click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eurydice

In Greek mythology, Eurydice was the wife of Orpheus, who tried to bring her back from the dead with his enchanting music. Eurydice was the wife of Orpheus. One day, Aristaeus saw and pursued Eurydice, who stepped on a viper, was bitten, died instantly. Distraught, Orpheus played and sang so mournfully that all the nymphs and deities wept and told him to travel to the Underworld to retrieve her, which he gladly did. After his music softened the hearts of Hades and Persephone, his singing so sweet that the Erinyes wept, he was allowed to take her back to the world of the living. In another version, Orpheus played his lyre to put Cerberus, the guardian of Hades, to sleep, after which Eurydice was allowed to return with Orpheus to the world of the living. Either way, the condition was attached that he must walk in front of her and not look back until both had reached the upper world. Soon he began suspecting that Hades had deceived him. Just as he reached the portals of Hades and daylight, he turned around to gaze on her face, because Eurydice had not yet crossed the threshold, she vanished back into the Underworld.

When Orpheus was killed by the Maenads at the orders of Dionysus, his soul ended up in the Underworld where he was reunited with Eurydice. The story in this form belongs to the time of Virgil, who first introduces the name of Aristaeus and the tragic outcome. Other ancient sources however, speak of Orpheus's visit to the underworld in a more negative light. Ovid says that Eurydice's death was not caused by fleeing from Aristaeus, but by dancing with naiads on her wedding day. In fact, Plato's representation of Orpheus is that of a coward. Since his love was not "true"—meaning he was not willing to die for it—he was punished by the deities, first by giving him only the apparition of his former wife in the underworld and by being killed by women; the story of Eurydice may be a late addition to the Orpheus myths. In particular, the name Eurudike recalls cult-titles attached to Persephone; the myth may have been derived from another Orpheus legend in which he travels to Tartarus and charms the goddess Hecate.

The story of Eurydice has a number of strong universal cultural parallels, from the Japanese myth of Izanagi and Izanami, the Mayan myth of Itzamna and Ixchel, the Indian myth of Savitri and Satyavan, to the Akkadian/Sumerian myth of Inanna's descent to the underworld. The biblical story of Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt because she looked back at the town she was fleeing, is "often compared to the story of Orpheus and his wife Eurydike." The story of Orpheus and Eurydice has been depicted in a number of works by artists, including Titian, Peter Paul Rubens, Nicolas Poussin and Bracha Ettinger whose series, was exhibited in the Pompidou Centre,. The story has inspired ample writings in the fields of ethics, aesthetics and feminist theory. In addition, the myth has been retold in operas by Jacopo Peri, Gluck, Yevstigney Fomin, Harrison Birtwistle, Matthew Aucoin; the myth is the basis of Anaïs Mitchell's folk opera Hadestown. The story of Orpheus and Eurydice features prominently in the 1967 album Reflections by Manos Hadjidakis, the Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds album The Lyre of Orpheus, as well as on the track "Talk" from Hozier's 2019 album Wasteland, Baby!

The story of Orpheus and Eurydice is the basis for a 2003 play by Sarah Ruhl made into a 2020 opera by Matthew Aucoin. It inspired the 1959 film Black Orpheus by Marcel Camus; the myth inspired the American playwright Tennessee Williams' 1957 drama Orpheus Descending. Other uses include: Valsa de Euridice, a song by Vinicius de Moraes Euridice, an opera by Jacopo Peri, the first genuine opera whose music survives to this day Orphée, directed by Jean Cocteau Orfeo ed Euridice, an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck Eurydice, a play by Sarah Ruhl Orfeu Negro, a 1959 adaptation of the classic myth, filmed in Brazil L'Orfeo, by Claudio Monteverdi regarded as the first operatic masterwork Myth or Madness from the eponymous album, Passerine, a Sarasota-based folk group The Lyre of Orpheus, an album by Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds Orpheus, a song by Manos Hadjidakis and The New York Rock and Roll Ensemble Eurydice, a section of Écho d'Orphée, Pour Pierre Schaeffer composed by Pierre Henry. Eurydice, a 1941 play by Jean Anouilh From the Underworld, a song by British psychedelic band The Herd.

