Vattakottai Fort is a seaside fort near Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu the southern tip of India. It was built in the 18th century as a coastal defence-fortification and barracks in the erstwhile Travancore kingdom, it was constructed in the 18th century by the Venad kings of Travancore, Later it was modified under the supervision of Captain Eustachius De Lannoy, an ex-Dutch naval officer of the Dutch East India Company, who became commander of the Travancore Army in the 18th century, after he earned the trust of the Travancore King Marthanda Varma. De Lannoy reconstructed Vattakottai, as part of the defence-fortifications he undertook throughout Travancore; the fort is made of granite blocks and, today, a part of the fort extends into the sea. It is a protected site under the Indian archaeological department. A major renovation of the fort was undertaken by the department, the site is now a popular tourist spot. Vattakottai Fort commands a picturesque view of both the sea on the one side, the hills on the other.
Another interesting feature near the site is a beach of black sands. It is about 7 km from Kanyakumari town. Sadguru Shri Narayan Maharaj of Shri kshetra Narayanpur and his disciple are building "Char DattaDhams" in four different directions in India, of which 2 Dhams have been completed. First of the Char Dattadhams has been constructed in Madhya Pradesh "Shiva Datta Dham, Maheshwar, Khargone Shiv Datta Dham, Maheshwar, Madhya Pradesh" Second of the Char Dattadhams is in Kanyakumari Anusaya Datta Dham, Kanyakumari"Anusaya Datta Dham, Vatta-kottai Vattakottai Fort, Anju Gramam, Kanyakumari". Third of the Char Dattadhams is near Kolkata "Bramha Datta Dham" and it is under construction situated in Bramha Datta Dham, Kolkata"Baruipara"; this will be the largest Hindu temple in West Bengal. Shri Atri Dattadham, Himachal Pradesh About Vattakottai Fort and Images Forgotten fort Vattakottai: Elegant and steeped in history Facelift planned for Vattakottai Vattakottai in 3D view
A saint is a person, recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the denomination. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Lutheran doctrine, all of their faithful deceased in Heaven are considered to be saints, but some are considered worthy of greater honor or emulation. While the English word saint originated in Christianity, historians of religion now use the appellation "in a more general way to refer to the state of special holiness that many religions attribute to certain people", with the Jewish tzadik, the Islamic walī, the Hindu rishi or Sikh guru, the Buddhist arhat or bodhisattva being referred to as saints. Depending on the religion, saints are recognized either by official ecclesiastical declaration, as in the Catholic faith, or by popular acclamation; the English word "saint" comes from the Latin "sanctus". The word translated in Greek is "ἅγιος", which means "holy"; the word ἅγιος appears 229 times in the Greek New Testament, its English translation 60 times in the corresponding text of the King James Version of the Bible.
The word sanctus was a technical one in ancient Roman religion, but due to its "globalized" use in Christianity the modern word "saint" in English and its equivalent in Romance languages is now used as a translation of comparable terms for persons "worthy of veneration for their holiness or sanctity" in other religions. Many religions use similar concepts to venerate persons worthy of some honor. Author John A. Coleman S. J. of the Graduate Theological Union, California wrote that saints across various cultures and religions have the following family resemblances: exemplary model extraordinary teacher wonder worker or source of benevolent power intercessor a life refusing material attachments or comforts possession of a special and revelatory relation to the holy. The anthropologist Lawrence Babb in an article about Sathya Sai Baba asks the question "Who is a saint?", responds by saying that in the symbolic infrastructure of some religions, there is the image of a certain extraordinary spiritual king's "miraculous powers", to whom a certain moral presence is attributed.
These saintly figures, he asserts, are "the focal points of spiritual force-fields". They exert "powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the inner lives of others in transforming ways as well". According to the Catholic Church, a "saint" is anyone in Heaven, whether recognized on Earth or not, who form the "great cloud of witnesses"; these "may include our own mothers, grandmothers or other loved ones" who may have not always lived perfect lives but "amid their faults and failings they kept moving forward and proved pleasing to the Lord". The title "Saint" denotes a person, formally canonized, authoritatively declared a saint, by the Church as holder of the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, is therefore believed to be in Heaven by the grace of God. There are many persons that the Church believes to be in Heaven who have not been formally canonized and who are otherwise titled "saints" because of the fame of their holiness. Sometimes the word "saint" denotes living Christians. In his book Saint of the Day, editor Leonard Foley, OFM says this: the " surrender to God's love was so generous an approach to the total surrender of Jesus that the Church recognizes them as heroes and heroines worthy to be held up for our inspiration.
