SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Evaporation

Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gas phase. The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance; when the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide with each other. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will escape and enter the surrounding air as a gas; when evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling. On average, only a fraction of the molecules in a liquid have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid; the evaporation will continue until an equilibrium is reached when the evaporation of the liquid is equal to its condensation. In an enclosed environment, a liquid will evaporate. Evaporation is an essential part of the water cycle; the sun drives evaporation of water from oceans, moisture in the soil, other sources of water.

In hydrology and transpiration are collectively termed evapotranspiration. Evaporation of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor. With sufficient energy, the liquid will turn into vapor. For molecules of a liquid to evaporate, they must be located near the surface, they have to be moving in the proper direction, have sufficient kinetic energy to overcome liquid-phase intermolecular forces; when only a small proportion of the molecules meet these criteria, the rate of evaporation is low. Since the kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to its temperature, evaporation proceeds more at higher temperatures; as the faster-moving molecules escape, the remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, the temperature of the liquid decreases. This phenomenon is called evaporative cooling; this is. Evaporation tends to proceed more with higher flow rates between the gaseous and liquid phase and in liquids with higher vapor pressure.

For example, laundry on a clothes line will dry more on a windy day than on a still day. Three key parts to evaporation are heat, atmospheric pressure, air movement. On a molecular level, there is no strict boundary between the vapor state. Instead, there is a Knudsen layer; because this layer is only a few molecules thick, at a macroscopic scale a clear phase transition interface cannot be seen. Liquids that do not evaporate visibly at a given temperature in a given gas have molecules that do not tend to transfer energy to each other in a pattern sufficient to give a molecule the heat energy necessary to turn into vapor. However, these liquids are evaporating, it is just that the process is much slower and thus less visible. If evaporation takes place in an enclosed area, the escaping molecules accumulate as a vapor above the liquid. Many of the molecules return to the liquid, with returning molecules becoming more frequent as the density and pressure of the vapor increases; when the process of escape and return reaches an equilibrium, the vapor is said to be "saturated", no further change in either vapor pressure and density or liquid temperature will occur.

For a system consisting of vapor and liquid of a pure substance, this equilibrium state is directly related to the vapor pressure of the substance, as given by the Clausius–Clapeyron relation: ln ⁡ = − Δ H v a p R where P1, P2 are the vapor pressures at temperatures T1, T2 ΔHvap is the enthalpy of vaporization, R is the universal gas constant. The rate of evaporation in an open system is related to the vapor pressure found in a closed system. If a liquid is heated, when the vapor pressure reaches the ambient pressure the liquid will boil; the ability for a molecule of a liquid to evaporate is based on the amount of kinetic energy an individual particle may possess. At lower temperatures, individual molecules of a liquid can evaporate if they have more than the minimum amount of kinetic energy required for vaporization. Note: Air used here is a common example. Concentration of the substance evaporating in the air If the air has a high concentration of the substance evaporating the given substance will evaporate more slowly.

Flow rate of air This is in part related to the concentration points above. If "fresh" air is moving over the substance all the time the concentration of the substance in the air is less to go up with time, thus encouraging faster evaporation; this is the result of the boundary layer at the evaporation surface decreasing with flow velocity, decreasing the diffusion distance in the stagnant layer. The amount of minerals dissolved in the liquid Inter-molecular forces The stronger the forces keeping the molecules together in the liquid state, the more energy one must get to esca

Samuel J. Kirkwood (Ream)

Samuel Kirkwood is a bronze statue created by Vinnie Ream and placed in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the Capitol Building in Washington, D. C. one of the two statues there from Iowa. It was dedicated in 1913. Ream, who had achieved some degree of fame as a teenager for her 1866 statue of Lincoln that stands in the Capitol, learned that the State of Iowa had decided to commission a statue of Kirkwood. Despite the fact that Kirkwood had been one of the Congressmen who had voted against awarding the Lincoln statue to Ream, she set about getting and succeeded in garnering the opportunity to do it. Ream had at that point been retired from sculpting for two decades but with the backing of Kirkwood's widow Jane Kirkwood won the assignment. On April 5, 1906 the Iowa General Assembly voted to award the statue to Ream, along with $5,000 for the casting in bronze of her model; because she was not up to the physical demands of the task, Ream's husband Richard, an engineer, devised a special “boatswain’s chair” that allowed her to raise and lower herself in a seated position while working on the statue.

