National Archaeological Museum (Madrid)
The National Archaeological Museum is a museum in Madrid, Spain. It is located on Serrano Street beside the Plaza de Colón, sharing its building with the National Library; the museum was founded in 1867 by a Royal Decree of Isabella II as a depository for numismatic, archaeological and decorative art collections of the Spanish monarchs. The museum was located in the Embajadores district of Madrid. In 1895, it moved to a building designed to house it, a neoclassical design by architect Francisco Jareño, built from 1866 to 1892. In 1968, renovation and extension works increased its area; the museum closed for renovation in 2008 and reopened in April 2014. The remodelled museum concentrates on its core archaeological role, rather than decorative arts, its collection is based on pieces from Prehistory to Early-Modern Age. However, it has different collections coming from outside of Spain from Ancient Greece, both from the metropolitan and, above all, from Magna Graecia, and, to a lesser extent, from Ancient Egypt, in addition to "a small number of pieces" from Near East.
Prehistoric and Iberiana replica of the Altamira cave Lady of Elche Lady of Baza Lady of Galera Dama del Cerro de los Santos Biche of Balazote Bull of Osuna Mausoleum of Pozo Moro Sphinx of AgostRoman and VisigothicLex Ursonensis Treasure of GuarrazarMedievalCrucifix of Ferdinand and SanchaAl-AndalusPyxis of Zamora One of the Alhambra vases List of museums in Spain Media related to Museo Arqueológico Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons National Archaeological Museum of Spain - Muselia Official list of museums in Spain
A wishing well is a term from European folklore to describe wells where it was thought that any spoken wish would be granted. The idea that a wish would be granted came from the notion that water housed deities or had been placed there as a gift from the gods; this practice is thought to have arisen because water is a source of life, was a scarce commodity. The Germanic and Celtic peoples considered wells sacred places. Sometimes the places were marked with wooden statues of the god associated with the pool. Germanic peoples were known to throw the armour and weapons of defeated enemies into bogs and other pools of water as offerings to their gods. Water was seen to have healing powers, wells became popular, with many people drinking the water, bathing in it or just wishing over it; some people believed that the guardians or dwellers of the well would grant them their wish if they paid a price. After uttering the wish, one would drop coins in the well; that wish would be granted by the guardian or dweller, based upon how the coin would land at the bottom of the well.
If the coin landed heads up, the guardian of the well would grant the wish, but the wish of a tails up coin would be ignored. It was thus lucky to throw coins in the well, but it depended on how they landed; the tradition of dropping pennies in ponds and fountains stems from this. Coins would be placed there as gifts for the deity to show appreciation; this may be a leftover from ancient mythology such as Mímir's Well from Nordic myths known as the "Well of Wisdom", a well that could grant you infinite wisdom provided you sacrificed something you held dear. Odin was asked to sacrifice his right eye which he threw into the well to receive not only the wisdom of seeing the future but the understanding of why things must be. Mímir is the Nordic god of wisdom, his well sits at the roots of Yggdrasil, the World Tree which draws its water from the well. Another theory is that people may have unknowingly discovered the biocidal properties of both copper and silver. Throwing coins made of either of these metals could help make the water safer to drink.
Wells that were frequented by those that threw coins in may have been less affected by a range of bacterial infections making them seem more fortunate and may have appeared to have cured people suffering from repeated infections. In November 2006 the "Fountain Money Mountain" reported that tourists throw just under 3 million pounds sterling per year into wishing wells. Wishing Wells And Superstitions
The Acropolis Museum is an archaeological museum focused on the findings of the archaeological site of the Acropolis of Athens. The museum was built to house every artifact found on the rock and on the surrounding slopes, from the Greek Bronze Age to Roman and Byzantine Greece, it lies over the ruins of a part of Roman and early Byzantine Athens. The museum was founded in 2003, while the Organization of the Museum was established in 2008, it opened to the public on 20 June 2009. Nearly 4,000 objects are exhibited over an area of 14,000 square metres; the Organization for the Construction of the new museum is chaired by Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Professor Emeritus of Archaeology, Dimitrios Pandermalis. The first museum was on the Acropolis. However, successive excavations on the Acropolis uncovered many new artifacts which exceeded its original capacity. An additional motivation for the construction of a new museum was that in the past, when Greece made requests for the return of the Parthenon Marbles from the United Kingdom, which acquired the items in a controversial manner, it was suggested by some British officials that Greece had no suitable location where they could be displayed.
