Eurocentrism is a worldview, centered on Western civilization or a biased view that favors it over non-western civilizations. The exact scope of centrism varies from the entire Western world to just the continent of Europe or more narrowly, to Western Europe; when the term is applied to history, it may be used in reference to an apologetic stance towards European colonialism and other forms of imperialism. The term Eurocentrism dates back to the late 1970s but it did not become prevalent until the 1990s, when it was applied in the context of decolonization and development and humanitarian aid that industrialised countries offered to developing countries; the adjective Eurocentric, or Europe-centric, has been in use in various contexts since at least the 1920s. The term was popularised in the context of decolonization and internationalism in the mid-20th century. English usage of Eurocentric as an ideological term in identity politics was current by the mid-1980s; the abstract noun Eurocentrism as the term for an ideology was coined in the 1970s by the Egyptian Marxian economist Samir Amin director of the African Institute for Economic Development and Planning of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
Amin used the term in the context of a global, core-periphery or dependency model of capitalist development. English usage of Eurocentrism is recorded by 1979; the coinage of Western-centrism is younger, attested in the late 1990s, specific to English. During the European colonial era, encyclopedias sought to give a rationale for the predominance of European rule during the colonial period by referring to a special position taken by Europe compared to the other continents. Thus, Johann Heinrich Zedler, in 1741, wrote that "even though Europe is the smallest of the world's four continents, it has for various reasons a position that places it before all others.... Its inhabitants have excellent customs, they are courteous and erudite in both sciences and crafts"; the Brockhaus Enzyklopädie of 1847 still has an ostensibly Eurocentric approach and claims about Europe that "its geographical situation and its cultural and political significance is the most important of the five continents, over which it has gained a most influential government both in material and more so in cultural aspects".
European exceptionalism thus grew out of the Great Divergence of the Early Modern period, due to the combined effects of the Scientific Revolution, the Commercial Revolution, the rise of colonial empires, the Industrial Revolution and a Second European colonization wave. European exceptionalism is reflected in popular genres of literature literature for young adults and adventure literature in general. Portrayal of European colonialism in such literature has been analysed in terms of Eurocentrism in retrospect, such as presenting idealised and exaggeratedly masculine Western heroes, who conquered'savage' peoples in the remaining'dark spaces' of the globe; the European miracle, a term coined by Eric Jones in 1981, refers to this surprising rise of Europe during the Early Modern period. During the 15th to 18th centuries, a great divergence took place, comprising the European Renaissance, age of discovery, the formation of the colonial empires, the Age of Reason, the associated leap forward in technology and the development of capitalism and early industrialisation.
The result was that by the 19th century, European powers dominated world world politics. Eurocentrism is a way of dominating the exchange of ideas to show the superiority of one perspective and how much power it holds over different social groups. In the 19th century, anticolonial movements had developed claims about national traditions and values that were set against those of Europe in Africa and India. In some cases, as China, where local ideology was more exclusionist than the Eurocentric one, Westernisation did not overwhelm longstanding Chinese attitudes to its own cultural centrality, but some would state that idea itself is a rather desperate attempt to cast Europe in a good light by comparison. Orientalism developed in the late 18th century as a disproportionate Western interest in and idealization of Eastern cultures. By the early 20th century, some historians, such as Arnold J. Toynbee, were attempting to construct multifocal models of world civilizations. Toynbee drew attention in Europe to non-European historians, such as the medieval Tunisian scholar Ibn Khaldun.
