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Euryhaline

Euryhaline organisms are able to adapt to a wide range of salinities. An example of a euryhaline fish is the molly which can live in fresh water, brackish water, or salt water; the green crab is an example of a euryhaline invertebrate that can live in brackish water. Euryhaline organisms are found in habitats such as estuaries and tide pools where the salinity changes regularly. However, some organisms are euryhaline because their life cycle involves migration between freshwater and marine environments, as is the case with salmon and eels; the opposite of euryhaline organisms are stenohaline ones, which can only survive within a narrow range of salinities. Most freshwater organisms are stenohaline, will die in seawater, most marine organisms are stenohaline, cannot live in fresh water. Osmoregulation is the active process; the osmotic pressure in the body is homeostatically regulated in such a manner that it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.

Two major types of osmoregulation are osmoregulators. Osmoconformers match their body osmolarity to their environment or passively. Most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers, although their ionic composition may be different from that of seawater. Osmoregulators regulate their body osmolarity, which always stays constant, are more common in the animal kingdom. Osmoregulators control salt concentrations despite the salt concentrations in the environment. An example is freshwater fish; the gills uptake salt from the environment by the use of mitochondria-rich cells. Water will diffuse into the fish, so it excretes a hypotonic urine to expel all the excess water. A marine fish has an internal osmotic concentration lower than that of the surrounding seawater, so it tends to lose water and gain salt, it excretes salt out from the gills. Most fish are stenohaline, which means they are restricted to either salt or fresh water and cannot survive in water with a different salt concentration than they are adapted to.

However, some fish show a tremendous ability to osmoregulate across a broad range of salinities. Salmon has been observed to inhabit two utterly disparate environments — marine and fresh water — and it is inherent to adapt to both by bringing in behavioral and physiological modifications; some marine fish, like sharks, have adopted a different, efficient mechanism to conserve water, i.e. osmoregulation. They retain urea in their blood in higher concentration. Urea is damaging to living tissue so, to cope with this problem, some fish retain trimethylamine oxide; this provides a better solution to urea's toxicity. Sharks, having higher solute concentration, do not drink water like marine fish; some euryhaline fish The level of salinity in intertidal zones can be quite variable. Low salinities can be caused by river inputs of freshwater. Estuarine species must be euryhaline, or able to tolerate a wide range of salinities. High salinities occur in locations with high evaporation rates, such as in salt marshes and high intertidal pools.

Shading by plants in the salt marsh, can slow evaporation and thus ameliorate salinity stress. In addition, salt marsh plants tolerate high salinities by several physiological mechanisms, including excreting salt through salt glands and preventing salt uptake into the roots. Despite having a regular freshwater presence, the Atlantic stingray is physiologically euryhaline and no population has evolved the specialized osmoregulatory mechanisms found in the river stingrays of the family Potamotrygonidae; this may be due to the recent date of freshwater colonization, and/or incomplete genetic isolation of the freshwater populations, as they remain capable of surviving in salt water. Freshwater Atlantic stingrays have only 30-50% the concentration of urea and other osmolytes in their blood compared to marine populations. However, the osmotic pressure between their internal fluids and external environment still causes water to diffuse into their bodies, they must produce large quantities of dilute urine to compensate.

Partial list other euryhaline organisms Fish migration Osmoregulation Stenohaline Osmoconformer

The Phone (American TV series)

The Phone is an American reality television show, based on the Dutch version of the same name. The show aired on Fridays at 10pm Eastern time on MTV The Phone is a reality series that locates its contestants on the street; the two contestants are two people who some months before filming registered to take part in a mysterious game. The chosen players answer one of two ringing phones placed in separate locations. Once a person answers the phone, they are asked by the show's host,"The Operator" if they would like the chance to win up to $50,000. If the offer is accepted, the game begins by activating a scenario; the players are given a series of instructions to follow to complete various tasks that have some level of involvement with the situation. Additionally, the players are informed to keep in mind everything that they see and hear over the course of the adventure, for it will have some bearing in the game on. A set of two more phones ring and The Operator contacts 2 other contestants chosen to play the game.

The Operator gives the players instructions to complete another task that will link them up with their prospective partners. If the task is completed the team receive $5,000 for a successful mission, nothing if the task results in a mission failure; the money is "wired" to a joint account. With the teams now linked, The Operator gives them their next task to complete. For the rest of the game, The Operator communicates with the teams through the phones via a call, text message or a video message; the next task is explained, with the teams being informed that the team that completes the task will receive $10,000 into the joint account and the other team will be eliminated from the game. With one team eliminated and "killed off", the sole remaining team plays the remainder of the game and takes on the next part of the mission challenge; the team is informed that if this task is completed $15,000 is wired to the team account. Next, The Operator will ask one of the team members to step away from the other and give them the instructions for the final part of the mission challenge.