Creation of a gallery for the display of the Parthenon Marbles has been key to all recent proposals for the design of a new museum. The first architectural competition to design a new museum was held in 1976 and was limited to participants from Greece. Both the 1976 competition and one that followed it in 1979 failed to produce any results because the plots of land selected for the proposed constructions were deemed unsuitable. In 1989, a third competition for the design of the new Acropolis Museum was announced that would be international. A choice of three possible sites was provided; this competition was won by Manfredi Nicoletti and Lucio Passarelli. After delays throughout the 1990s, work on the construction of the museum based on this third design progressed to the stage of excavations for the foundations, but these were stopped due to sensitive archaeological remains on the site, leading to annulment of the competition in 1999. In retrospect, the location of the new museum was rather straightforward: the large lot of the unused "Camp Makrygianni" gendarmerie barracks, opposite the Theater of Dionysus.
The barracks were built on public land and a limited number of expropriations of surrounding private houses were needed to free up the necessary space. The main building of the old barracks, the neoclassical "Weiler Building", has been renovated and houses the Museum of the Center for the Acropolis Studies; the fourth competition had made no provision for the preservation of the ancient site. These were met to a degree only after local and international campaigners exposed this oversight and it became the final competition; the new plans were adjusted so that the building was elevated on pillars. Competition was open only to architectural practices by invitation and it was won by New York–based architect, Bernard Tschumi, in collaboration with the Greek architect Michael Photiadis. Excavation has revealed two layers of modest, private roadside houses and workshops, one from the early Byzantine era and another from the classical era. Once the layout and stratigraphy of the findings were established, suitable locations for the foundation pillars were identified.
These traverse the soil to the underlying bedrock and float on roller bearings able to withstand a Richter scale magnitude 10 earthquake. As construction work neared completion, the operation to move the historic artifacts the 280-meter distance from the Acropolis rock to the new museum started in October 2007, took four months, required the use of three tower cranes to move the sculptures across the distance without mishap. Greek officials expressed their hope that the new museum will help in the campaign for the return of the Parthenon Marbles; the museum is located by the southeastern slope of the Acropolis hill, on the ancient road that led up to the "sacred rock" in classical times. Set only 280 meters, away from the Parthenon, a mere 400 meters walking distance from it, the museum is the largest modern building erected so close to the ancient site, although many other buildings from the last 150 years are located closer to the Acropolis; the entrance to the building is on Dionysiou Areopagitou Street and directly adjacent to the Akropoli metro station the red line of the Athens Metro.
The design by Bernard Tschumi was selected as the winning project in the fourth competition. Tschumi's design revolves around three concepts: light, a tectonic and programmatic element. Together these characteristics "turn the constraints of the site into an architectural opportunity, offering a simple and precise museum" with the mathematical and conceptual clarity of ancient Greek buildings; the collections of the museum are exhibited on three levels while a fourth middle level houses the auxiliary spaces such as the museum shop, the café and the offices. On the first level of the museum there are the findings of the slopes of the Acropolis; the long and rectangular hall whose floor is sloping, resembles the ascension to the rock. The visitor is found at the large trapezoidal hall which accommodates the archaic findings. On the same floor there are the artifacts and sculptures from the other Acropolis buildings such as the Erechtheum, the Temple of Athena Nike and the Propylaea and findings from Roman and early Christian Athens.
Visitors are intended to see the latter during descent in order to keep the chronological order: they will first be directed to the top level, which display
An icon is a religious work of art, most a painting, in the cultures of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Roman Catholic, certain Eastern Catholic churches. The most common subjects include Christ, Mary and angels. Although associated with "portrait" style images concentrating on one or two main figures, the term covers most religious images in a variety of artistic media produced by Eastern Christianity, including narrative scenes. Icons can represent various scenes in the Bible. Icons may be cast in metal, carved in stone, embroidered on cloth, painted on wood, done in mosaic or fresco work, printed on paper or metal, etc. Comparable images from Western Christianity are not classified as "icons", although "iconic" may be used to describe a static style of devotional image. Eastern Orthodox tradition holds that the production of Christian images dates back to the early days of Christianity, that it has been a continuous tradition since then. Modern academic art history considers that, while images may have existed earlier, the tradition can be traced back only as far as the 3rd century, that the images which survive from Early Christian art differ from ones.