They remind us that the Church is holy, can never stop being holy and is called to show the holiness of God by living the life of Christ."The Catholic Church teaches that it does not "make" or "create" saints, but rather recognizes them. Proofs of heroicity required in the process of beatification will serve to illustrate in detail the general principles exposed above upon proof of their "holiness" or likeness to God. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church Chapter 2, Article 1, 61, "The patriarchs and certain other Old Testament figures have been and always will be honored as saints in all the church's liturgical traditions." On 3 January 993, Pope John XV became the first pope to proclaim a person a "saint" from outside the diocese of Rome: on the petition of the German ruler, he had canonized Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg. Before that time, the popular "cults", or venerations, of saints had been local and spontaneous and were confirmed by the local bishop. Pope John XVIII subsequently permitted a cult of five Polish martyrs.
Pope Benedict VIII declared the Armenian hermit Symeon to be a saint, but it was not until the pontificate of Pope Innocent III that the Popes reserved to themselves the exclusive authority to canonize saints, so that local bishops needed the confirmation of the Pope. Walter of Pontoise was the last person in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope: Hugh de Boves, the Archbishop of Rouen, canonized him in 1153. Thenceforth a decree of Pope Alexander III in 1170 reserved the prerogative of canonization to the Pope, insofar as the Latin Church was concerned. One source claims that "there are over 10,000 named saints and beatified people from history, the Roman Martyrology and Orthodox sources, but no definitive head count". Alban Butler published Lives of the Saints including a total of 1,486 saints; the latest revision of this book, edited by the Jesuit Herbert Thurston and the British author Donald Attwater, contains the lives of 2,565 saints. Monsign
Ramayyan was the Dewan of Travancore state, during 1737 and 1756 and was responsible for the consolidation and expansion of that kingdom after the defeat of the Dutch at the 1741 Battle of Colachel during the reign of Maharajah Marthanda Varma, the creator of modern Travancore. Ramayyan, was born in Yerwadi, a village in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu to which his family belonged; when he was six years of age his poor father gave up his native village and came to Thiruvattar and settled at a hamlet known as Aruvikara in the Kalkulam Taluka in the modern-day Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu state. When he was twenty years old he lost his parents, who he survived along with their other three sons and one daughter. After the death of his parents Ramayyan visited Trivandrum, attracted to it by the never ending festivities and celebrations, which always drew great crowds of Tamil Brahmins from all over Travancore and neighbouring regions of modern-day Tamil Nadu. On one occasion he decided to stay back and seek some employment in Trivandrum in which, owing to his superior intelligence and ability, he was successful.
He was employed as an assistant to the Attiyara Pohtty Brahmin of Vanchiyoor, a member of the Ettara Yogam or the Council of Eight and a Half who controlled the Temple of Padmanabhapuram and a man of great power and influence. While employed with the Attiyara Pohtty one evening, when the Maharajah Marthanda Varma was dining at Attiyara, he noticed Ramayyan who impressed him by dealing with a minor yet significant incident with great sense and intelligence; the pleased Marthanda Varma asked the Attiyara Pohtty to let him take the young boy into his service which being permitted Ramayyan became a servant of the Maharajah of Travancore. Ramayyan from being appointed at a minor post in the Palace management soon rose in the Maharajah's favour and was appointed Palace Rayasom or Under Secretary wherein he fulfilled his duties ably, thus when the Dalawa or Dewan of Travancore, Arumukham Pillai, died in the year 1736, Ramayyan was appointed Dalawa by the impressed Maharajah Marthanda Varma. The entire territorial extent of Travancore state namely between the River Periyar and Cape Comorin was attained with the efforts of Ramayyan Dalawa on behalf of his King Marthanda Varma.
