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Eventing is an equestrian event where a single horse and rider combine and compete against other competitors across the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country, show jumping. This event has its roots in a comprehensive cavalry test that required mastery of several types of riding; the competition may be run as a one-day event, where all three events are completed in one day or a three-day event, more now run over four days, with dressage on the first two days, followed by cross-country the next day and show jumping in reverse order on the final day. Eventing was known as Combined Training, the name persists in many smaller organizations; the term "Combined Training" is sometimes confused with the term "Combined Test", which refers to a combination of just two of the phases, most dressage and show jumping. Eventing is an equestrian triathlon, in that it combines three different disciplines in one competition set out over one, two, or three days, depending on the length of courses and number of entries.

This sport follows a similar format in Australia, Ireland, United Kingdom and the United States The dressage phase consists of an exact sequence of movements ridden in an enclosed arena. The test is judged by one or more judges, who are looking for balance, rhythm and most the cooperation between the horse and rider; the challenge is to demonstrate that a supremely fit horse, capable of completing the cross-country phase on time has the training to perform in a graceful and precise manner. Dressage work is the basis of all the other phases and disciplines within the sport of eventing because it develops the strength and balance that allow a horse to go cross-country and show jump competently. At the highest level of competition, the dressage test is equivalent to the United States Dressage Federation Third Level and may ask for half-pass at trot, shoulder-in, collected and extended gaits, single flying changes, counter-canter; the tests may not ask for Grand Prix movements such as canter pirouette, or passage.

Each movement in the test is scored on a scale from 0 to 10, with a score of "10" being the highest possible mark and with the total maximum score for the test varying depending on the level of competition and the number of movements. A score of 10 is rare. Therefore, if one movement is poorly executed, it is still possible for the rider to get a good overall score if the remaining movements are well executed; the marks are added together and any errors of course deducted. To convert this score to penalty points, the average marks of all judges are converted to a percentage of the maximum possible score, subtracted from 100 and the multiplied by a co-efficient decided by the governing body. Canadian example: 77 percent becomes 34.5 penalty points or x 1.5 = 34.5 Once the bell rings the rider is allowed 45 seconds to enter the ring or receive a two-point penalty an additional 45 seconds, for a total of 90 seconds, or is eliminated. If all four feet of the horse exit the arena during the test, this results in elimination.

If the horse resists more than 20 seconds during the test, this results in elimination. If the rider falls, this results in elimination. Errors on course: 1st: minus 2 marks 2nd: minus 4 marks 3rd: elimination The next phase, cross-country, requires both horse and rider to be in excellent physical shape and to be brave and trusting of each other; this phase consists of 12–20 fences, or 30–40 at the higher levels, placed on a long outdoor circuit. These fences consist of solidly built natural objects as well as various obstacles such as ponds and streams, ditches and banks, combinations including several jumping efforts based on objects that would occur in the countryside. Sometimes at higher levels, fences are designed that would not occur in nature. However, these are still designed to be as solid as more natural obstacles. Safety regulations mean that some obstacles are now being built with a "frangible pin system", allowing part or all of the jump to collapse if hit with enough impact. Speed is a factor, with the rider required to cross the finish line within a certain time frame.

Crossing the finish line after the optimum time results in penalties for each second over. At lower levels, there is a speed fault time, where penalties are incurred for horse and rider pairs completing the course too quickly. For every "disobedience" a horse and rider incur on course, penalties will be added to their dressage score. After four disobediences altogether or three disobediences at one fence the pair is eliminated, meaning they can no longer participate in the competition. A horse and rider pair can be eliminated for going off course, for example missing a fence. If the horses shoulder and hind-quarter touch the ground, mandatory retirement is taken and they are not allowed to participate further in the competition. If the rider falls off the horse they are eliminated. However, in the US this rule is being revised for the Novice level and below; the penalties for disobediences on cross-country are weighted relative to the other phases of competition to emphasize the importance of courage and athleticism.