The icons of centuries can be linked closely, to images from the 5th century onwards, though few of these survive. Widespread destruction of images occurred during the Byzantine Iconoclasm of 726–842, although this did settle permanently the question of the appropriateness of images. Since icons have had a great continuity of style and subject. At the same time there has been development. Christian tradition dating from the 8th century identifies Luke the Evangelist as the first icon painter. Aside from the legend that Pilate had made an image of Christ, the 4th-century Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Church History, provides a more substantial reference to a "first" icon of Jesus, he relates that King Abgar of Edessa sent a letter to Jesus at Jerusalem, asking Jesus to come and heal him of an illness. In this version there is no image. A account found in the Syriac Doctrine of Addai mentions a painted image of Jesus in the story. Further legends relate that the cloth remained in Edessa until the 10th century, when it was taken to Constantinople.
It went missing in 1204 when Crusaders sacked Constantinople, but by numerous copies had established its iconic type. The 4th-century Christian Aelius Lampridius produced the earliest known written records of Christian images treated like icons in his Life of Alexander Severus that formed part of the Augustan History. According to Lampridius, the emperor Alexander Severus, himself not a Christian, had kept a domestic chapel for the veneration of images of deified emperors, of portraits of his ancestors, of Christ, Apollonius and Abraham. Saint Irenaeus, in his Against Heresies says scornfully of the Gnostic Carpocratians: "They possess images, some of them painted, others formed from different kinds of material, they crown these images, set them up along with the images of the philosophers of the world, to say, with the images of Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, the rest. They have other modes of honouring these images, after the same manner of the Gentiles ". On the other hand, Irenaeus does not speak critically of icons or portraits in a general sense—only of certain gnostic sectarians' use of icons.
Another criticism of image veneration appears in the non-canonical 2nd-century Acts of John, in which the Apostle John discovers that one of his followers has had a portrait made of him, is venerating it: "...he went into the bedchamber, saw the portrait of an old man crowned with garlands, lamps and altars set before it. And he called him and said: Lycomedes, what do you mean by this matter of the portrait? Can it be one of thy gods, painted here? For I see that you are still living in heathen fashion." In the passage John says, "But this that you have now done is childish and imperfect: you have drawn a dead likeness of the dead." At least some of the hierarchy of the Christian churches still opposed icons in the early 4th century. At the Spanish non-ecumenical Synod of Elvira bishops concluded, "Pictures are not to be placed in churches, so that they do not become objects of worship and adoration". Bishop Epiphanius of Salamis, wrote his letter 51 to John, Bishop of Jerusalem in which he recounted how he tore down an image in a church and admonished the other bishop that such images are "opposed... to our religion".
Elsewhere in his Church History, Eusebius reports seeing what he took to be portraits of Jesus and Paul, mentions a bronze statue at Banias / Paneas under Mount Hermon, of which he wrote, "They say that this statue is an image of Jesus". John Francis Wilson suggests the possibility that this refers to a pagan bronze statue whose tru
A stupa is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics, used as a place of meditation. A related architectural term is a chaitya, a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa. In Buddhism, circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual and devotional practice since the earliest times, stupas always have a pradakhshina path around them. Stupas may have originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli in which śramaṇas were buried in a seated position called chaitya; some authors have suggested that stupas were derived from a wider cultural tradition from the Mediterranean to the Indus valley, can be related to the conical mounds on circular bases from the 8th century BCE that can be found in Phrygia, Lydia, or in Phoenicia. Religious buildings in the form of the Buddhist stupa, a dome shaped monument, started to be used in India as commemorative monuments associated with storing sacred relics of the Buddha. After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were cremated and the ashes divided and buried under eight mounds with two further mounds encasing the urn and the embers.
The relics of the Buddha were spread between eight stupas, in Rajagriha, Kapilavastu, Ramagrama, Pava and Vethapida. The Piprahwa stupa seems to have been one of the first to be built. Guard rails —consisting of posts, a coping— became a feature of safety surrounding a stupa; the Buddha had left instructions about how to pay homage to the stupas: "And whoever lays wreaths or puts sweet perfumes and colours there with a devout heart, will reap benefits for a long time". This practice would lead to the decoration of the stupas with stone sculptures of flower garlands in the Classical period. According to Buddhist tradition, Emperor Ashoka recovered the relics of the Buddha from the earlier stupas, erected 84.000 stupas to distribute the relics across India. In effect, many stupas are thought to date from the time of Ashoka, such as Sanchi or Kesariya, where he erected pillars with his inscriptions, Bharhut, Amaravati or Dharmarajika in Gandhara. Ashoka established the Pillars of Ashoka throughout his realm next to Buddhist stupas.