It was due to his efforts and conquests that the kingdoms of Kayamkulam, Elayadathu Swaroopam, Ambalapuzha etc. were annexed to Travancore and the Dutch were defeated in the Battle of Colachel. Several favourable treaties were signed with the British under his Dalawaship while the Kingdom of Cochin and the Zamorin accepted the suzerainty of Travancore. Ramayyan Dalawa's two sons and one daughter moved back to Tamil Nadu after his death, his family settled in the erstwhile Pudukkottai state. The king of Pudukkotta, who had a good rapport with the Travancore state, offered Dalawa's descendants the entire village of Sithanavasal. Ramayyan Dalawa resided in the town of Mavelikkara. After the death of his wife, Ramayyan married a Malayala Kshatriya Nair lady from Mavelikkara of the Edassery family. After his death Ramayyan's descendants settled there, his Nair wife was given gifts and presents and special allowances from the Travancore government in recognition of his services to the state while his own descendants were bestowed with the honorific title of Dalawa.
The able Dalawa breathed his last in the year 1756. Marthanda Varma was saddened by his death, followed his faithful servant in 1758; the Maharajah Marthanda Varma and Ramayyan Dalawa were more than just king and minister to each other. They were intimate friends, so much that after the death of Ramayyan the Maharajah became depressed and declined in health prior to his death in 1758. Ramayyan Dalawa was one of the ablest and most popular ministers of Travancore and while on his death bed when asked how he would want his memory perpetuated he stated that he was an "instrument in the hands of my master and had no such ambitions." Ramayyan Dalawa was the main enemy of the Nampoothiris of Travancore who lived in Kayamkulam and nearby places. During the Kayamkulam war, Ramayyan Dalawa attacked and looted the Nambiathiris, high order Nampoothiris having the knowledge of Dhanurveda—the science of arms in ancient times—and who were the local rulers of'Swaroopams', a small area covering five or six villages, the owners of temples in this region for defeating Kayamkulam as there were well trained armies of Nairs under each Nambiathiris.
After winning the battle with Kayamkulam, Ramayyan downgraded them. As a protest, many Nampoothiris went to northern places and lived as Nampoothiris. Many of the Nampoothiris remained at Kayamkulam, Oachira and Haripad were down graded as'Nambiathis' the'purohithas' of local Nairs. In the meantime a new group of Brahmins were brought to these places from the Kolathu Nadu and posted as priests in many temples in these regions, they were called Thiruvalla Desis by the locals or Thiruvalla potties and they were given the status of Nampoothiris during the beginning of'Kollavarsham' 1109. Thus the erstwhile Nampoothiris in this region became second grade Nampoothiris and known as Nambiathis and as a result they hated Ramayyan Dalawa. Ward and Corner, two British surveyors who conducted a survey in erstwhile Travancore and Cochin at the beginning of 19th century observed that many Nampoothiris of Kayamkulam and surroundings migrated to northern Kerala during Ramayyan Dalawa's time. Dewan Marthanda Varma Travancore PGN Unnithan Mavelikara Marthandavarma
Nagercoil is a city in the southernmost Indian district of Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu and a corporation. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District in Tamil Nadu; the city, situated close to the tip of the Indian peninsula, lies in an undulating terrain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The present city of Nagercoil grew around Kottar, a mercantile town that dates back to the Sangam period. Kottar is now a locality within the city limits. For 735 years it was a central part of the erstwhile Travancore kingdom and Kerala State, till a decade after India's independence from Britain in 1947. In 1956, Kanyakumari District, along with the town, was merged with Tamil Nadu; the city is a centre for a range of economic activities in the small but densely-populated district, including tourism, wind energy, marine fish production and exports and cloves plantations, agro-crops, floral production, manufacture of fish nets, rubber products among other activities.‘Nagercoil Cloves’ is a distinct quality of dried cloves in the spices market, noted for its aroma.
Cloves and other spices are grown in estates in the Western Ghats, outside the city. Nagercoil is the nearest city corporation to the ISRO Propulsion Complex and the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant; the city, along with the district of Kanyakumari, stands at the top in many HDI parameters in Tamil Nadu state, including education, per capita income, health indices, etc. The municipality of Nagercoil was upgraded as a Municipal corporation on the eve of its 100th year as a city on February 14th 2019. Known as the Granary of Travancore, Nagercoil not only served as the food basket of Kerala, but was one among the important spice-trading centers in the kingdom of Travancore from the 14th century onward, maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era. Various Tamil and Kerala kings fought over this rich agricultural land. Various historians cite that the land's climate and diverse, luxuriant vegetation had no comparison anywhere else in Tamil Nadu. According to the 2011 census, Nagercoil had a population of 224,849 with a female-male sex ratio of 1.05, well above the national average of 0.929 females/male.