Fitness is required as the time allowed will require a strong canter at the lower levels, all the way to a strong gallop at the higher events. In recent years, a controversy has developed between supporters of shor

Fran├žois de Chevert

François de Chevert was a French general. Chevert was born in Meuse, he entered service in 1706, became major in Beauce's regiment in Toul in 1728 in 1739 lieutenant-colonel. He distinguished himself in Flanders and Germany and herefore rewarded by a more important command, he led the siege of Prague in the War of the Austrian Succession with his grenadiers in 1741 and defended the city against the Austrian troops. Named brigadier-general, he took part in the operations in the Dauphiné and Italy, most famously Casteldelfino, became maréchal-de-camp in 1744. During the campaign in the Provence, he seized the isles of Sainte-Marguerite, after which coup he was named lieutenant-general in 1748. With this title, he commanded the French flanking force at the victory of Hastenbeck. In the following year he commanded the flanking force in the French victory at Lutterburg. During this illustrious career in the course of which he passed through all important ranks of the hierarchy, Chevert seems to have known nothing but success, save for one small defeat at the battle of Meer in 1758, where a large component of his corps consisted of green troops and militia.

A simple major of a regiment, he was awarded the order of Chevalier de Saint-Louis in 1742, became commander in 1754, was decorated with the Grand Croix in 1758 and made knight of the Aigle Blanc de Pologne in the same year. He died in Paris, aged 73, holding the position of governor of Givet and Charlemont

Peter Monroe Hagan

Peter Monroe Hagan was sheriff of Putnam County, Florida in 1916–1924 and 1928–1930. He is known for opposing the Ku Klux Klan and mob violence in the county in the violent period between 1915 and 1930, his thwarting of lynching attempts and his winning the pivotal 1928 election became a referendum against Klan and mob violence. In the decades after World War I mob violence and lynchings directed at black citizens was on the increase in Florida and the Ku Klux Klan was a mainstream organization. On June 8, 1922, the Palatka Daily News reported on a public event staged by the Klan the previous night in Palatka, Florida, attended by large crowds. Over 200 Klansmen from across the county gathered in the city's stadium to initiate twenty new members and performed a ceremony including a burning cross and banners reading "White Supremacy". On October 16, 1922 the Daily News reported another Klan event at Palatka’s leading Methodist church where six Klansmen marched through the building and presented a $50 contribution to the church's building fund.

Included with the donation was a letter, quoted in the article: Rev. J. D Sibert, pastor Methodist Church Palatka, Fla. Esteemed Sir:This organization having at heart the furtherance of the Master’s cause with regard to the Protestant faith, being in hearty sympathy with the efforts of your people to complete an edifice that will better enable you to accomplish good, be an honor to our city and reflect the glory of the living God - we take great pleasure in handing you herewith a small contribution to your building fund. Assuring you of our highest regard for yourself and for your people collectively, we are most respectfully, Putnam Klan No. 13, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. The letter was read out loud to the congregation and the reverend "offered fervent thanks" to the Klan. Hagan was elected sheriff of Putnam County in 1916. In the aftermath of World War I mob violence directed by the Ku Klux Klan and other white vigilantes against blacks and women they accused of transgressing the social order was on the increase.

This combined with Prohibition led to the highest crime rates in Putnam County's history. Hagan was faced with two lynching attempts in 1919 alone, after which he wrote in the Palatka Daily News: I want to say to the people of Palatka that there will be no repetition of this affair, any effort on the part of outsiders to come here and create disorder and engender ill-feeling between the two races will be met with force sufficient to stop it where it begins … We have determined to see that the colored people of this town and county get the protection to which they are entitled, that no hoodlums can come here and cowardly attack old and innocent colored men without having justice meted out to them for their offense, he was re-elected in 1920. In March 1923, a band of white road crew workers from Gainesville attempted to storm the Putnam County Jail with the intention of lynching Arthur Johnson, a black man awaiting trial on accusations of murdering their white co-worker Hugh C. Cross; the sheriff's official residence was on the site of the county jail.

Hagan and his deputies notified Sheriff Ramsey in Alachua County, leading to the arrest of eighteen men on their way back to Gainesville after the failed attack on the county jail. Hagan was praised by legislators and the press for his actions in stopping the attack, but of the eighteen culprits arrested only nine made it to trial and they were swiftly acquitted by the white jury. In the 1924 election Hagan ran unsuccessfully against Israel James Fennell, a candidate supported by the racist mob, for re-election as the county's sheriff. Announcing his campaign for re-election on March 7, 1924, Hagan stated his position on the Ku Klux Klan: I am not, would not be a member, however, of any organization which appears to differ in policies from those who do not belong to its ranks, for the reason that as Sheriff I believe it to be my duty to be free to serve all of the people and not an organized part of them. I have no personal quarrel with the Klan; the KKK would reach the peak of its local influence two years but by 1928 public opinion was shifting and Sheriff Hagan was voted back into office after a four-year absence.

