Voting at the Eurovision Song Contest
The winner of the Eurovision Song Contest is selected by a positional voting system. Each country awards two sets of 12, 10, 8–1 points to their 10 favourite songs: one from their professional jury and the other from televoting; the current system has been in place since 2016. Small, demographically-balanced juries made up of ordinary people had been used to rank the entries, but after the widespread use of telephone voting in 1998 the contest organizers resorted to juries only in the event of a televoting malfunctions. In 2003, Eircom's telephone polling system malfunctioned. Irish broadcaster RTÉ did not receive the polling results from Eircom in time, substituted votes by a panel of judges. Between 1997 and 2003, lines were opened to the public for only five minutes after the performance and recap of the final song. Between 2004 and 2006 the lines were opened for 10 minutes, from 2007 to 2009 they were opened for 15 minutes. In 2010 viewers were allowed to vote during the performances, but this was rescinded for the 2012 contest.
The BBC contacted regional juries by telephone to choose the 1956 winners, the European Broadcasting Union began contacting international juries by telephone. This method continued to be used until 1993; the following year saw the first satellite linkup to juries. To announce the votes, the contest's presenters connect by satellite to each country in turn and inviting a spokesperson to read the country's votes in French or English; the presenters repeated the votes in both languages, but since 2004 the votes have been translated due to time constraints. To offset increased voting time required by a larger number of participating countries, since 2006 only countries' eight-, 10-, 12-point scores are read aloud; the scoreboard displays the number of points each country has received and, since 2008, a progress bar indicating the number of countries which have voted. Since 2016, only the 12-point score is read aloud due to the new voting system, meaning that the nine scoring countries were added automatically to the scoreboard.
In addition, the televoting points are combined together and the presenters announce them in order, starting from the country with the lowest score and ending with the country with the highest score from the televoting. Note The most-used voting system was last used for the 1969 contest; this system was used from 1957 to 1961 and from 1967 to 1969. Ten jurors in each country each cast one vote for their favourite song. In 1969 this resulted with no tie-breaking procedure. A second round of voting in the event of a tie was introduced to this system the following year. From 1962 to 1966, a voting system similar to the current one was used. In 1962, each country awarded its top three one and three points. With the latter system, a country could choose to give points to two countries instead of three. Although it was possible to give one country nine points, this never occurred; the 1971, 1972, 1973 contests saw the jurors "in vision" for the first time. Each country was represented by two jurors: one older than 25 and one younger, with at least ten years' difference in their ages.
Each juror gave a maximum of five points to each song. In 1974 the previous system of ten jurors was used, the following year the current system was introduced. Spokespeople were next seen on screen in 1994 with a satellite link to the venue; the 2004 contest had its first semifinal, with a slight change in voting: countries which did not qualify from the semifinal would be allowed to cast votes in the final. This resulted in Ukraine's Ruslana finishing first, with a record 280 points. If the voting had been conducted as it had been from 1956 to 2003, Serbia and Montenegro's Željko Joksimović would have won the contest with 190 points: a 15-point lead over Ruslana, who would have scored 175 points. To date, non-qualifying countries are still allowed to vote in the final. In 2006, Serbia and Montenegro were able to vote in the semifinal and the final despite their non-participation due to a scandal in the selection process. With the introduction of two semifinals in 2008, a new method of selecting finalists was created.
The top nine songs qualified, along with one song selected by the back-up juries. This method, in most cases, meant. In 2010 the 2009 final system was used, with a combination of televoting and jury votes from each country used to select the semi-finalists; each participating country had a national jury, consisting of five music-industry professionals appointed by national broadcasters. "A Million Voices" sung by Russian artist Polina Gagarina, became the first song to get over 300 points without winning the contest. In 2017, Bulgaria became the first non-winning
Eurovision Song Contest 1957
The Eurovision Song Contest 1957 was the second edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Frankfurt-am-Main, West Germany and was held at the Großer Sendesaal des hessischen Rundfunks on Sunday 3 March 1957; the show was hosted by German actress Anaïd Iplicjian. Like the first edition of the contest, this one was still a radio programme, but there was a noticeable increase in the number of people with televisions; the winner was the Netherlands with the song "Net als toen", performed by Corry Brokken, written by Willy van Hemert and composed by Guus Jansen. This was the Netherlands' first victory in the contest. For some time, a rumour had existed that the privilege of hosting the 1957 contest was given to Germany because they had come in second place in 1956 with "Im Wartesaal zum großen Glück" by Walter Andreas Schwarz. In fact, not only were the official 1956 scores withheld, but the rule stating that the winning nation hosts the next year's Eurovision Song Contest had not yet been conceived.