Euridice, a song from the 1971 album Focus II by Focus Evrydiki BA 2O37, 1975 film directed by Nikos Nikolaidis. Eurydice, a song from the album Echoes and Artifacts by The Crüxshadows Eurydice, a song from the album The Dawnseeker by Sleepthief Hadestown, a 2010 ensemble album by Anaïs Mitchell, featuring Mitchell as Eurydice, Justin Vernon as Orpheus and Ani DiFranco among others, retelling the myth as a'folk opera' in a post-apocalyptic Depression era America. A Broadway musical of the same name that opened in 2019. Eurydice by Wayne Shorter and recorded by Weather Report on their eponymous album Weather Report. Orpheus and Eurydice: A Myth Underground, theatre

Yatir Forest

Yatir Forest is a forest in Israel, located on the southern slopes of Mount Hebron, on the edge of the Negev Desert. The forest covers an area of 30,000 dunams, is the largest planted forest in Israel; the first trees were planted in 1964 by the Jewish National Fund at the initiative of Yosef Weitz. It is named after the ancient Levite city within its territory, Yatir, as written in the Old Testament: "And unto the children of Aaron the priest they gave Hebron with its suburbs, the city of refuge for the manslayer, Libnah with its suburbs, Yattir with its suburbs, Eshtemoa with its suburbs". Over four million trees have been planted coniferous trees - Aleppo Pine and Cypress, but many broad leafed trees such as Atlantic Terebinth, Jujube, Olive, fig and Acacia, as well as vineyards and various shrubs. Yatir Forest has changed the arid landscape of the northern Negev, despite the pessimism of many experts, it has proven to be a prime ecological instrument, halting the desertification on the heights northeast of Beersheba.

The forest is situated at a high altitude in a semi-arid region with an average yearly rainfall of 300–350 mm and low humidity. The ground is composed of hard lime rocks, soft chalk rocks; the Israel National Trail, marked in 1991 runs through the forest. Yatir forest is located on north of Arad. Studies conducted in Yatir forest under the direction of Prof. Dan Yakir of the Weizmann Institute of Science, in collaboration with the Desert Research Institute at Sde Boker, have shown that the trees function as a trap for carbon in the air. Shade provided by trees planted in the desert reduces evaporation of the sparse rainfall. Yatir forest is a part of the NASA project FLUXNET, a global network of micrometeorological tower sites used to measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, energy between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere; the Arava Institute for Environmental Studies conducts research at Yatir forest that focuses on crops such as dates and grapes grown in the vicinity of Yatir forest.

The research is part of a project aimed at introducing new crops into saline zones. The Yatir biological farm is located next to Yatir Forest near the village of Meitar, northeast of Beersheba and the Bedouin village of Hura; the farm is based on permaculture principles, grows vegetables, fruits and medical herbs. Medical tinctures and essential oils are produced from the herbs and wild plants harvested in the desert, in cooperation with Negev Bedouins. List of forests in Israel Jewish National Fund Yatir winery Agricultural research in Israel Science and technology in Israel Anim synagogue Jewish National Fund website Weizmann Institute's Yatir Forest research group FLUXNET Weizmann Institute study suggests that rising carbon dioxide levels might cause forests to spread into dry environments

Wrecking Crew (1942 film)

Wrecking Crew is a 1942 American film directed by Frank McDonald and starring Richard Arlen, Jean Parker, Chester Morris. The film was something of an "all star" production for Pine-Thomas Productions at the time because it united their two male stars and Morris, biggest female star, Parker; when the O'Glendy Wrecking Company is contracted to demolish an old hotel, "cannonballer" Duke Mason shows up at the worksite, having been hired by boss Mike O'Glendy. Wrecker Tom Kemp accuses Duke of jinxing every project on which he works, after foreman Matt Carney breaks up the ensuing fistfight, he assigns Duke, an arrogant risk-taker, to work with him on the building's high watertower. While aloft, Matt slips and clings to the edge of the tower, Duke casually jokes with him before pulling him to safety. Mike, who took over the business after her husband's death, tells Matt that she has put up a bond to save the company, that they only have four weeks to bring down the twelve-story building. Wrecker Joe Poska hosts a christening party after his wife Martha gives birth to a baby boy, but the wreckers have to leave to reinforce a section of unstable wall on the top of the hotel.