The challenge will have a catch: If the person, separated takes on the challenge themselves, the team will have $10,000 wired for a successful mission. However, if they elect to send their partner the money will be doubled to $20,000. After 30 seconds, The Operator will ask for the player's decision. In the end, the team is told their final bank total, but The Operator informs them that only one member of the team will be able to take the bank home; this is determined by a quiz that will question both players on what they saw and heard during their adventure. They are asked a series of multiple-choice questions and the first person to score 3 points will win the money and be shown by The Operator the location of the money; the player can get to the cash, but the game is not over until one final decision is made by the winner: The Operator states that the winner has the option to take the entire bank for themselves or split the money with their partner. The Operator gives the player 1 minute to decide and texts the phone number of the winner to the partner, which the partner calls to receive their answer.

Jessie Godderz, of Big Brother fame, was chosen to play the character of The Operator, but he was forced to decline due to his contract restrictions with CBS at the time. The first episode of The Phone was watched by a hugely disappointing 920,000 viewers. Official website

The Killing Moon

"The Killing Moon" is a song by the band Echo & the Bunnymen. It was released on 20 January 1984 as the lead single from Ocean Rain, it is one of the band's highest-charting hits, reaching number nine in the UK Singles Chart, cited as the band's greatest song. Ian McCulloch has said: "When I sing "The Killing Moon", I know there isn't a band in the world who's got a song anywhere near that". In a retrospective review of the song, Allmusic journalist Stewart Mason wrote: "The smart use of strings amplifies the elegance of the tune, bringing both a musical richness and a sense of quiet dignity to the tune". According to the liner notes of Echo and the Bunnymen's Crystal Days box set, Ian McCulloch woke up one morning with the phrase "fate up against your will" in mind. In a 2015 interview McCulloch said: "I love all the more because I didn’t pore over it for days on end. One morning, I just sat bolt upright in bed with this line in my head:'Fate up against your will. Through the thick and thin, he will wait until you give yourself to him.'

You don't remember them. That's. It’s never happened before or since". McCulloch attributed the use of astronomical imagery in the song to a childhood interest in space; the chords of the song were based on David Bowie's "Space Oddity", played backwards. The arrangement of the song was inspired by balalaika music that Les Pattinson and Will Sergeant had heard in Russia; the guitar solo had been recorded separately by Sergeant whilst tuning up and was inserted in the song at the suggestion of producer David Lord. The strings on the track are a combination of Adam Peters' cello and keyboards played by the producer. UK 12""The Killing Moon" – 9:11 "The Killing Moon" – 5:50 "Do It Clean" – 6:36 Cover versions of "The Killing Moon" include: 1997: Pavement recorded the song on their January 1997 BBC Radio 1 Evening Session included on their final EP, Major Leagues. 2001: The Quakes covered the song on their album Last of Human Beings. 2006: Nouvelle Vague's bossa nova version opened their Bande à Part album.

2006: Grant-Lee Phillips featured the song on his covers album, Nineteeneighties. 2007: The Distants covered the song for the Blood & Chocolate soundtrack. 2009: Greg Laswell recorded a version on his Covers EP. 2010: The Great Crusades covered the song on their album Fiction To Shame. 2012: Jack Lukeman recorded a version for his album The 27 Club. 2017: Roman Remains covered the song for the soundtrack of the Netflix series 13 Reasons Why. 2017: A-ha covered the song with Ian McCulloch for MTV Unplugged – Summer Solstice live album. "The Killing Moon" was featured in the original theatrical version of the opening sequence of the cult film Donnie Darko. However, in the director's cut version of the film, the song is replaced by INXS's "Never Tear Us Apart", with "The Killing Moon" being placed in the movie; the song appeared in the films Gia and The Girl Next Door and in the TV series Dead of Summer. The song was included on the soundtrack for Grosse Pointe Blank; the song was included on the soundtrack for the 11th episode of the second season of Netflix series 13 Reasons Why.

