Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI is a senior prelate of the Catholic Church who served as its head and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013. Benedict's election as pope occurred in the 2005 papal conclave that followed the death of Pope John Paul II. Benedict chose to be known by the title "Pope Emeritus" upon his resignation. Ordained as a priest in 1951 in his native Bavaria, Ratzinger had established himself as a regarded university theologian by the late 1950s and was appointed a full professor in 1958. After a long career as an academic and professor of theology at several German universities, he was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1977, an unusual promotion for someone with little pastoral experience. In 1981, he was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, one of the most important dicasteries of the Roman Curia. From 2002 until his election as pope, he was Dean of the College of Cardinals.
Prior to becoming Pope, he was "a major figure on the Vatican stage for a quarter of a century". He has lived in Rome since 1981, his prolific writings defend traditional Catholic doctrine and values. He was a liberal theologian, but adopted conservative views after 1968. During his papacy, Benedict XVI advocated a return to fundamental Christian values to counter the increased secularisation of many Western countries, he views relativism's denial of objective truth, the denial of moral truths in particular, as the central problem of the 21st century. He taught the importance of both an understanding of God's redemptive love. Pope Benedict revived a number of traditions, including elevating the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position, he strengthened the relationship between the Catholic Church and art, promoted the use of Latin, reintroduced traditional papal garments, for which reason he was called "the pope of aesthetics". He has been described as "the main intellectual force in the Church" since the mid-1980s.
On 11 February 2013, Benedict unexpectedly announced his resignation in a speech in Latin before the cardinals, citing a "lack of strength of mind and body" due to his advanced age. His resignation became effective on 28 February 2013, he is the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415, the first to do so on his own initiative since Celestine V in 1294. As pope emeritus, Benedict retains the style of His Holiness, the title of pope, continues to dress in the papal colour of white, he was succeeded by Pope Francis on 13 March 2013, he moved into the newly renovated monastery Mater Ecclesiae for his retirement on 2 May 2013. In his retirement, Benedict XVI has made occasional public appearances alongside Pope Francis. Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger was born on 16 April, Holy Saturday, 1927, at Schulstraße 11, at 8:30 in the morning in his parents' home in Marktl, Germany, he was baptised the same day. He is the third and youngest child of Joseph Ratzinger, Sr. a police officer, Maria Ratzinger.
His mother's family was from South Tyrol. Pope Benedict's elder brother, Georg Ratzinger, is a Catholic priest and is the former director of the Regensburger Domspatzen choir, his sister, Maria Ratzinger, who never married, managed Cardinal Ratzinger's household until her death in 1991. At the age of five, Ratzinger was in a group of children who welcomed the visiting Cardinal Archbishop of Munich, Michael von Faulhaber, with flowers. Struck by the cardinal's distinctive garb, he announced that day that he wanted to be a cardinal, he attended the elementary school in Aschau am Inn, renamed in his honour in 2009. Ratzinger's family his father, bitterly resented the Nazis, his father's opposition to Nazism resulted in demotions and harassment of the family. Following his 14th birthday in 1941, Ratzinger was conscripted into the Hitler Youth—as membership was required by law for all 14-year-old German boys after March 1939—but was an unenthusiastic member who refused to attend meetings, according to his brother.
In 1941, one of Ratzinger's cousins, a 14-year-old boy with Down syndrome, was taken away by the Nazi regime and murdered during the Action T4 campaign of Nazi eugenics. In 1943, while still in seminary, he was drafted into the German anti-aircraft corps as Luftwaffenhelfer. Ratzinger trained in the German infantry; as the Allied front drew closer to his post in 1945, he deserted back to his family's home in Traunstein after his unit had ceased to exist, just as American troops established a headquarters in the Ratzinger household. As a German soldier, he was interned in a prisoner of war camp, but released a few months at the end of the war in May 1945. Ratzinger and his brother Georg entered Saint Michael Seminary in Traunstein in November 1945 studying at the Ducal Georgianum of the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich, they were both ordained in Freising on 29 June 1951 by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber of Munich. Ratzinger recalled: "at the moment the elderly Archbishop laid his hands on me, a little bird – a lark – flew up from the altar in the high cathedral and trilled a little joyful song."Ratzinger's 1953 dissertation was on St. Augustine and was titled The People and the House of God in Augustine's Doctrine of the Church.
