Orpheus is a legendary musician and prophet in ancient Greek religion. Some ancient Greek sources note Orpheus' Thracian origins; the major stories about him are centered on his ability to charm all living things and stones with his music, his attempt to retrieve his wife Eurydice from the underworld, his death at the hands of the maenads of Dionysus who tired of his mourning for his late wife Eurydice. As an archetype of the inspired singer, Orpheus is one of the most significant figures in the reception of classical mythology in Western culture, portrayed or alluded to in countless forms of art and popular culture including poetry, opera and painting. For the Greeks, Orpheus was a prophet of the so-called "Orphic" mysteries, he was credited with the composition of the Orphic Argonautica. Shrines containing purported relics of Orpheus were regarded as oracles. Several etymologies for the name Orpheus have been proposed. A probable suggestion is that it is derived from a hypothetical PIE root *h₃órbʰos "orphan, slave" and the verb root *h₃erbʰ- "to change allegiance, ownership".
Cognates could include Greek ὄρφνη "darkness", Greek ὀρφανός "fatherless, orphan", from which comes English "orphan" by way of Latin. Fulgentius, a mythographer of the late 5th to early 6th century AD, gave the unlikely etymology meaning "best voice," "Oraia-phonos"; the earliest literary reference to Orpheus is a two-word fragment of the sixth-century BC lyric poet Ibycus: onomaklyton Orphēn. He is not mentioned in Hesiod. Most ancient sources accept his historical existence. Pindar calls Orpheus "the father of songs" and identifies him as a son of the Thracian king Oeagrus and the Muse Calliope. Greeks of the Classical age venerated Orpheus as the greatest of all musicians. Poets such as Simonides of Ceos said that Orpheus' music and singing could charm the birds and wild beasts, coax the trees and rocks into dance, divert the course of rivers. Orpheus was one of the handful of Greek heroes to visit the return; some sources credit Orpheus with further gifts to mankind: medicine, more under the auspices of Asclepius or Apollo.
Orpheus was an seer. Pindar and Apollonius of Rhodes place Orpheus as the harpist and companion of Jason and the Argonauts. Orpheus had a brother named Linus, who became a Theban, he is claimed by Aristophanes and Horace to have taught cannibals to subsist on fruit, to have made lions and tigers obedient to him. Horace believed, that Orpheus had only introduced order and civilization to savages. Strabo presents Orpheus as a mortal, who died in a village close to Olympus. "Some, of course, received him willingly, but others, since they suspected a plot and violence, combined against him and killed him." He made money as a musician and "wizard" – Strabo uses agurteúonta used by Sophocles in Oedipus Tyrannus to characterize Teiresias as a trickster with an excessive desire for possessions. Agúrtēs most meant charlatan and always had a negative connotation. Pausanias writes of an unnamed Egyptian who considered Orpheus a mágeuse, i. e. magician. According to Apollodorus and a fragment of Pindar, Orpheus' father was Oeagrus, a Thracian king, or, according to another version of the story, the god Apollo.
His mother was the muse Calliope, her sister Polymnia, a daughter of Pierus, son of Makednos or lastly of Menippe, daughter of Thamyris. According to Tzetzes, he was from Bisaltia, his birthplace and place of residence was Pimpleia close to the Olympus. Strabo mentions. According to the epic poem Argonautica, Pimpleia was the location of Oeagrus' and Calliope's wedding. While living with his mother and her eight beautiful sisters in Parnassus, he met Apollo, courting the laughing muse Thalia. Apollo, as the god of music, taught him to play it. Orpheus' mother taught him to make verses for singing, he is said to have studied in Egypt. Orpheus is said to have established the worship of Hecate in Aegina. In Laconia Orpheus is said to have brought the worship of Demeter Chthonia and that of the Kóres Sōteíras. In Taygetus a wooden image of Orpheus was said to have been kept by Pelasgians in the sanctuary of the Eleusinian Demeter. According to Diodorus Siculus, Musaeus of Athens was the son of Orpheus.