The song was included on the soundtrack for the 10th episode of the third season of Netflix series 13 Reasons Why. The song was included on the soundtrack for the fourth episode of the third season of Amazon series Red Oaks; the song was included on the soundtrack for the fifth episode of the second season of the show Misfits. The song was featured in the fifth episode of the third season of the show Billions; the song was included on disc for the 2010 game Rock Band 3. The song is featured in the 2019 SyFy series Deadly Class; the song is featured in the Titans episode "Deathstroke." The song is featured in the Mrs. Fletcher episode "Welcome Back." The song is most featured in the 7th episode of thefirst season of Netflix's series I Am Not Okay With This. Mason, Stewart. "The End: review". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 18 August 2016. Echo & The Bunnymen Official Website Promotional video at the band's official website The Killing Moon at Discogs Accolades archived at Acclaimed Music

Paraphrases of Erasmus

The Paraphrases were Latin Biblical paraphrases, rewritings of the Gospels by Desiderius Erasmus. Composed between 1517 and 1524, Erasmus revised them until his death in 1536. In 1547, Edward VI of England ordered an English-language version to be displayed in all parish churches; the translation was overseen by Nicholas Udall, with the future Queen Mary, Edward's half-sister, contributing. The publication history of the Latin-language Paraphrases is complicated. Erasmus began with the Pauline Epistles; the paraphrase of Romans was published in quarto by Flemish printer Dirk Martens in Louvain in November 1517 and reprinted by Erasmus's friend Johann Froben in January of the following year. It was soon reprinted in octavo. Corinthians was reprinted in Basel by Froben in March. Galatians appeared that year, with editions from both publishers; the remaining Epistles followed in 1521, the last to appear being Hebrews. In the autumn of 1521, Erasmus moved from Louvain to Basel, from that time Froben published the first editions of the remaining Paraphrases.

Erasmus turned to the Gospels: Matthew appearing in March 1522, John in February and March 1523, Luke in August 1523, Mark in early 1524. Acts followed the dedication copy being dated February 13, 1524. Froben published a complete edition in two volumes: the first, "a stout octavo volume of 400 leaves dated 1523 and called Tomus secundus," contained the Epistles, the Tomus primus containing the Gospels and Acts appeared the following year. "This was a considerable investment, the firm kept it in their list for ten years," resetting portions as needed without a change of date. The Paraphrases were reissued in various combinations during the following decades. Edward VI of England ordered the Paraphrases to be put up "in some convenient place" for reading in all parish churches; the command was in Edward's Injunctions of 1547. A translation into English, overseen by Nicholas Udall, was made nearly with the future Queen Mary, Edward's half-sister, performing the translation of the Gospel of John.

Since Edward was only ten years old at the time, it is that the elevation of Erasmus's text came about through the influence of one of his guardians or Thomas Cranmer

First National Bank Building (Hartford, Connecticut)

The First National Bank Building is a historic commercial building at 50-58 State House Square in the heart of downtown Hartford, Connecticut. Built in 1899, it is a fine local example of Beaux Arts architecture, was one of the first of Hartford's commercial buildings to have a steel frame, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. The First National Bank Building is located on the north side of State House Square, facing Hartford Old State House, it is a seven-story masonry structure, its exterior walls faced in brick and stone on a frame of steel columns with reinforcing brick vaulted arches. The principal facade is one of the city's finest examples of Beaux Arts architecture, it is three bays wide, with the main entrance in the leftmost bay. The bottom and top two floors are each treated distinctively, with similar surrounds on the windows or doors on each level; the central three bays are grouped in tall openings topped by rounded arches and an elaborate cornice. The building was designed by Ernest Flagg, a New York City architect, was completed in 1899.

It was built on the site of a portion of the former United States Hotel, said portion having been occupied by the bank prior to its demolition to make way for this building. Flagg, trained at the École des Beaux-Arts de Paris, designed the building as a large-scale emulation of a classic column: the two bottom levels representing its base, the top two its capital, with the intervening levels representing its shaft. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hartford, Connecticut

Raúl Avilés

Ney Raúl Avilés is a retired Ecuadorian football striker. He played 55 times for the Ecuador national team, scoring 16 goals between 1987 and 1993. Avilés started his career in 1985 with 9 de Octubre, he soon joined Club Sport Emelec where he was part of the championship winning team of 1988, he joined rivals Barcelona Sporting Club in 1993, but missed out on their 1995 championship success as he spent that season with Liga de Portoviejo. He returned to Barcelona and in 1997 won his 2nd league championship he remained with the club until 2000, he spent his last year playing for Santa Rita Vinces in the Ecuadorian 2nd division. At international level Avilés, he is the seventh highest scoring player in the history of the Ecuador national team, he participated in four editions of the Copa América in 1987, 1989, 1991 and 1993 Emelec Serie A de Ecuador: 1988 Barcelona Serie A de Ecuador: 1997 Raúl Avilés at National-Football-Teams.com