The work goes smoothly until Joe accidentally falls to his death down the refuse chute while helping Duke dump a load of bricks. Joe's death reinforces Kemp's theory about the jinx, Duke blames himself. While walking disconsolately on the street, Duke donates money to a missionary, who predicts that he will lighten someone's burden. Soon after, Duke rescues Peggy Starr when she is thrown out of a café for trying to steal money for food attempts to jump into the river. Duke introduces Peggy to his friends as his cousin, attributes his new good luck to her. After Matt falls for Peggy, both he and Duke convince Mike to hire her as a secretary. While work on the building continues, Peggy dates both Matt. Duke is promoted to the position of night foreman so that they can speed up demolition by maintaining two shifts. Kemp quits to avoid working with Duke, while there are many near misses, no one is injured in an accident, convincing Duke that Peggy has broken his jinx. One day after breaking through a wall, Duke finds a cache of hidden money.

Duke shares the money with his helper and his pal, Freddy Bunce, who needs money for arm surgery which would help him return to his true vocation as a baseball pitcher. Duke generously gives Martha some money, saying that it is a donation from the night crew. Matt proposes to Peggy, but she is hesitant to respond because she is torn between him and Duke. One night, Matt catches Duke and Freddy showing off for an audience of women on the sidewalk, warns Duke to put away the wrecking ball for which Duke is nicknamed. Duke secures the ball, but when he refuses to rehire Kemp because he is drunk, Kemp angrily releases it; the runaway "cannonball" injures a worker and causes structural damage to the building, resulting in the crew's having to reinforce the building before they can continue to take it down floor by floor. After Duke is blamed for the accident and threatens to quit, he asks Peggy to marry him. Convinced that Duke is acting irresponsibly, Peggy rejects him, prompting Duke to pick a fight with Matt, during which Mike learns that Peggy is not his cousin.

Mike breaks up the fight as a section of the hotel wall collapses, rendering the building unstable again. Duke leaves angrily while the crew try to stabilize the structure; as Matt climbs onto an unsteady girder, a hospital worker informs Mike that after regaining consciousness, Emil named Kemp as being responsible for his injury. Mike tries to call Duke, but he has moved out of his boardinghouse. Duke again encounters the missionary. Inspired by the advice, Duke returns to the worksite just as a supporting wall collapses and Matt is trapped under a girder. Duke climbs up to save Matt, but is trapped with his friend when another section of the wall collapses, they are saved by Freddy, although recovering from his operation, risks his baseball career to throw them a lifeline. Some time Matt and Peggy begin their honeymoon at the Empire State Building, Duke nearly falls off while he is kidding around with Mike. Richard Arlen as Matt Carney Chester Morris as Duke Mason Jean Parker as Peggy Starr Joe Sawyer as Fred Bunce Esther Dale as Mike O'Glendy Alexander Granach as Joe Poska Evelyn Brent as Martha Poska Billy Nelson as Tom Kemp William Hall as Red Frank Melton as Pete Fred Sherman as Emil Alec Craig as Charlie Nigel De Brulier as Father Zachary Byron Foulger as Mission Worker The title of the original story by the team of Robert Shannon and Mauri Grashin was Alley Cat.

Paramount announced in November 1941 that they had purchased the story as a vehicle for Chester Morris. It was known as Wreckage Crew; the film was one of a series of movies made by Pine-Thomas Productions about people working in tough, outdoor professions, others being Wildcat and Alaska Highway. Writer Richard Murphy researched the story by following wreckers. Arline Judge and Arthur Hunnicut who had just made Wildcat for Pine-Thomas were announced in the cast along with Morris and Arlen. Grant Withers was announced for the villain. Judge and Withers did not appear in the final film. Filming began February 1942; the fight scene between Arlen and Morris took nine hours to film. Bill Thomas did some second unit filming of buildings being wrecked in New York because there was not enough of them in Los Angeles. Wrecking Crew on IMDb The Wrecking Crew at TCMDB Wrecking Crew at BFI Wrecking Crew is available for free download at the Internet Archive Review at Va