He died two years later. Townsend, Billy. Age of Barbarity: The Forgotten Fight for the Soul of Florida. ISBN 9781467978033

Xiao Hu Dui

Xiao Hu Dui known as the Little Tigers, were a Taiwanese boy band formed in 1988. The band consisted of Nicky Wu and Julian Chen; the trio rose to fame during the late 1980s, achieving success in their native Taiwan and throughout Asia. Their success led to the recognition and creation of Taiwanese idol boy bands and other pop acts. Xiao Hu Dui are cited as the first idol band. After a brief hiatus, the group disbanded in 1995; the three members went on to pursue solo careers. They sold over 15 million albums. In 2010, Xiao Hu Dui reunited, performing for CCTV's Spring Festival Gala. In March 2016, Su and Chen both attended Wu's wedding in Bali. In the late 1980s, due to the rise in popularity of campus folk songs amongst the Taiwanese society, members of the local music circles and scouts began looking for potential new faces, Chinese pop music became active. In July 1988, Zhonghua TV Company launched Zhang Xiaoyan’s talent talent show “TV Rookie Hegemony Station”, which consisted of three girls’ “Kit Team” as program assistants.

In order to achieve balance, Kaili Creative Portfolio Brokers looked to select three boys as assistants. In the end, 18-year-old Nicky Wu, 17-year-old Chen Zhipeng and 15-year-old Alec Su stood out amongst the candidates; the group consisting of these three was named "Little Tigers". At the time, Wu was a sports student studying in Taichung, he had a Taekwondo foundation. The iconic movement was a clean and backward backflip, the nickname was "霹雳虎". Chen studied ballet, has music and dance foundation, similar to Hong Kong star Leslie Cheung, he is known as "Little Shuai Tiger". Su was the youngest performer, he was a high school student at the prestigious Taipei Municipal Jianguo High School. At the end of 1988, the Little Tigers signed a contract with UFO Group; the original positioning of the Little Tigers was based on the imitation of the Japanese idol men's team and the youth team. The combination of the best fast songs and dynamic dances, the first single "Green Apple Paradise" was adapted from the youth team's songs.

During the New Year in 1989, the Little Tigers teamed up with the women’s group of the same company to release the album Happy New Year, Green Apple Paradise was included. The vibrant image of the Little Tigers gained popularity among young people; the Little Tigers, a supporting role, developed independently. At the end of 1993, Chen Zhipeng retired from the army, the Little Tigers held the "Stars are still brilliant" song club, the release of the stars is still brilliant. At this time, the ecology of Taiwan's entertainment industry has changed, the wave of idol groups has receded, individual idols have emerged in an endless stream; the members began to profess their preference to develop their solo careers. In 1994 and 1995, the group released two albums, "The feeling of happiness is always the same" and "The mediocrity of the mediocrity". In the spring and fall of 1995, the Little Tigers held a number of "Tiger Screaming Dragons 95 Concerts" in Taiwan and China. During this period, UFO Group and major shareholder Warner Music had a disagreement, resulting in the resignation of the UFO team, in 1996 UFO Group was acquired by Warner Music.

As a result of the personnel change, the three members were now contracted to different companies, leading to the official disbandment of the group. 遊俠兒 SYM Motors Forever Friends – a 1995 film featuring Wu and Su. The Little Tigers disbanded after the film. My Fair Princess – a 1998 TV series reuniting Su and Chen. TFBoys Nicky Wu – Sina Weibo Julian Chen – Sina Weibo Alec Su – Sina Weibo

Ruggiero Giovannelli

Ruggiero Giovannelli was an Italian composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. He was a member of the Roman School, succeeded Palestrina at St. Peter's, he was born near Rome. It has been claimed that he was a student of Palestrina, but there is no documentary evidence of this. Not much is known about Giovannelli's life until 1583 when he became maestro di cappella at S Luigi dei Francesi, a post which he held until 1591, at which time he went to the Collegio Germanico. In addition to these posts he was maestro di cappella for Duke Giovanni Angelo of Altaemps, at his private chapel concurrently with his other jobs, he sang, served in various administrative posts. Giovannelli's most important appointment was as the replacement for Palestrina as the maestro di cappella at the Julian Chapel at St. Peter's, on 12 March 1594, a position which he held until 1599, when he became a singer at the Sistine Chapel. In 1614 he became maestro di cappella at the Sistine Chapel, he retired in 1624.