The first known appearance of the word "Stupa" is from an inscribed dedication by Ashoka on the Nigali Sagar pillar. Stupas were soon to be richly decorated with sculptural reliefs, following the first attempts at Sanchi Stupa No.2. Full-fledged sculptural decorations and scenes of the life of the Buddha would soon follow at Bharhut, Bodh Gaya, again at Sanchi for the elevation of the toranas and Amaravati; the decorative embellishment of stupas had a considerable development in the northwest in the area of Gandhara, with decorated stupas such as the Butkara Stupa or the Loriyan Tangai stupas. The stupa underwent major evolutions in the area of Gandhara. Since Buddhism spread to Central Asia and Korea and Japan through Gandhara, the stylistic evolution of the Gandharan stupa was influential in the development of the stupa in these areas; the Gandhara stupa followed several steps moving towards more and more elevation and addition of decorative element, leading to the development of the pagoda tower.
The main stupa type are, in choronological order: 1) The Dharmarajika Stupa with a near-Indian design of a semi-hemispheric stupa directly on the ground surface dated to the 3rd century BCE. Similar stupas are the Manikyala stupa or the Chakpat stupa. 2) The Saidu Sharif Stupa and quincunxial, with a flight of stairs to a dome elevated on a square platform. Many Gandhara minutiures represent this spectacular type. 3) The Loriyan Tangai Stupa, with a elongated shape and many narrative reliefs, in many way the Classical Gandharan stupa. 4) The near-pyramidal Jaulian stupa. 5) The cruciform type, as in the Bhamala Stupa, with flights of stairs in the four cardinal directions. 6) The towering design of the second Kanishka stupa. It is thought that the temple in the shape of a truncated pyramid may have derived from the design of the stepped stupas which developed in Gandhara; the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya is one such example, formed of a succession of steps with niches containing Buddha images, alternating with Greco-Roman pillars.
The structure is crowned by the shape of an hemispherical stupa topped by finials, forming a logical elongation of the stepped Gandharan stupas such as those seen in Jaulian. Although the current structure of the Mahabdhodi Temple dates to the Gupta period, the "Plaque of Mahabhodi Temple", discovered in Kumrahar and dated to 150-200 CE based on its dated Kharoshthi inscriptions and combined finds of Huvishka coins, suggests that the pyramidal structure existed in the 2nd century CE; this is confirmed by archaeological excavations in Bodh Gaya. This truncated pyramid design marked the evolution from the aniconic stupa dedicated to the cult of relics, to the iconic temple with multiple images of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas; this design was influential in the development of Hindu temples. Stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it became prominent as a Buddh
Votive paintings of Mexico
Votive paintings in Mexico go by several names in Spanish such as “ex voto,” “retablo” or “lámina,” which refer to their purpose, place found, or material from which they are traditionally made respectively. The painting of religious images to give thanks for a miracle or favour received in this country is part of a long tradition of such in the world; the offering of such items has more immediate precedence in both the Mesoamerican and European lines of Mexican culture, but the form that most votive paintings take from the colonial period to the present was brought to Mexico by the Spanish. As in Europe, votive paintings began as static images of saints or other religious figures which were donated to a church. Narrative images, telling the personal story of a miracle or favor received appeared; these paintings were first produced by the wealthy and on canvas. The narrative version on metal sheets is now the traditional and representative form of votive paintings, although modern works can be executed on paper or any other medium.
Narrative votive paintings can be found by the thousands in many locations in Mexico although certain shrines and sanctuaries such as that of the Virgin of Guadalupe and in Chalma attract a large number of these. Due their proliferation in the 18th and 19th century, many older votive paintings have left the places they were deposited and found their way into public and private collections; the collecting of these was begun by Diego Rivera, whose work, along with those of a number of other painters past and present, has been influenced by them. Frida Kahlo's beautiful collection of ex votes is on public display in her family home, which she shared with Rivera, her husband. Most votive paintings in Mexico are small, depicting the petitioner, the saint or other religious figure and a description of the favor or miracle received; the purpose of the painting is to give testimony and thanks for the divine help. Most votive paintings depict is kind of near disaster, such as car accidents and robbery, which the believer survived or recuperation from sickness or injury.
Votive painting go by several names in Mexico, some of which overlap with other artworks or offerings. A common name is ex voto; this phrase means from the vow made. This refers to the fact that many of these paintings are made and brought to churches or other holy sites to fulfill a vow made to the religious persona. However, the term “ex voto” applies to any number of other objects left for similar purposes, stamped metal pieces wax figures or other crafted items fastened near the image, petitioned. Another common name is “retablo.” This is from Latin and means “behind the altar” as many of these votive paintings could be found behind church altars up until the mid 20th century. However, “retablo” refers to any painting or artwork found behind altar. Most of these are static images of saints; these two common terms are used interchangeably, but other names such as “lamina” are used as well. Unlike static images of saints, these votive paintings are considered to be public and intensely personal expression s of faith signed and painted by the petitioner.