Sarp Bridge

Sarp Bridge is a series of bridges which span across Sarpefossen, a waterfall of the river Glomma in Sarpsborg, Norway. In the current arrangement, one bridge carries a pathway, one carries a single track of the Østfold Line and one carries two lanes of National Road 118; the road and pathway bridges are about 91 meters long. The first bridge at the site was a brick suspension bridge opened on 25 February 1854, it was rebuilt as a multilayer bridge and opened with rail tracks on an upper truss level on 2 January 1879. In order to strengthen the railway, a new steel truss railway bridge opened on 9 May 1931; the former bridge was rebuilt as a wider road bridge. An accident on 15 April 1940 caused the fire department to blow away one of the pillars, collapsing the superstructure. A new road bridge was completed in 1943; the two were supplemented with a separate pathway bridge in 1977. There are plans to replace the existing bridges with a four-land road and three-track railway bridge, scheduled for no than 2030.

There are three current bridges which cross over Sarpefossen, referred to as Sarpsfossen. Upstream is a pathway bridge for pedestrians. In the middle is a railway bridge and furthest downstream is a road bridge; the railway bridge is named Bridge over Glomma at Sarpsfossen. The steel truss bridge carries a single track of the Østfold Line, with the western end of the bridge situated 110.0 kilometers from Oslo Central Station. It has an overall length including viaducts on both sides of the bridge proper; the main span is 53 meters, with two side spans measuring 29 meters. The total truss length is 82 meters. Just east of the bridge the Eastern Østfold Line branches off at the now disused Hafslund Station; the first bridge was a suspension bridge with two brick pillars. The original road bridge was 91 meters long between the landfall; the main span measured 47 meters, while the smaller ones measured 15 meters. There were four cables each made up of wrought iron; the bridge was dimensioned to withstand a load of 320 kilograms per deck-meter.

The bridge had an overall weight of about 360 tonnes. The railway component made the original bridge into a multilevel structure; the bridge had four brick pillars, which carried three truss spans. The tracks were 6.9 meters above the roadbed. With viaducts the railway bridge reach a length of 239 meters. At the start of the 19th century the King's Road through Østfold passed through Hafslund and continued along the southeastern bank of the river to Fredrikstad. A ferry service was offered near the current location of the Sannesund Bridge; the ferry service was both expensive and dangerous, it was not uncommon for there to be lethal accidents. The new Highway Act of 28 July 1824 stipulated that the road from Torsbekken to Tune Church did not have sufficient standard, the town magistrate demanded in 1841 that a new road be built, it was in relation to this that the first demands for a bridge across Glomma was proposed between Buene and Dombergodden. Soon a counterproposal was made. An argument against this was that the bridge could be damaged if a lock burst further up along Glomma and there came an uncontrolled rush of lumber.

However, the bridge across Sarpefossen would give shorter access from the areas east of the town, it would be shorter, cheaper have better carrying capacity. Proposals for state funding were issued by the municipality in 1844. Not until five years was a detailed design of a bridge made, by Christian Vilhelm Bergh; the Engineering Brigade protested and wanted the entire bridge between landfalls to be built with a single span. This was rejected by the road authorities, it was estimated to cost 36,000 Norwegian speciedaler, of which 25,000 was for the bridge and the rest for the auxiliary roads and administration. State grants were approved on 30 June 1851. Only two companies bid for the ironworks contract, the contract was awarded to Fritzøe Jernverk. Construction started in February 1952. A main concern was that there were not enough stonemasons in the area, causing several new ones to be trained while others were brought in from Sweden. Work on the foundations started in the late winter of 1852.

The first attempt failed, with river flooding over the work and postponing construction a further year. The second attempt was made the following winter, with the workers having a three-month window in which the pillars needed to be built high enough that the spring floods would not enclose them; the second attempt succeeded. Construction was completed by February 1854. There were no serious accidents during the works, the bridge was opened on 25 February. Parliament approved the construction of the Østfold Line in 1874. With this there arose a local debate as to; the Railway Directorate proposed that the line cross at Sandesund. This was met with near unison local opposition, as it would cut through the plant at Borregård and the town. An agreement was thereby made where they railway was allowed to use the foundations of the road bridge and build the railway bridge on top; the town offered the railway the bridge for free on condition that it was rebuilt in a manner which allowed the road traffic to continue.