It was planned at the time. However, as more countries wished to participate, this became impractical; the contest took place in Frankfurt am Main, one of the largest cities at the time West Germany. The host venue was the Großer Sendesaal des Hessischen Rundfunks, a building, music hall and former television studio based in Frankfurt am Main. Today it is used as a music hall. After being devastated in the Second World War during the early 1940s, Frankfurt rebuilt itself well into the 1950s into one of Europe's most prominent financial centres. With investments coming in from both national and international financial institutions, 1957, the year of the contest saw the first of Frankfurt's high-rise business buildings. In this year's contest the Italian entry lasted for 5:09 minutes, whilst the UK's entry lasted for only 1:52 minutes, it was because of songs like the former that a rule was introduced restricting each song to a maximum of 3 minutes. In a change of rules from the previous year's contest, duos were allowed to compete.
Danish representatives, Birthe Wilke and Gustav Winckler, were the first of such acts to participate under this rule change. At the end of their performance, the couple exchanged the longest kiss in the contest's history, although only people with televisions could see it; this was due to a member of the production staff forgetting to give a pre-arranged sign that the kiss should end. This was the first year, it was the first time the Netherlands won the contest. Another notable change was that the national juries could not vote for their own song, a rule which would be continued throughout the contest's subsequent history. Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and Switzerland made their second appearances following their débuts in 1956. Austria and Denmark made their débuts. With those joining in 1957, the total number of countries was ten, three more than in the first contest, it was thought that the United Kingdom had missed the participation deadline for the 1956 contest, but the EBU revealed in January 2017 that this was unfounded speculation spread by fans of the contest.
The EBU further went on to explain that the "Festival of British Popular Song", a contest created by the BBC for the United Kingdom, was the inspiration that brought in changes to the contest format from 1957. Each performance had a conductor. Belgium - Willy Berking Luxembourg - Willy Berking United Kingdom - Eric Robinson Italy - Armando Trovajoli Austria - Carl de Groof Netherlands - Dolf van der Linden Germany - Willy Berking France - Paul Durand Denmark - Kai Mortensen Switzerland - Willy Berking The contest saw the return of two artists who had participated in the previous edition of the contest - Corry Brokken for Netherlands, Lys Assia for Switzerland; the table below shows the order in which votes were cast during the 1957 contest along with the spokesperson, responsible for announcing the votes for their respective country. Each national broadcaster sent a commentator to the contest, in order to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language. Details of the commentators and the broadcasting station for which they represented are included in the table below.
Waterloo (ABBA song)
"Waterloo" is the first single from the Swedish pop group ABBA's second album and their first under the Epic and Atlantic labels. This was the first single to be credited to the group performing under the name ABBA. On 6 April 1974 the song was the winning entry for Sweden in the 1974 Eurovision Song Contest; the victory began ABBA's path to worldwide fame. The Swedish version of the single was a double A-side with "Honey, Honey", while the English version featured "Watch Out" on the B-side; the single became a No. 1 hit in several countries. It reached the U. S. Top 10 and went on to sell nearly six million copies, making it one of the best-selling singles in history. At the 50th anniversary celebration of the Eurovision Song Contest in 2005, it was chosen as the best song in the competition's history. "Waterloo" was written to be entered into the 1974 Eurovision Song Contest, after the group finished third with "Ring Ring" the previous year in the Swedish pre-selection contest, Melodifestivalen 1973.
The original title of the song was "Honey Pie". "Waterloo" was written with simultaneous rock music and jazz beats. Recording of the song commenced on 17 December 1973, with instrumental backing from Janne Schaffer, Rutger Gunnarsson and Ola Brunkert; the song's production style was influenced by Phil Spector's "Wall of Sound": prior to recording "Ring Ring", engineer Michael B. Tretow had read Richard Williams' book Out of His Head: The Sound of Phil Spector, which inspired him to layer multiple instrumental overdubs on the band's recordings, becoming an integral part of ABBA's sound. Subsequently and French versions were recorded in March and April 1974 respectively: the French version was adapted by Claude-Michel Schönberg, who would go on to co-write Les Misérables."Waterloo" is about a woman who "surrenders" to a man and promises to love him, referencing Napoleon's surrender at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The band considered submitting another song to Eurovision, "Hasta Mañana", but decided on "Waterloo" since it gave equal weight to both lead vocalists Agnetha Fältskog and Anni-Frid Lyngstad, while "Hasta Mañana" was sung only by Fältskog.