He established links with Asian thinkers, such as through his dialogues with Daisaku Ikeda of Soka Gakkai International. The explicit concept of Eurocentrism is a product of the period of decolonisation in the 1960s to 1970s, its original context is the core-periphery or dependency model of capitalist development of Marxian economics. Eurocentrism has been a important concept in development studies. Brohman argued that Eurocentrism "perpetuated intellectual dependence on a restricted group of prestigious Western academic institutions that determine the subject matter and methods of research". In treatises on historical or contemporary Eurocentrism that appeared since the 1990s, Eurocentrism is cast in terms of dualisms such as civilized/barbaric or advanced/backward, developed/undeveloped, core/periphery, implying "evolutionary schemas through which societies progress", with a remnant of an "underlying presumption of a superior white Western self as referent of analysis". Eurocentrism and the dualistic properties that it labels on non-Europe
Drunk Horse is a rock band from Oakland, California. Formed in 1998, the band released several albums on Man's Ruin Records before the label went out of business; the band moved on to Tee Pee Records with 2003's Adult Situations, followed in 2005 by In Tongues. Drunk Horse has toured in the Europe; the band has played Texas' South by Southwest Festival several times. Cyrus Comiskey Cripe Jergensen Eli Eckert Joel Robinow John Niles Isaiah Mitchell Josh Smith Drunk Horse CD, Man's Ruin Records Drunk Horse LP, Man's Ruin Records/Oakland Pants Factory Tanning Salon/Biblical Proportions CD, Man's Ruin Records Adult Situations CD, Tee Pee Records In Tongues CD/LP, Tee Pee Records/Wantage USA Live in Utah CD, Silver Current Records Bambi/Dirty Mind 7", Wantage USA Unearthed Gems Vol. 2 7" "Independent Type / Joint of Lamb" Split Single w/ The Feather 2004 Oakland The Secret is Out "One Track Woman" CD, Warm and Fuzzy Records Port Lite Compilation "Secret Ingredient" CD, Food Stamp Records Right In The Nuts: A Tribute to Aerosmith "Kings and Queens" CD, Man's Ruin Records Wantage USA's 21st Release Hits Omnibus 2XCD, Wantage USA Author Ned Vizzini's novel Be More Chill, about a guy who takes a pill called a squip that makes him cooler, was inspired by "AM/FM Shoes", a song from Tanning Salon/Biblical Proportions.
He writes that "'AM/FM Shoes' is about a guy who feels like a loser, except he has special shoes that play the radio, when he puts them on, he becomes the coolest guy around." Drunk Horse @ MySpace Review of In Tongues by the SF Weekly Drunk Horse review in the Austin Chronicle L. A. Weekly article
Another Century's Episode 3: The Final, abbreviated as "A. C. E.3", is a mecha action video game produced by Banpresto and developed by FromSoftware. It was released for the PlayStation 2 on September 6, 2007. Although it has a "The Final" subtitle, it is not the final game entry of A. C. E. Series, as after the announcement of Another Century's Episode: R in PlayStation 3 platform in April 2010. A. C. E.3 is set three years after the events of A. C. E. 2, during the final battle between the UCE and the Zentradi in A. C. E. 2, known as The First Defensive War. It mentions that the UCE forces has been reformed into the Earth Federation forces; the game's overall plot deals with the sudden appearance of a second, war-torn Earth from which new and more deadly enemies emerge. At the same time, enemies who survived the First Defensive War begin reappearing on the original Earth, further complicating matters; the events of A. C. E. 3 are centered on a device called the Baldora Drive, planned as a teleportation device for outer space travel in Earth A and the invasion of the space colonies in Earth B.
Both sides abandoned the use of the Baldora Drive 18 years ago, but brought it back into service when they obtained the means to repair it. Through this device, a wormhole is created in space between the two Earths, which allows the protagonists to travel between them. However, as the wormhole expands due to the effect of the Baldora Charge obtained from various sources of energy, the wormhole grows large enough to make the two earths collide with one another due to gravitational attraction, which will destroy all mankind on both Earths. In order to stop this, heroes from both sides must band together and find a way to stop the device before the wormhole expands; the primary battleships in A. C. E.3 are the Gekko from Eureka Seven and the Nadesico B from The Prince of Darkness, with the latter being replaced by the Nadesico C as per the movie's plot. Tower, the main ship from Getter Robo appears in the game; the main ship of the Londo Bell, the Ra Cailum and its captain, Bright Noa appears in the game, but due to the death of Hirotaka Suzuoki in 2006, most of his scenes in the game are cut, his voiceovers reuse recorded material from A.
C. E. Hitomi Shimatani, who performed the opening and ending themes for the first A. C. E. Game, returned to provide the themes for A. C. E. 3 as well. The opening theme is named "Shinku", the ending theme is "Ai no Uta"; the single containing both songs was released on September 5, 2007, one day before the game was released. A sequel, Another Century's Episode: R, was released in Japan on August 19, 2010. Official website