A total of 20,241 were under the age of six, constituting 10,122 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 0.17 % of the population respectively. The literacy rate of the city was 95.35%. The city had a total of 59,997 households. There were a total of 76,345 workers, comprising 244 cultivators, 1,155 main agricultural laborers, 2,271 in household industries, 67,050 other workers, 5,625 marginal workers, 110 marginal cultivators, 361 marginal agricultural laborers, 447 marginal workers in household industries and 4,707 other marginal workers; the major software companies present in Nagercoil are Hinduja Global Solutions, Navigant Consulting and American stock exchange NASDAQ. The city has small aerospace manufacturing plants and satellite fabricating firms serving the Indian Space Research Organisations facility in ISRO Propulsion Complex, Mahendragiri; the Regional Academic Centre for Space by Indian Space Research Organisation, one among the only six incubation centers for Space Startups in India, is under construction in Nagercoil.
The Integral Coach Factory has small scale windmill unit. The export of 95 tons of fruits and vegetables to the Gulf Countries through the Thiruvananthapuram airports is a major source of revenue for the city, with food processing companies generating a daily revenue of 16.7 lakh rupees and an annual revenue of 6.1 billion rupees. The flower market of Thovalai exports 350 tons of Flowers to Kerala and Middle Eastern countries generating an annual revenue of Rs.250 crore. The major cottage industries like Fish-net manufacturing, Rubber industries, Jewellery manufacturing are industries serving the domestic and export markets; the minor cottage industries include Surgical Gloves, Coir-making, floral trade, handloom-weaving, cashew nut, food-processing units, lace-making. Nagercoil has the highest per capita income of Rs.276,454, making it among the richest small cities in India. The city has an installed windmill capacity of 1500 MW catering to 20% of the state's renewable electricity needs. Muppandhal has emerged as the wind power hub, with plant owners eager to cash in on the Rs 2.90 per unit purchase price being offered by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board.
The architecture of Nagercoil consists of an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from those that predate the creation of the town, from the early Dravidian architecture and Kerala Architecture, to English Gothic Revival, to the 21st century contemporary. Although there are prehistoric and classical structures in the city, the architectural history of Nagercoil begins with the first small settlements from 3 A. D; the Roman naturalist and writer Pliny the Elder mentions Nagercoil as a commercial metropolis, having trade links with his contemporaneous Roman merchants, who traded and stayed in unique rock-walled, clay-roofed structures. This legacy can be found in some of the town's old heritage structures like the Nagaraja Temple, Nagercoil; the temple has two main deities and Nagaraja. The upadevathas are Shiva, Subrahmanya Swami, Ganesha and Dwarapalaka; as an ancient tradition the priests are Namboothiri Brahmins who are referred by the Pambumekkat mana in Thrissur, Kerala. The 14th century St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Kottar serves as a testimony to the mix of Roman and native architecture.
While Saint Xavier was doing missionary work at Kottar and its neighborhood, he averted an invasion of Padagas with the
Kottarakkara transliterated as Kottarakara, is a vast developing town and municipality in Punalur Revenue Division and Kollam District, in Kerala state, India. The town is close to Kollam Port, which has a rich history linked to the early medieval period as well as a reputation as an important commercial and trading center. Kottarakkara lies 27 kilometres to the east of Kollam city centre. Kottarakkara known in the ancient days of the kings as the Elayadathu Swarupam, was a principality ruled by a branch of the Travancore Royal Family, it is the home of Kathakali, a well known dance drama which originated as Ramanattam created in the 17th century by Prince Kottarakkara Thampuran and patronized by the Raja of Kottarakkara in the early 19th century absorbing other dance forms of Krishnattam with further innovations. Kottarakkara, a compound word made up of the words Kottaram, meaning "palace", kara meaning "land" means "land of palaces"; the area which had several palaces was thus named "Kottarakkara."