He is buried in the church of Santa Marta. Giovanelli published a large number of secular pieces, he is noted for his church music, most of which survives in manuscript. As could be expected for a composer of the Roman School, his sacred music was conservative, in the Palestrina style for the first part of his career, his output of sacred music fell off late in his life, at least one scholar has suggested that this was because he was uncomfortable with the new style. In 1615 he created a new edition of the Graduale known as the Medicean, published by the Medici press, he wrote masses and motets, some of which are for as many as 12 voices, which use polychoral techniques. For a Roman School composer and a priest he wrote a surprising amount of secular music madrigals and canzonettas, some of which are in a light-hearted style influenced by northern Italian models, or by Luca Marenzio, who had spent time in Rome, he wrote three books of madrigals for five voices and two books for four voices, as well as a large quantity of other secular songs which were not collected in publications.

Giovannelli's music was reprinted in Italy and elsewhere, indicating his broad popularity. Sources are incomplete, may differ about his published works. There appear to have been at least three volumes of five books, five- and eight-part motets and three part canzonets. There are masses and psalms in manuscript at the Vatican Library, among them a Miserere for four and eight voices and a mass for eight, on Palestrina's madrigal Vestiva i colli. Other madrigals are in the collections of Phalesisu. Il primo libro de madrigali Il secondo libro de madrigali Terzo libro de madrigali a cinque voci 3 motets for equal voices Carmina Sacra. "Ruggiero Giovannelli". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 1-56159-174-2. Reese, Gustave. Music in the Renaissance. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-09530-4. Free scores by Ruggiero Giovannelli at the International Music Score Library Project This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..

"article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton

Schiphol Busnet

Schiphol Busnet is the name used by Connexxion to operate the public transport by bus at Schiphol Airport and the town of Schiphol, the surrounding towns of Aalsmeer, Amstelveen and Badhoevedorp. Prior to December 2017, the network was operated using the brand name Schiphol Sternet; the Sternet, launched in 2000, was a joint-venture between Connexxion and GVB. As of 11 December 2011, the routes operated by GVB were handed over to Connexxion, who now operates all Sternet lines, it forms a merger of the private bus services for Schiphol employees and a few routes of the regional public transport from Schiphol to surrounding municipalities. For example, route 192 is the former route 68, route 195 is the former route 164 and route 199 is the former route 169; the buses run seven days a week until 01:00 at night, start in the early morning. A few bus lines run throughout the night. A short stretch through Schiphol-East is banned for people without a Schiphol Pass, as this is a so-called "secured zone".

The rest is normal public transport. Fares can be paid with OV-Chipcard balance. Unlike in most buses in the Netherlands, where boarding at the driver's door is obligatory, entering the bus within Schiphol is allowed at every door of the bus and besides the OV-Chipcard, valid tickets within this area include the Schiphol Pass, KLM Pass and several other company related passes; this enables workers at Schiphol to park their cars at P30 or P40 at the edges of Schiphol, continue by bus. Schiphol has a well extended network of free bus lanes. Additionally, Schiphol Sternet buses are allowed to use shoulder lanes at motorways. In December 2017, all buses were replaced by VDL Citea electric articulated buses. At the same time, the name "Schiphol Sternet" was replaced by "Schiphol Busnet"; the Connexxion buses, until 2011 the GVB buses, are all painted in dark red, with a yellow Sternet logo. Connexxion uses Mercedes-Benz Citaro low floor buses with Euro 5 diesel engines; the buses are low-floor and have three wide doors.

A special wheelchair entrance is at the middle door. Connexxion's own board computer Infoxx is installed in the bus, which automatically announces the next stop, shows traveling information on a screen, calculates the price for passengers paying using an OV-Chipcard and should enable the driver to see whether or not he is late or early. A screen is installed at bus stops. After December 2017, all buses have been replaced by white VDL Citea electric articulated buses; the name "Busnet" is not visible on the bus. Https:// Schiphol Busnet website] Public transport route planner