His habilitation was on Bonaven
Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually. They relied entirely on the shell's velocity for their lethality; the munition has been obsolete since the end of World War I for anti-personnel use, when it was superseded by high-explosive shells for that role. The functioning and principles behind Shrapnel shells are fundamentally different from high-explosive shell fragmentation. Shrapnel is named after Major-General Henry Shrapnel, a British artillery officer, whose experiments conducted on his own time and at his own expense, culminated in the design and development of a new type of artillery shell; the term "shrapnel" nowadays is used to refer to lethal fragments of the casing of shells and bombs, though this usage strays from the original meaning of the word. In 1784, Lieutenant Shrapnel of the Royal Artillery began developing an anti-personnel weapon.
At the time artillery could use "canister shot" to defend themselves from infantry or cavalry attack, which involved loading a tin or canvas container filled with small iron or lead balls instead of the usual cannonball. When fired, the container burst open during passage through the bore or at the muzzle, giving the effect of an oversized shotgun shell. At ranges of up to 300 m canister shot was still lethal, though at this range the shots’ density was much lower, making a hit on a human body less likely. At longer ranges, solid shot or the common shell — a hollow cast-iron sphere filled with black powder — was used, although with more of a concussive than a fragmentation effect, as the pieces of the shell were large and sparse in number. Shrapnel's innovation was to combine the multi-projectile shotgun effect of canister shot, with a time fuze to open the canister and disperse the bullets it contained at some distance along the canister's trajectory from the gun, his shell was a hollow cast-iron sphere filled with a mixture of balls and powder, with a crude time fuze.
If the fuze was set then the shell would break open, either in front or above the intended human objective, releasing its contents. The shrapnel balls would carry on with the "remaining velocity" of the shell. In addition to a denser pattern of musket balls, the retained velocity could be higher as well, since the shrapnel shell as a whole would have a higher ballistic coefficient than the individual musket balls; the explosive charge in the shell was to be just enough to break the casing rather than scatter the shot in all directions. As such his invention increased the effective range of canister shot from 300 metres to about 1,100 metres, he called his device ` spherical case shot'. Initial designs suffered from the catastrophic problem that friction between the shot and black powder during the high acceleration down the gun bore could sometimes cause premature ignition of the powder. Various solutions were tried, with limited if any success. However, in 1852 Colonel Boxer proposed using a diaphragm to separate the bullets from the bursting charge.
As a buffer to prevent lead shot deforming, a resin was used as a packing material between the shot. A useful side effect of using the resin was that the combustion gave a visual reference upon the shell bursting, as the resin shattered into a cloud of dust, it took until 1803 for the British artillery to adopt the shrapnel shell. Henry Shrapnel was promoted to major in the same year; the first recorded use of shrapnel by the British was in 1804 against the Dutch at Fort Nieuw-Amsterdam in Suriname. The Duke of Wellington's armies used it from 1808 in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo, he wrote admiringly of its effectiveness; the design was improved by Captain E. M. Boxer of the Royal Arsenal around 1852 and crossed over when cylindrical shells for rifled guns were introduced. Lieutenant-Colonel Boxer adapted his design in 1864 to produce shrapnel shells for the new rifled muzzle-loader guns: the walls were of thick cast iron, but the gunpowder charge was now in the shell base with a tube running through the centre of the shell to convey the ignition flash from the time fuze in the nose to the gunpowder charge in the base.
The powder charge both liberated the bullets. The broken shell wall continued forward but had little destructive effect; the system had major limitations: the thickness of the iron shell walls limited the available carrying capacity for bullets but provided little destructive capability, the tube through the centre reduced available space for bullets. In the 1870s William Armstrong provided a design with the bursting charge in the head and the shell wall made of steel and hence much thinner than previous cast-iron shrapnel shell walls. While the thinner shell wall and absence of a central tube allowed the shell to carry far more bullets, it had the disadvantage that the bursting charge separated the bullets from the shell casing by firing the case forward and at the same time slowing the bullets down as they were ejected through the base of the shell casing, rather than increasing their velocity. Britain adopted this solution for several smaller calibres but by World War I few if any such shells remained.