The county would retain the responsibility for maintaining the road surface. When the construction of the Østfold Line started, the responsibility for bridges and viaducts was placed at Axel Jacob Pe

Robert Gerhard

Robert Gerhard i Ottenwaelder was a Spanish Catalan composer and musical scholar and writer known outside Catalonia as Roberto Gerhard. Roberto Gerhard was born in Valls, near Tarragona, the son of a German-Swiss father and an Alsatian mother, he was predisposed to an international, multilingual outlook, but by birth and culture he was a Catalan. He studied piano with Enrique Granados and composition with the great scholar-composer Felip Pedrell, teacher of Isaac Albéniz and Manuel de Falla; when Pedrell died in 1922, Gerhard tried unsuccessfully to become a pupil of Falla and considered studying with Charles Koechlin in Paris but approached Arnold Schoenberg, who on the strength of a few early compositions accepted him as his only Spanish pupil. Gerhard spent several years with Schoenberg in Berlin. Returning to Barcelona in 1928, he devoted his energies to new music through concerts and journalism, in conjunction with the flourishing literary and artistic avant-garde of Catalonia, he befriended Joan Miró and Pablo Casals, brought Schoenberg and Anton Webern to Barcelona, was the principal organizer of the 1936 ISCM Festival there.

He collected and performed folksongs and old Spanish music from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century. Identified with the Republican cause throughout the Spanish Civil War, Gerhard was forced to flee to France in 1939 and that year settled in Cambridge, England; until the death of Francisco Franco, his music was proscribed in Spain, to which he never returned except for holidays. Apart from copious work for the BBC and in the theatre, Gerhard's compositions of the 1940s were explicitly related to aspects of Spanish and Catalan culture, beginning in 1940 with a Symphony in memory of Pedrell and the first version of the ballet Don Quixote, they culminated in a masterpiece as The Duenna. The Covent Garden production of Don Quixote and the BBC broadcasts of The Duenna popularized Gerhard's reputation in the UK though not in Spain. During the 1950s, the legacy of Schoenbergian serialism, a background presence in these overtly national works, engendered an radical approach to composition which, by the 1960s, placed Gerhard in the ranks of the avant-garde.

From the early 1950s Gerhard suffered from a heart condition which ended his life. He died in Cambridge in 1970 and is buried at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge, with his wife Poldi, Leopoldina'Poldi' Feichtegger Gerhard, his archive is kept at Cambridge University Library. Other personal papers of Robert Gerhard are preserved in the Biblioteca de Catalunya. For twenty years – first in Barcelona and in exile in England – Gerhard cultivated, enormously enriched, a modern tonal idiom with a pronounced Spanish-folkloric orientation that descended on the one hand from Pedrell and Falla, on the other from such contemporary masters as Bartók and Stravinsky; this was the idiom whose major achievements included the ballets Soirées de Barcelone and Don Quixote, the Violin Concerto and the opera The Duenna. Gerhard said that he stood by the sound of his music:'in music the sense is in the sound', yet dazzling as their scoring is, his last works are in no sense a mere succession of sonic events.

Their forms are meticulously organized and several make use of his special development of serialism where a twelve-tone pitch series, governing intervallic relations, interacts with a twelvefold time series governing the music's duration and proportions. Gerhard's most significant works, apart from those mentioned, include four symphonies, the Concerto for Orchestra, concertos for violin and harpsichord, the cantata The Plague, the ballets Pandora and Ariel, pieces for a wide variety of chamber ensembles, including Sardanas for the indigenous Catalan street band, the cobla, he was the first important composer of electronic music in Britain. Symphony Homenatge a Pedrell Symphony No. 1 Symphony No. 2. Radio performance was in 1949, at BBC; the Bielefeld Opera and conductor Geoffrey Moull performed The Duenna in a new production in 1994. The Wiener Zeitung at the time remarked that the work is "a rediscovered stroke of genius". El barberillo de Lavapies and orchestration of the zarzuela by Francisco Barbieri Lamparilla, German-language Singspiel loosely based on El barberillo de Lavapies with additional music and original overture by Gerhard Concertino for string orchestra Violin Concerto Concerto for Piano and String Orchestra Concerto for Harpsichord, St

