts throughout the ancient world. For example, Ethiopic inscriptions used a line, whereas manuscripts used double dots resembling a colon. The latter practice continues today, though the space is making inroads, Classical Latin used the interpunct in both paper manuscripts and stone inscriptions. Ancient Greek orthography used two and five dots as word separators, as well as the hypodiastole. In the modern Hebrew and Arabic alphabets, some letters have distinct forms at the ends and/or beginnings of words and this demarcation is used in addition to spacing