The Argonautica is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. Orpheus used his skills to aid his companions. Chiron told Jason that without the aid of Orpheus, the Argonauts would never be able to pass the Sirens—the same Sirens encountered by Odysseus in Homer's epic poem the Odyssey; the Sirens lived on three small, rocky islands called Sirenum scopuli and sang beautiful songs that enticed sailors to come to them, which resulted in the crashing of their ships into the islands. When Orpheus heard their voices, he drew his lyre and played music, louder and more beautiful, drowning out the Sirens' bewitching
Forbidden Priests is a French film directed by Denys de La Patellière in 1973 starring Robert Hossein and Claude Jade. This French melodrama tells the tragic story of a rare couple: Priest Jean, who falls in love with a young woman, the 17-year-old girl Françoise, has relations with her, gets her pregnant; that happens during World War II. Some years Françoise waits for her majority to get her child out from the orphanage and Jean becomes a communist. Robert Hossein - Jean Rastaud Claude Jade - Françoise Bernardeau Claude Piéplu - Father Grégoire Ancely Pierre Mondy - Paul Lacoussade Louis Seigner - Bishop Germaine Delbat - Jean's mother Michèle Watrin - Françoise's cousin Lucienne Legrand - Françoise, mother Georges Audoubert - Françoise, father Forbidden Priests on IMDb Forbidden Priests at AllMovie Prêtres interdits at notre Cinema
Merkel cell polyomavirus was first described in January 2008 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was the first example of a human viral pathogen discovered using unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing with a technique called digital transcriptome subtraction. MCV is one of seven known human oncoviruses, it is suspected to cause the majority of cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer. 80% of Merkel cell carcinoma tumors have been found to be infected with MCV. Three years a team of researchers at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute developed an antibody that detected MCV expression in 97% of MCC tumors. MCV appears to be a common -- if not universal -- infection of older adults, it is found in respiratory secretions suggesting. But it can be found shedding from healthy skin, in gastrointestinal tract tissues and elsewhere, so its precise mode of transmission remains unknown. In addition, recent studies suggest that this virus may latently infect PBMCs. Most MCV viruses found in MCC tumors, have at least two mutations that render the virus nontransmissible: 1) The virus is integrated into the host genome in a monoclonal fashion and 2) The viral T antigen has truncation mutations that leave the T antigen unable to initiate DNA replication needed to propagate the virus.
Evidence that MCV is the cause for most MCC tumors comes from studies in which T antigen oncoproteins from the virus are inhibited. Knock down of these viral proteins causes cells from MCV-positive MCC tumors to die whereas there is no effect on cells from tumors that are uninfected with the virus; this indicates. Further, clonal pattern of MCV insertions into MCC cell genomes indicates that the virus was present in the Merkel cell before it underwent cancerous transformation; the IARC has classified MCV as a class 2A carcinogen. Polyomaviruses are small, double-stranded DNA viruses. MCV is the fifth polyomavirus, it belongs to one of the three main clades of polyomaviruses. Although it has been confused with the controversial SV40 virus in some blog postings, it is a distinct virus. MCV is genetically most related to the African green monkey lymphotropic polyomavirus, consistent with MCV coevolving with human primates; the prototype sequence of MCV has a 5387 base pair double-stranded DNA genome and encodes characteristic polyomavirus genes from opposite strands including a large T antigen, a small T antigen and viral capsid proteins VP1 and VP2/3 genes.
MCV T antigen has similar features to the T antigens of other polyomaviruses, which are known oncoproteins, is expressed in human tumors. The T antigen is a spliced gene that forms multiple different proteins depending on the splicing pattern. Both large T and small T oncoproteins are needed to transform healthy cells into cancer cells, they act by targeting tumor suppressor proteins, such as retinoblastoma protein; the LT antigen possesses a helicase motif needed for virus replication, deleted in MCC tumors. Unlike for other polyomaviruses, MCV sT antigen transforms cells in vitro by activating cap-dependent translation. MCV expresses a microRNA known as MCV-miR-M1 from its late strand which bears perfect complementarity to LT and has been shown to negatively regulate LT expression. In addition to its role in regulating MCV LT expression and DNA replication, MCV-miR-M1 has been shown to directly target and downregulate the expression of host cell immune related transcript SP100 and its role in the establishment of long-term persistent infection has been demonstrated in vitro.
Merkel cell carcinoma is a aggressive type of skin cancer, first described by Cyril Toker in 1972 as "trabecular tumor of the skin". The cancer may derive from the microscopic Merkel cell nervous organ in the skin and viscera, responsible for touch and pressure sensation. Based on its origin, the cancer cell type is called a neuroectodermal tumor. Although rare compared with other skin cancers, the incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma in the USA tripled between 1986 and 2001, to around 1400 cases per year. Merkel cell carcinoma is seen in older individuals, it is known to occur at increased frequency in people with immunodeficiency, including transplant recipients and people with AIDS, this association suggests the possibility that a virus or other infectious agent might be involved in causing the cancer. Kaposi's sarcoma and Burkitt's lymphoma are examples of tumors known to have a viral etiology that occur at increased frequency in immunosuppressed people. Other factors associated with the development of this cancer include exposure to ultraviolet light.
Eight of 10 Merkel cell carcinoma tumors tested were found to be infected with MCV. In these tumors, the virus has integrated into the cancer cell genome and can no longer replicate. Recent studies from other laboratories have reproduced these findings: in one study 30 of 39 of Merkel cell tumors were MCV positive. Sequencing of the virus from Merkel cell cancers reveals that it has tumor-specific mutations that truncate the MCV T antigen; these mutations (which are not found in native vir