Fake Love (BTS song)

"Fake Love" is a song recorded by South Korean boy band BTS, released on May 15, 2018 by Big Hit Entertainment as the lead single from their third studio album Love Yourself: Tear. It debuted at number 10 on the US Billboard Hot 100 with 29,000 digital sales, becoming BTS's first top ten entry and the second highest-charting song by a Korean group in the US. An alternative rock remix of the song, the "Rocking Vibe Mix", was released as a single on June 4, 2018. A Japanese version of the song was early released in digital download format on October 16, 2018 before release in physical format with remix on November 7, 2018; as described by Spin, "Fake Love" turns dark and marries the drama of Wings with the angst of their 2015 album The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever. It was written and produced by "hitman" bang, BTS member RM and it's about one realizing his love, what he thought was fate, turned out to be fake love. Digital Journal describes "Fake Love" as a combination of pop, hip hop, trap rock and adult contemporary music, which shows a darker side of their music.

Both versions of "Fake Love" were written in the key of D minor. While the original song has a moderate tempo and is seventy-eight beats per minute, the remix is 155; the song reflects the emptiness of giving so much of yourself to someone or something only to lose yourself in the process. Upon release in Korea, it topped real-time charts of music sites such as Mnet, MelOn, Bugs and Genie. In the United States, it reached number 10 on the Hot 100 and number one on Digital Songs sales chart; the single debuted at number seven on Billboard's Streaming Songs chart with 27.4 million streams earned in the week ending May 24, giving BTS their first top ten on the chart and making "Fake Love" the first K-pop song to land on top ten since Psy's "Hangover" feat. Snoop Dogg in 2014. In September after announcing the track listing for their Japanese single album one of the title tracks was removed, their agency stated, “Due to reasons concerning the production, the track list for the Japanese album scheduled for release in November will be changed.

We apologize for any inconvenience." Following the announcement the song was replaced with remix versions of "Fake Love" and "Idol". Tower Records Japan reported the single album was the fourth best selling single album by a Korean artist in Japan for 2018. Elle magazine voted the song the seventh best song of the summer in 2018. Los 40 ranked it 27th on their list "The Best Songs of 2018". YouTube's official tally saw the "Fake Love" music video garner a total of 35.9 million views within 24 hours of its release, breaking BTS' previous record for most viewed K-pop group music video within the first 24 hours, making it the third most watched music video within the first 24 hours in 2018. It accumulated over 3.9 million likes in the same 24 hour period, making it the most liked music video in a single day, beating its predecessors "DNA" and "Mic Drop", which both gained 2.3 million likes each. "Fake Love" went on to cross 100 million views in just eight days, eight hours and 45 minutes, beating the group's previous record with "DNA", which hit 100 million views after 24 days.

An extended version of the music video, featuring an alternative rock remix of "Fake Love", was released on June 1. It contained additional footage of previous scenes from the original video, ending with Jungkook joining the other six members and a shot of them and masked being crushed by a falling wall. Both the regular and extended version of the music video's were done by the director Choi YongSeok of Lumpens. Other key personnel are Lee WonJu, Park HyeJeong, Jeong MinJe serving as assistant directors; the director of photography was the art director Park Jinsil and Kim Bona. Song Hyunsuk worked the construction manager was Song Sukki; the special effects for the video was handled by Demolition. "Fake Love" made its worldwide television debut when BTS performed the song live at the 2018 Billboard Music Awards on May 20, 2018. The group performed "Fake Love" on The Ellen DeGeneres Show on May 25, marking their second appearance on the program. A pre-recorded appearance of BTS performing "Fake Love" on The Late Late Show with James Corden was aired on June 12 making it their second appearance on the show.

BTS promoted the song on various music programs in South Korea including Music Bank, Show! Music Core, M Countdown, garnering twelve first place wins and three triple-crowns on Music Bank, Music Core and Inkigayo. On December 1, 2018, BTS performed the single at the Melon Music Awards; the rock version of the song was promoted at Mnet Asian Music Awards in December of the same year, at the KBS Grand Song Festival the song was promoted. In 2019 it was performed at the Seoul Music Awards. List of number-one songs of 2018 List of number-one songs of 2018