ABBA performed the song at Melodifestivalen 1974 in February. The song won, therefore advanced to Eurovision; the song differed from the standard "dramatic ballad" tradition of the Eurovision Song Contest by its flavour and rhythm, as well as by its performance. ABBA gave the audience something that had more been seen before in Eurovision: flashy costumes, plus a catchy uptempo song and simple choreography; the group broke from convention by being the first winning entry in a language other than that of their home country. Compared to ABBA releases, the singers' Swedish accents are decidedly more pronounced in "Waterloo"; the song scored 24 points to win the Eurovision Song Contest 1974 final on 6 April, beating runner-up Gigliola Cinquetti of Italy's entry "Sì" by six points. The song shot to No. 1 in the UK and stayed there for two weeks, becoming the first of the band's nine UK No. 1's, the 16th biggest selling single of the year in the UK. It topped the charts in Belgium, Finland, West Germany, Norway, South Africa and Switzerland, while reaching the Top 3 in Austria, the Netherlands, ABBA's native Sweden.
The song spent 11 weeks on Svensktoppen, including 7 weeks at No. 1. Unlike other Eurovision-winning tunes, the song's appeal transcended Europe: "Waterloo" reached the Top 10 in Australia, New Zealand and the United States; the Waterloo album performed well in Europe, although in the US it failed to match the success of the single. ABBA had cited the song "See My Baby Jive", by English glam rock band Wizzard, as a major influence. "Waterloo" was re-released in 2004, to celebrate the 30th anniversary of ABBA's Eurovision win, reaching No. 20 on the UK charts. On 22 October 2005, at the 50th anniversary celebration of the Eurovision Song Contest, "Waterloo" was chosen as the best song in the competition's history. Dr. Harry Witchel and music expert at the University of Bristol, named "Waterloo" the quintessential Eurovision song. A. "Waterloo" – 2:45 b. "Honey Honey" – 2:55 a. "Waterloo" – 2:46b. "Watch Out" – 3:46 "Waterloo" "Waterloo" "Waterloo" - recorded 18 April 1974 in Paris, France "Waterloo" - overdubs of French and Swedish versions "Waterloo" "Waterloo" "Waterloo" was released on 1 June 2018 as the second single from the Mamma Mia!
Here We Go Again soundtrack, by Capitol and Polydor Rec
Malta in the Eurovision Song Contest
Malta has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 31 times since its debut in 1971. The contest is broadcast in Malta on the PBS channel, TVM. Malta has yet to win the contest, but is the only non-winning country to have achieved four top three results. Malta finished last on its first two attempts in 1971 and 1972, had a 16-year absence from the contest between 1975 and 1991. Malta's return proved more successful, reaching the top 10 in 12 out of 15 contests from 1991 to 2005, including third-place results for Mary Spiteri and Chiara and second-place results for Ira Losco and Chiara. Since finishing last for the third time in 2006, Malta has struggled to make an impact, with its only top 10 result being Gianluca Bezzina's eighth-place in 2013. Malta first participated at Eurovision in 1971, although the history of National song contests organized in the Maltese islands dates back to 1960 when the first Malta Song Festival took place. Malta has never won the contest, although it twice finished third.
At first, the island state sent songs in its native language, but it failed to rank finishing last in its first two attempts in the contest in 1971 and 1972 and withdrew after the 1975 contest. Malta's return to the contest in 1991, after a 16-year absence, proved to be more successful, with eight consecutive top 10 placings and finishing in the top 10 in 12 out of 15 contests from 1991-2005; these results included third-place finishes in 1992 for Mary Spiteri and in 1998 for Chiara and second-place finishes in 2002 for Ira Losco and in 2005 for Chiara, who in 2009 became the first performer to represent Malta at three contests, finishing 22nd. Malta's two seconds and two thirds, make it the most successful country. In the last 12 contests, Malta has only once reached the top 10, when Gianluca Bezzina finished eighth in 2013. Fabrizio Faniello, who had finished ninth in 2001, finished last in the 2006 final, since the country has failed to qualify from the semi-final round seven times, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2015, 2017 and 2018.