Kottarakkara is a small principality close to Kollam. As a taluk headquarters, it has other small towns, it is surrounded by several other towns. Kottarakara Assembly Constituency is one among the 11 assembly constituencies in Kollam district. Adv P. Aisha Potty is the present MLA from Kottarakkara constituency. Kottarakkara comes under Mavelikkara, that represents a large area including Kottarakkara, Changanasseri, spread in Kollam and Kottayam districts. E Chandrasekaran Nair, D. Damodaran Potti, R. Balakrishna Pillai, E. Chandrasekaran Nair, C. Achutha Menon, Kottara Gopalakrishnan and R. Balakrishna Pillai are the former elected members represented Kottarakara Assembly Constituency in the past. NH 208 meets the MC road at Kottarakkara. Kottarakkara is linked with Kollam, both at a distance of 27 km, it is 72 km to 80 km to the south of Kottayam. Kottarakara has one of the Kerala's well connected KSRTC Hub, consist of various services across all the parts of kerala and interstate services. Local routes are connected by private bus services as well as State Transport.
It is well connected to the capital city of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram by KSRTC Fast Passenger, super fast, super deluxe, a/c low floor buses. Buses are ply to the district headquarters of Kollam and Pathanamthitta and to towns in Tamil Nadu like Coimbatore and Sengottai and Daily trips to Mookambika, Bangalore, Ooty, nagercoil, palani. Kottarakara depot of ksrtc is one of the top revenue earning depots of the state. Kottarakara railway station is located on the Kollam-Sengottai railway line. Kottarakara railway station, which connects to Kollam, Ernakulam, Palakkad, Nagercoil, Tirunelveli, Guruvayur and Punalur through the direct passenger, fast passenger and express train services. There are eight pairs of services right now and heard that many more services would be inducted in this route since the Punalur-Schengotta ghat section has been closed for Broad Gauge conversion. Once the conversion is over, this will serve as the shortest route from Kollam to Chennai and from Kollam Port & Cochin Port to Tuticorin Port.
Further, a new line from Chengannur to Thiruvananthapuram via Adoor and Pandalam is awaiting survey. Adoor will become a junction; the nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport in Thiruvananthapuram. Lalithambika Antharjanam, novelist Veliyam Bharghavan, Former General Secretary, Communist Party of India Kakkanadan, novelist Bobby Kottarakkara, Malayalam actor K. B. Ganesh Kumar and politician -- Murali, Malayalam actor Kottarakkara Sreedharan Nair, actor R. Balakrishna Pillai, Former Minister, MLA, MP and Panchayat President, Chairman of the Kerala Congress. Saikumar, Malayalam actor Salim Yusuf - Physician and epidemiologist. Seventh day Adventist higher Secondary School, Kottarakara Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kottarakkara St. Mary's Higher Secondary School, Kottarakara Mar Baselios English Medium School, Carmel Residential Senior Secondary School, Kottarakara Mar Gregorios memorial residential public school, Sri Vidyadhiraja Memorial Model HSS, Kottarakara. Govt. Boys' Higher Secondary School, Kottarakara, St. Gregorios High School, College Junction, Kottarakara, St. Gregorios Higher Secondary School, College Junction, Kottarakara Marthoma Girls' Higher Secondary School, Kottarakara St. Gregorios College University Institute of Technology IHRD College of Engineering, Thrikkannamangal MAMHS,Chengamanadu BRM Central School,Chengamanadu Mercy college of Nursing, Valakom Vijaya Nursing College Sree Sankara Sanskrit Vidhyapeedom, Edakkidam Evhss neduvathoor Karikom International Public School - Karikom, Kottarakara Govt.
Highersecondary School, Kottarakara, Marthoma High School, Kottarakara RVHS Higher Secondary School, Kottarakara GLPS,Valakom, Kottarakara GLPS,Panavely, Kottarakara Govt. Highersecondary School, Kottarakara, Govt. LPS,Vettikavala, kottarakkara Sree Narayana Guru Central School, Ezhukone Faifa ice cream's factory is situated in the outskirts of the town Kizhekketheruvu Parankamveettil.