The final shrapnel shell design, adopted in the 1880s, bore little similarity to Henry Shrapnel's original design other than its spherical bullets and time
San Pietro Martire, Murano
San Pietro Martire is a Roman catholic parish church in Murano, near Venice, northern Italy. The church was edificated in 1348 along with a Dominican convent, was dedicated to St. John the Baptist. In 1474 a fire razed it to the ground and in 1511 it was rebuilt to the current appearance, it was closed on 1806, a few years after the fall of the Republic of Venice, reopened in 1813. It is one of the two main parish churches in the island of Murano; the façade is in naked brickwork, divided in three sections and with a 16th-century portal, surmounted by a large rose window. On the left façade is a portico with Renaissance arcades and columns what remains of the original cloister. On the same side is the bell tower, dating to 1498-1502; the interior is on the basilica plan, with three naves divided by two series of large columns, a wooden ceiling. The presbytery is quite large, with two small side chapels. Aside from the high altar, there other minor altars, three for each nave. Artworks in the church include a Baptism of Christ attributed to Tintoretto, in the right nave, which houses two works by Giovanni Bellini: an Assumption with Saints and the Barbarigo Altarpiece, taken from the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli.
In the right wing is the Ballarin Chapel, built in 1506 after the death of the eponymous glassmaker from Murano. Other paintings include a St. Jerome in the Desert by Paolo Veronese, the Barcaioli Altarpiece by Giovanni Agostino da Lodi, a Deposition from the Cross by Giuseppe Porta, a 1495 Ecce Homo. G. Benorchia, ed.. La chiesa di San Pietro Martire. Venice: Stamperia Fabrizio Olivetti. San Pietro Martire - Murano - 1511
Our Lady of San Juan de los Lagos
Our Lady of San Juan de los Lagos is a Roman Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated by Mexican and Texan faithful. The original image is a popular focus for pilgrims and is located in the state of Jalisco, in central Mexico, 122 kilometers northeast of the city of Guadalajara; the statue is venerated both in Mexico and the United States known by its proxy title Nuestra Señora de San Juan del Valle focused in Texas. Pope Pius X granted the image a Canonical coronation on 15 August 1904 and is known for the jeweled regalia offered by its devotees all throughout Mexico, it is permanently enshrined at the Basilica Minor of San Juan de los Lagos and is one of the most visited pilgrimage shrines in Mexico. The sanctuary's history begins in 1543 when Father Miguel de Bologna, a Spanish priest, brought a statue of the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception to the village; the town was called San Juan Mezquititlan Baptist but its name was changed to San Juan de Los Lagos in 1623. According to local histories, some eyewitness accounts, a certain aerial acrobat was traveling along the Camino Real, "the Royal Highway," from San Luis Potosí to Guadalajara, performing in the towns along the way.
His act included two daughters. His stunts included swinging from one high point to another by means of ropes, in somewhat the same fashion as trapeze artists of today. To add excitement and an element of danger, the artists had to fly over swords and knives that were stuck in the ground with their points positioned upward. While performing in the village, the younger daughter, a child of six or seven, fell upon the knives and was mortally wounded. After preparing the body and wrapping it in burial cloths, the grieving parents brought the child's body to the chapel of Our Lady of San Juan for burial. Meeting them at the door of the chapel was the 78-year-old Ana Lucia, the wife of Pedro Antes. Feeling pity for the grieving family, she exhorted them to have confidence in The Virgin, who could restore the child to them. Taking the statue from its altar in the sacristy where it had been consigned because of its poor condition, Ana Lucia laid it near the child's dead body. In a few moments, they detected a slight movement under the shroud.
The parents unwrapped the cloth to discover the child well and unharmed. This first miracle of Our Lady of San Juan de Los Lagos became known in neighboring villages and towns. Numerous other miracles and favors followed, until now Our Lady is venerated by pilgrims from throughout Mexico and the United States. Following this miracle, the statue began to be venerated by an increasing number of pilgrims including Indians and mestizos. During this period the statue acquired its own local identity as Our Lady of San Juan de los Lagos. Between the early 17th century and the middle of the 19th century a pilgrimage fair was held each year on November 30 to celebrate the original installation of the statue in the shrine; the present church, begun in 1732, was built in the Mexican baroque style. The statue of the Virgin was installed in 1769 and the bell towers were completed in 1790. In 1972 the church was recognized as a basilica. Inside the church, upon a platform with an upturned crescent moon, stands the statue of the Virgin.