Together with France, Spain and the United Kingdom, Malta is one of the few countries that has not missed a contest since 1991. All of Malta's entries since 1991 have been sung in its other official language, which it was one of the few countries allowed to use in the contest between 1977 and 1999, being a former British colony which has had a close relationship with the UK within the contest; the only use of the Maltese language was three lines in the 2000 entry "Desire", performed by Claudette Pace. The Maltese broadcasters of the show are the Public Broadcasting Services. All shows are transmitted live on Radio Malta. Along with Croatia and Sweden it was the only country never to be relegated, under the previous rules of the contest, that wasn't a part of the Big Four. Table key NOTE:a. If a country had won the previous year, they did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year. In addition, back in 2004-2007, the top ten countries who were not members of the big four did not have to compete in the semi finals the following year.
If, for example and France placed inside the top ten, the countries who placed 11th and 12th were advanced to the following year's grand final along with the rest of the top ten countries. B. ^ Spain gave its 12 points to Israel and 10 to Norway. After the broadcast it was announced that Spanish broadcaster wrongly tallied the votes and Germany should have got the top mark - 12 points - instead of being snubbed, as it happened; the mistake was corrected and so Germany was placed 7th over Norway. Israel and Norway both received 2 points less than and Croatia, Portugal, United Kingdom, Belgium and Turkey all received one point less than indicated during the broadcast.. As of 2018, Malta's voting history is as follows: Press Award All conductors are Maltese except Vince Tempera. Anthony "Twanny" Chirchop Charles Camilleri Vince Tempera Paul Abela Joseph Sammut Ray Agius Prior to 1999, the Maltese entry was performed without orchestral accompaniment in 1998. Cremona, George. "The Eurovision Song Contest within Formal Educational Learning Contexts: A Critical Multimodal Interpretation of Possible Inter-Disciplinary Connections".
Symposia Melitensia: 151–160. ISSN 1812-7509. ESCMalta Community website EurovisionMalta.com Points to and from Malta eurovisioncovers.co.uk OGAE Malta - The local branch of the official Eurovision Fans Club
Switzerland in the Eurovision Song Contest
Switzerland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 58 times since making its debut at the first contest in 1956, missing only four contests, in 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2003. Switzerland hosted the first contest in 1956 in Lugano, won it. Switzerland won the contest with the 1989 contest being held in Lausanne. Lys Assia won the first contest in 1956 with the song "Refrain", she returned to place second in 1958. Switzerland would go on to finish second with Esther Ofarim and Daniela Simmons and third with Franca Di Rienzo and Arlette Zola, before winning the contest for the second time in 1988 with Celine Dion and the song "Ne partez pas sans moi". Annie Cotton gave the country its 15th top five result in 1993. Girl band Vanilla Ninja finished eighth in 2005, Switzerland's only top ten result of the 21st century. Sebalter gave the country its second-best result of the century, finishing 13th in 2014. Since the introduction of the semi-final round in 2004, Switzerland has failed to reach the final 11 times.
Switzerland had been absent from Eurovision four times since their participation began in the first contest. These absences, in 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2003 were caused by poor results in previous contests that relegated Switzerland from the contest. Switzerland has four official languages, German and Romansh. For decades, the song requirements stated that the song had to be performed in a national language, which gave Switzerland leeway as they could perform in any of the four languages. Out of their 58 appearances in the Contest, Switzerland has sent 52 songs, 24 of which were in French, 12 in German, 12 in English, 9 in Italian, 1 in Romansh. Both of Switzerland's winning songs have been sung in French. Table key NOTES: a. ^ The full results for the first contest in 1956 are unknown, only the winner was announced. The official Eurovision site lists all the other songs as being placed second. B. If a country had won the previous year, they did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year.
In addition from 2004-2007, the top ten countries who were not members of the big four did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year. If, for example and France placed inside the top ten, the countries who placed 11th and 12th were advanced to the following year's grand final along with the rest of the top ten countries; as of 2018, Switzerland's voting history is as follows: Over the years Switzerland has broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest on three television stations, SRF, RTS and RSI. All conductors are Swiss except those marked with a flag. NotesAnita Kerr changed her nationality to Swiss in 1970. Atilla Şereftuğ holds dual citizenship since 1985. Bela Balint changed his nationality to Swiss. Rui dos Reis holds dual citizenship since 2010. Prior to 1999, the Swiss entry was performed without orchestral accompaniment in 1987 and 1998. Table key Switzerland in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest – Junior version of the Eurovision Song Contest. Switzerland in the Eurovision Dance Contest – Dance version of the Eurovision Song Contest.
Switzerland in the Eurovision Young Dancers – A competition organised by the EBU for younger dancers aged between 16 and 21. Switzerland in the Eurovision Young Musicians – A competition organised by the EBU for musicians aged 18 years and younger. Points to and from Switzerland eurovisioncovers.co.uk