Padmanabhapuram Palace is a Travancore era palace located in Padmanabhapuram, Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu. It is known as Kalkulam Palace. Padmanabhapuram is the former capital city of the erstwhile Hindu Kingdom of Travancore, it is around 20km from Nagercoil, 60km from Thiruvananthapuram city. The palace is complex inside with an old granite fortress around four kilometers long; the palace is located at the foot of the Veli Hills. The river Valli flows nearby. Another palace known as kuttalam Palace is situated in Kuttalam in Tenkasi, Thirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, under the ownership of Kerala government, it is situated in Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu. The palace was constructed around 1601 AD by Iravi Varma Kulasekhara Perumal who ruled Venad between 1592 and 1609, it is believed that the Thai Kottaram was built in 1500. The founder of modern Travancore, King Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma who ruled Travancore from 1729 to 1758, rebuilt the palace in around 1750.
King Marthaanda Varma dedicated the kingdom to his family deity Sree Padmanabha, a form of Lord Vishnu and ruled the kingdom as Padmanabha dasa or servant of Lord Padmanabha. Hence the name Padmanabhapuram or City of Lord Padmanabha. In the late 18th century in 1795 the capital of Travancore was shifted from here to Thiruvananthapuram, the place lost its former glory. However, the palace complex continues to be one of the best examples of traditional Kerala architecture, some portions of the sprawling complex are the hallmark of traditional Kerala style architecture; the Palace though surrounded by the State of Tamil Nadu is still part of Kerala and the land and Palace belongs to the Government of Kerala. This Palace is maintained by the Govt.of Kerala Archaeology Department. The Padmanabhapuram Palace complex consists of several structures: Mantrasala; the ground floor houses the royal treasury. The first floor houses the King's bedrooms; the ornamental bedstead is made of 64 types of herbal and medicinal woods, was a gift from the Dutch merchants.
Most of the rooms here and in other parts of the palace complex have built-in recesses in walls for storing weapons like swords and daggers. The second floor houses the King's resting and study rooms. Here the King used to spend time during fasting days; the top floor served as the worship chamber of the royal household. Its walls are covered with exquisite 18th century murals, depicting scenes from the puranas, few scenes from the social life of the Travancore of that time; the top floor was supposed to be Sree Padmanabha Swamy's room. This building was constructed during the reign of King Marthandavarma, he was designated as Padmanabha Dasa and used to rule the Travancore kingdom as a servant of Sree Padmanabha Swamy. The southern palace is as old as the ` Thai kottaram'. Now, it curios. Collections of items give an insight into the cultural ethos of that period; the Padamnabhapuram Palace complex has several other interesting features: The palace is located near Thuckalay, Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu state but administered by the Government of Kerala state.
The clock tower in the palace complex has a 300-year-old clock. A big hall now bare, which can accommodate around 1000 guests, where ceremonial feasts were held, on auspicious occasions. A secret passage, now blocked, through which the king, his immediate family members, their entourage could escape to another palace, located several kilometers away in the event of any emergency. Name of this palace is Charottu kottaram. A flight of steps leads to a bathing pond, which has lost its freshness due to neglect and years of disuse; the palace complex has a section of curios and several interesting objects: An entire room filled with old Chinese jars, all gifts by Chinese merchants. A variety of weapons, including swords and daggers. Brass lamps and stone sculpture, a variety of furniture and large mirrors made of polished metal. A gallery of paintings depicting incidents from the history of Travancore. A wooden cot made of up to 64 wooden pieces of a variety of medicinal tree trunks Polished stone cot, meant for cool effect Toilet and well Eraniel Marthandavarma
Kanyakumari, is a city of the Kanyakumari district in the Indian State of Tamil Nadu. It is the southernmost city of peninsular/contiguous India. Kanyakumari has been a city since the Sangam period, and is a popular tourist destination. The place derives its name from the goddess Devi Kanya Kumari, considered to be the sister of Krishna, a goddess is believed to remove the rigidity from the mind, to whom women pray for marriage. In 1656, the Dutch East India company conquered Portuguese Ceylon from the Portuguese, the name corrupted to "Comorin" and was called Cape Comorin during British rule in India; the city was renamed Kanyakumari by the Government of India and the Government of Madras. According to a Hindu legend, Kanya Devi, an avatar of Parvati, was to marry Shiva, who failed to show up on his wedding day. Rice and other grains meant for the wedding feast remained unused; as the legend goes, the uncooked grains turned into stones. Some believe that the small stones on the shore today, which look like rice, are indeed grains from the wedding, never solemnised.