The face is dark in color, the eyes spaced and the traits somewhat aquiline. About 20 inches tall, the statue was made by the Tarascan State of southern Mexico using an indigenous technique called titzingueni, in which a frame of wood is covered by a paste of corn pith and orchid juice, coated with gesso and painted. Similar statues are still venerated in other parts of Jalisco, including many different of statue but different name such as Nuestra Señora de Los Altos in town of Atotonilco El Alto and San Francisco de Asís, Jalisco.. Sometime in the late 16th or early 17th century the statue was modernized by being enclosed in a frame and draped with clothing; the Virgin’s hands are joined in prayer, she has long brown hair, wears a white gown and blue robe. The statue’s body is covered with a golden crown in Byzantine style. Above the image are two angels of silver, supporting between them a silver banner with the Latin inscription in blue enamel: Mater Immaculata ora pro nobis. At the end of January and beginning of February each year a great pilgrimage occurs to the shrine and the city grows many times in size.
This festival is attended by many of them walking, from all over Mexico. During a week of festivities there are hundreds of temporary stalls selling pilgrimage icons, multiple bands of musicians playing around the great basilica, fireworks demonstrations in the evenings, a palpable feeling of spiritual joy descend on the town. If a family member falls ill or undergoes a serious surgery for example, you can promise the Virgin to make the pilgrimage if that person makes it out okay. In the 1950's, the devotion spread to the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. A reproduction of the Mexican image is housed in the Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of San Juan del Valle in San Juan, Texas; this shrine is one of the largest Catholic sanctuaries in the state, is known for its relationship with the migrant farm workers who still travel through this area of Texas. The devotion carried over to California by people from Jalisco. In the 1970s, George Martinez revived the devotion in San Francisco, California and a monthly mass was celebrated.
In 1979 Martinez convinced the bishop of San Juan to allow the statue to com
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
This article is about tangible folk art objects. For performance folk arts, see Folk arts. Folk art covers all forms of visual art made in the context of folk culture. Definitions vary, but the objects have practical utility of some kind, rather than being decorative; the makers of folk art are trained within a popular tradition, rather than in the fine art tradition of the culture. There is overlap, or contested ground, with naive art, but in traditional societies where ethnographic art is still made, that term is used instead of "folk art"; the types of object covered by the term varies and in particular "divergent categories of cultural production are comprehended by its usage in Europe, where the term originated, in the United States, where it developed for the most part along different lines." In America, "folk art" is more to include contemporary or recent works of "Outsider art" and similar types, that elsewhere might be called "popular art". Folk arts are reflective of the cultural life of a community.
They encompass the body of expressive culture associated with the fields of folklore and cultural heritage. Tangible folk art includes objects which are crafted and used within a traditional community. Intangible folk arts include such forms as music and narrative structures; each of these arts, both tangible and intangible, was developed to address a real need. Once this practical purpose has been lost or forgotten, there is no reason for further transmission unless the object or action has been imbued with meaning beyond its initial practicality; these vital and reinvigorated artistic traditions are shaped by values and standards of excellence that are passed from generation to generation, most within family and community, through demonstration and practice. Objects of folk art are a subset of material culture, include objects which are experienced through the senses, by seeing and touching; as with all material culture, these tangible objects can be handled re-experienced and sometimes broken.
They are considered works of art because of the skillful technical execution of an existing form and design. As folk art, these objects share several characteristics which distinguish them from other artifacts of material culture; the object is created by a single team of artisans. The craftsmen and women work within an established cultural framework, they have a recognizable style and method in crafting their pieces, allowing their products to be recognized and attributed to a single individual or workshop. This was articulated by Alois Riegl in his study of "Volkskunst, und Hausindustrie", published in 1894. "Riegl … stressed that the individual hand and intentions of the artist were significant in folk creativity. To be sure, the artist may have been obliged by group expectations to work within the norms of transmitted forms and conventions, but individual creativity – which implied personal aesthetic choices and technical virtuosity – saved received or inherited traditions from stagnating and permitted them to be renewed in each generation."
Individual innovation in the production process plays an important role in the continuance of these traditional forms. Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, decoy carving continue to thrive, while new forms emerge. Contemporary outsider artists are self-taught as their work is developed in isolation or in small communities across the country; the Smithsonian American Art Museum houses over 70 such self-taught artists. All folk art objects are produced in a one-off production process. Only one object is made at a time, either in a combination of hand and machine methods; as a result of this manual production, each individual piece is unique and can be differentiated from other objects of the same type. In his essay on "Folk Objects", folklorist Simon Bronner references preindustrial modes of production, but folk art objects continue to be made as unique crafted pieces by skilled artisans. "The notion of folk objects tends to emphasize the handmade over machine manufactured.