Votive paintings of this type are found in various Christian countries, but the type most associated with Mexico are painted on small sheets of tin or other metal of about a foot in length. Many have been created by artists hired for their creation in the past when literacy was not common. Examples of votive art can be found in various places around the globe and at many different periods of history. In Mesoamerica, developed cultures such as the Olmec, Zapotec and Mexica had sophisticated religious systems and evidence of votive offerings have been found at many temples, including the Templo Mayor in modern Mexico City, where many of the offerings are left to the rain god Tlaloc and the war god Huitzilopochtli. Many ex voto offerings were related to hunting and agriculture. A number of cave paintings found in northwest Mexico are thought to be votive in purpose; the European tradition can be definitively traced back to ancient Greece and can be seen though various European cultures over the centuries.
With the dominance of Christianity, ex votos took on Christian themes. Ex voto paintings of the type seen today in Mexico began as artworks commissioned by wealthy patrons as a result of an answered prayer or recovery from illness; these have their origins in 15th century Italy, spread over Europe and were painted or commissioned by various levels of society. Ex voto paintings started as two types: one of a static image of a saint or other personage and one with a depiction of the miracle; the static images vary little. By the 16th century, the narrative version had been established; the European ex voto tradition was introduced shortly after the Conquest with the earliest known to exist dating from the 1590s. In fact, there is a record of the conquistador Hernán Cortés making an ex-voto to give thanks for being able to walk away from a scorpion bite without becoming ill; as in Europe, the tradition began with wealthy families having depictions of saints painted with the narrative version coming shortly thereafter.
In a number of respects, the Mexican Catholic ex voto tradition is a blending of the European and Mesoamerican traditions in the early colonial period. Many ex votos are dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe, considered to be a transfiguration of the mother goddess Tonantzin. On some depictions of saints from this time can be seen fangs, which are associated w
An ex-voto is a votive offering to a saint or to a divinity. It is given in gratitude or devotion. Ex-votos are placed in a chapel where the worshiper seeks grace or wishes to give thanks; the destinations of pilgrimages include shrines decorated with ex-votos. Ex-votos can take a wide variety of forms, they are not only intended for the helping figure, but as a testimony to visitors of the received help. As such they may include texts explaining a miracle attributed to the helper, or symbols such as a painted or modeled reproduction of a miraculously healed body part, or a directly related item such as a crutch given by a person lame. There are places where a old tradition of depositing ex-votos existed, such as Abydos in ancient Egypt. In the Latin world, there is a tradition of votive paintings depicting a dangerous incident which the offeror survived; the votive paintings of Mexico are paralleled in other countries. In Italy, where more than 15,000 ex-voto paintings are thought to survive from before 1600, these began to appear in the 1490s modelled on the small predella panels below altarpieces.
These are a form of folk art, in Mexico painted cheaply on tin plates salvaged from packaging. Other examples may be large and grand paintings, such as Titian's Jacopo Pesaro being presented by Pope Alexander VI to Saint Peter, given in thanks for a naval victory. In Venice it became the custom in the Renaissance for the higher officials, beginning with the Doge, to commission an ex-voto painting in the form of a portrait of themselves with religious figures the Virgin or saints, in thanks for achieving their office. For lower officials only their coat of arms might represent the official; the painting was hung in the public building where they presided. An example is the Barbarigo Altarpiece, a votive portrait of Doge Agostino Barbarigo with the Virgin and Child, two saints and assorted angels, by Giovanni Bellini; this is now in San Pietro Martire, Murano. The Ex-Voto de 1662 is a painting by Philippe de Champaigne, showing two nuns, one of whom recovered from serious illness. In the church of Notre-Dame de la Garde in Marseille, the site of a major local pilgrimage, the ex-votos include paintings, model boats, war medals and football shirts given by players and supporters of Olympique de Marseille, the local team.
The magnificent Lod mosaic is thought to be an ex-voto expressing gratitude for rescue from a shipwreck. In the long Votive Chapel of Saint Joseph's Oratory in Montreal, there are fixed on iron grilles hundreds of crutches and braces left behind by pilgrims who claimed to have received a healing while meeting with Brother André, CSC. Pope Benedict XVI recognized the authenticity of the miracles and canonized Saint André Bessette in 2011. Pinax Tama Votive candle Milagro Everyday Miracles: Medical Imagery in Ex-Votos National Library of Medicine. Marine french ex-voto of Marseille