Kanya Devi is now considered a virgin goddess who blesses tourists who flock the town. Her temple located in Kanyakumari is a holy shrine. According to another Hindu legend, Lord Hanuman dropped a piece of earth as he was carrying a mountain with his life-saving herb, Mrita Sanjivani, from the Himalayas to Lanka during the Rama-Ravana war; this chunk of earth is called Marunthuvazh Malai "hills where medicine lives". This is said to be the reason for the abundance of unique native medicinal plants in the area. Marunthuvazh Malai is located near Kottaram about 7 km from Kanyakumari town on the Kanyakumari-Nagercoil highway; the sage Agasthya, an expert in medicinal herbs, is believed to have lived around this site in ancient days. It is believed to be the reason. A nearby village is named Agastheeswaram after the sage. Today, there is a small ashram on the middle of the Maruthuvazh Malai hill, which tourists visit, both to visit the Ashram and to take a glimpse of the sea near Kanyakumari a few kilometres away, the greenery below.
As of the census of India 2001, Kanyakumari had a population of 19,739, comprising 9,884 males and 9,855 females, making the sex ratio of the town to 997. A total of 2,403 people were under six years of age and the child sex ratio stood at 1,024; the town had an average literacy of 88.62%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. There were a total of 4,236 households in the town; as of 2001, Kanyakumari had a total of 5,929 main workers: 11 cultivators, 78 agricultural labourers, 66 in household industries and 5,774 other workers. There were a total of 119 marginal workers: 4 marginal cultivators, 3 marginal agricultural labourers, 11 marginal workers in household industries and 101 other marginal workers. Kanyakumari is located at 8.08°N 77.57°E / 8.08. Kanyakumari lies at the meeting point of the Laccadive Sea and the Bay of Bengal, it is located at the confluence of the Western Coastal Plains and Eastern Coastal Plains. Kanyakumari is at the southern tip and is the southernmost point of the contiguous Indian Subcontinent.
However, the southernmost point of Republic of India is at Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island, at 6°45’10″N and 93°49’36″E. The nearest city is Thiruvananthapuram and the airport is Trivandrum International Airport, Trivandrum and the nearest town is Nagercoil, the administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District is 22 km away; the Thiruvalluvar Statue has a height of 95 feet and stands upon a 38 foot rock that represents the 38 chapters of "virtue" in the Thirukkural. The statue standing on the rock represents "wealth" and "pleasures", signifying that wealth and love be earned and enjoyed on the foundation of solid virtue; the combined height of the statue and pedestal is 133 feet, denoting the 133 chapters in the Thirukkural. It has a total weight of 7000 tons; the statue, with its slight bend around the waist, is reminiscent of a dancing pose of the ancient Indian deities like Nataraja. It was sculpted by the Indian sculptor Dr V. Ganapati Sthapati, who created the Iraivan Temple. It's opening ceremony was on 1 January 2000.
The monument was hit by the Indian Ocean tsunami on 26 December 2004. But stood unaffected; the statue is designed to survive earthquakes of unexpected magnitudes, such as magnitude 6 on the Richter Scale occurring within 100 kilometers. This is far beyond that of any event recorded in the regional history. During maintenance work, as well as during rough sea, entry is restricted for tourists; the Vivekananda Rock Memorial is a popular tourist monument in Vavathurai, India. The memorial stands on one of two rocks located about 500 metres east of the mainland of Vavathurai, it was built in 1970 in honour of Swami Vivekananda, said to have attained enlightenment on the rock. According to local legends, it was on this rock. A meditation hall is attached to the memorial for visitors to meditate; the design of the mandapa incorporates different styles of temple architecture from all over India. It houses a statue of Vivekananda; the rocks are surrounded by the Laccadive Sea. The memorial consists of the Vivekananda Mandapam and the Shripada Mandapam.
The Gandhi Memorial Mandapam has been built on the spot where the urn containing the Mahatma's ashes