Folk objects imply a mode of production common to preindustrial communal society where knowledge and skills were personal and traditional." This does not mean that all folk art is old, it continues to be hand-crafted today in many regions around the world. The design and production of folk art is taught informally or formally. Folk art does not strive for individual expression. Instead, "the concept of group art implies, indeed requires, that artists acquire their abilities, both manual and intellectual, at least in part from communication with others; the community has something a great deal, to say about what passes for acceptable folk art." The training in a handicraft was done as apprenticeships with local craftsmen, such as the blacksmith or the stonemason. As the equipment and tools needed were no longer available in the community, these traditional crafts moved into technical schools or applied arts schools; the object is recognizable within its cultural framework as being of a known type.
Similar objects can be found in the environment made by other individuals which resemble this object. Without exception, individual pieces of folk art will reference other works in the culture as they show
Giovanni Bellini was an Italian Renaissance painter the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters. His father was Jacopo Bellini, his brother was Gentile Bellini, his brother-in-law was Andrea Mantegna, he was considered to have revolutionized Venetian painting, moving it towards a more sensuous and colouristic style. Through the use of clear, slow-drying oil paints, Giovanni created deep, rich tints and detailed shadings, his sumptuous coloring and fluent, atmospheric landscapes had a great effect on the Venetian painting school on his pupils Giorgione and Titian. Giovanni Bellini was born in Venice, he was brought up in his father's house, always lived and worked in the closest fraternal relation with his brother Gentile. Up until the age of nearly thirty we find in his work a depth of religious feeling and human pathos, his own, his paintings from the early period are all executed in the old tempera method: the scene is softened by a new and beautiful effect of romantic sunrise color.
In a changed and more personal manner, he drew. With less harshness of contour, a broader treatment of forms and draperies and less force of religious feeling. Giovanni's early works have been linked both compositionally and stylistically to those of his brother-in-law, Andrea Mantegna. In 1470 Giovanni received his first appointment to work along with his brother and other artists in the Scuola di San Marco, where among other subjects he was commissioned to paint a Deluge with Noah's Ark. None of the master's works of this kind, whether painted for the various schools or confraternities or for the ducal palace, has survived. To the decade following 1470 must be assigned the Transfiguration now in the Capodimonte Museum of Naples, repeating with ripened powers and in a much serener spirit the subject of his early effort at Venice; the great altar-piece of the Coronation of the Virgin at Pesaro, which would seem to be his earliest effort in a form of art almost monopolized in Venice by the rival school of the Vivarini.
As is the case with a number of his brother, Gentile's public works of the period, many of Giovanni's great public works are now lost. The still more famous altar-piece painted in tempera for a chapel in the church of S. Giovanni e Paolo, where it perished along with Titian's Peter Martyr and Tintoretto's Crucifixion in the disastrous fire of 1867. After 1479–1480 much of Giovanni's time and energy must have been taken up by his duties as conservator of the paintings in the great hall of the Doge's Palace; the importance of this commission can be measured by the payment Giovanni received: he was awarded, first the reversion of a broker's place in the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, afterwards, as a substitute, a fixed annual pension of eighty ducats. Besides repairing and renewing the works of his predecessors he was commissioned to paint a number of new subjects, six or seven in all, in further illustration of the part played by Venice in the wars of Frederick Barbarossa and the pope; these works, executed with much interruption and delay, were the object of universal admiration while they lasted, but not a trace of them survived the fire of 1577.
Of the other, the religious class of his work, including both altar-pieces with many figures and simple Madonnas, a considerable number have been preserved. They show him throwing off the last restraints of the Quattrocento manner; the old intensity of pathetic and devout feeling fades away and gives place to a noble, if more worldly and charm. The enthroned Virgin and Child become tranquil and commanding in their sweetness; the full splendour of Venetian color invests alike the figures, their architectural framework, the landscape and the sky. An interval of some years, no doubt chiefly occupied with work in the Hall of the Great Council, seems to separate the San Giobbe Altarpiece, that of the church of San Zaccaria at Venice. Formally, the works are similar, so a comparison between serves to illustrate the shift in Bellini's work over the last decade of the 15th century. Both pictures are of the Holy Conversation type. Both show the Madonna seated between classicizing columns. Both place the holy figures beneath a golden mosaicked half dome that recalls the Byzantine architecture in the basilica of St. Mark.
In the work Bellini depicts the Virgin surrounded by: St. Peter holding his keys and the Book of Wisdom. Stylistically, the lighting in the San Zaccaria piece has