In 1924, it was announced that a “handsome bronze statue of Iowa’s war governor” would be erected in front of the Iowa Old Capitol Building on the University of Iowa campus in Iowa City. The plaster that Ream had made for the Washington, D. C. statue was still in her studio. In November 1927, the new casting was dedicated in front of the Old Capitol. In 1974, the statue was moved to Kirkwood Community College. There it was placed indoors in a new building later moved to an exterior place on the campus. Media related to Samuel J. Kirkwood by Vinnie Ream at Wikimedia Commons

New media studies

New media studies is a young academic discipline that explores the intersections of computing, the humanities, the visual and performing arts. Janet Murray, a prominent researcher in the discipline, describes this intersection as "a single new medium of representation, the digital medium, formed by the braided interplay of technical invention and cultural expression at the end of the 20th century"; the main factor in defining new media is the role. The category of new media is occupied by devices connected to the Internet, an example being a smartphone or tablet. Television and cinemas are thought of as new media but are ruled out since the invention was before the time of the internet. New media studies examines ideas and insights on media from communication theorists, programmers and technologists. Among others, the work of Marshall McLuhan is viewed as one of the cornerstones of the study of media theory. McLuhan’s slogan, "the medium is the message", calls attention to the intrinsic effect of communications media.

A program in new media studies may incorporate lessons and topics within communication, computer science, graphic design, web design, human-computer interaction, media theory, information science, other related fields. New media studies is the academic discipline which examines how our relationship with media has changed with the onset of global connectivity and the popularity of digital and user generated content. New media studies seeks to connect computer sciences and innovations in new media with social sciences and the philosophy of technology. Marshall McLuhan is known in the study of media theory for coining the phrase, "the medium is the message" in its effect in communication in media; the medium affects how the media is delivered by the person and how the other person is receiving that media, while the characteristics of the medium effects the content in its delivery. McLuhan’s work challenged how media changed in the post-modern era which can relate to present day use of media and its medium.

Interface is defined as the common boundary of spaces, or phases. Other Major works that invoke his standpoint in the study of New Media including: The Mechanical Bride - Which includes many short essays that analyze forms of media such as advertising, or newspaper in relation to society; the Gutenberg Galaxy - In this book, McLuhan Writes about technology like the printing press or electronic media changing how people share stories in their day-to-day lives. Lev Manovich has written books on the topic of new media, according to his personal page "has appeared on the top 25 people shaping the Future of Design," He has published nine different books regarding the topic of new media. Manovich believes in the five general principles of new media, as he discusses in his 2001 book, The Language of New Media they are: Numerical Representation: means that "all new media objects can be described mathematically and can be manipulated via algorithms." Modularity: are "elements can that be independently modified and reused in other works".

Automation: "Automation is seen in computer programs that allow users to create or modify media objects using templates or algorithms". Variability: is "a new media object is not something fixed once and for all, but something that can exist in different infinite versions". Transcoding: Designates the blend of computer and culture, of "traditional ways in which human culture modeled the world and the computer's own means of representing it". Henry Jenkins came up with the convergence culture in the field on new media studies: "By convergence, I mean the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, the migratory behavior of media audiences who would go anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they wanted." Janet Murray is a professor at the School of Literature and Communications at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Murray is a part of several design projects such as. Janet works as a member of Georgia Tech's experimental game lab.

Janet is the author of the book Hamlet on the Holodeck. Along with this book, she is a guest writer in The New Media Reader, where she is credited for writing one of the two introductions in the book called, Inventing the Medium. In an article from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, there was a study involving a virtual reality environment that simulated ATM training for persons with acquired brain injury, their conclusion of this study proves that virtual reality can be a useful tool in which it could be accessed online. This helped conveniently providing training opportunities anywhere. In a book called Critical Terms for Media Studies, the author illustrates his take on new media in technology: "technology---a focus on the mechanical aspects of media and the way that innovations and inventions transform the condition of both individual and social experience." Strategies vs Tactics - The term strategies refers to the methods a producer intended for their creation to be used.

The term tactics is referring to the ways individuals utilize a creation, regardless of the creators intentions, in order to make it more useful to them. Hypermediated - Hypermediation is a concept in new media studies that refers to a form of mediation in which media is connected in a close way. Mediation, in this sense, deals with using indirect sources to create a direct conn