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Excellency

Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy. Once entitled to the title "Excellency", the holder retains the right to that courtesy throughout their lifetime, although in some cases the title is attached to a particular office, is held only for the duration of that office. People addressed as Excellency are heads of state, heads of government, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics and others holding equivalent rank, it is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, but in fact is an honorific that precedes various titles, both in speech and in writing. In reference to such an official, it takes the form Her Excellency; the abbreviation HE is used instead of His/Her Excellency. In most republican nation states, the head of state is formally addressed as Her Excellency. If a republic has a separate head of government, that official is always addressed as Excellency as well.

If the nation is a monarchy, the customs may vary. For example, in the case of Australia, all ambassadors, high commissioners, state governors and the governor-general and their spouses are entitled to the use of Excellency. Governors of colonies in the British Empire were entitled to be addressed as Excellency and this remains the position for the governors of what are now known as British Overseas Territories. In various international organizations, notably the UN and its agencies, Excellency is used as a generic form of address for all republican heads of state and heads of government, it is granted to the organization's head as well, to those chiefs of UN diplomatic missions, such as Resident Coordinators, who are accredited at the Head of State level, or at the lower Head of Government level. In recent years, some international organizations, such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or the European Union, have designated their permanent representatives in third countries as ambassadors, although they do not represent sovereign entities.

This is now accepted, because these ambassadors rank after the UN representative in the orders of precedence of representatives of international organizations, the UN coming first as pre-eminent, the UN Resident Coordinators are now commonly but informally referred to in diplomatic circles as ambassadors, although the UN itself does not refer to them in this way. Judges of the International Court of Justice are called Your Excellency. In some monarchies the husbands, wives, or children, of a royal prince or princess, who do not possess a princely title themselves, may be entitled to the style. For example, in Spain spouses or children of a born infante or infanta are addressed as Excellency, if not accorded a higher style. Former members of a royal house or family, who did have a royal title but forfeited it, may be awarded the style afterwards. Examples are former husbands or wives of a royal prince or princess, including Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg, following her divorce from Prince Joachim of Denmark.

Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg, who lost his succession rights to the Swedish throne and discontinued use of his royal titles in 1946 when he married the commoner Elin Kerstin Margaretha Wijkmark, was accorded the style. In some emirates, only the Emir, heir apparent and prime minister are called His Highness, their children are styled with the lower treatment of His/Her Excellency. In Spain members of the high nobility, holding the dignity of grandee, are addressed as The Most Excellent Lord/Lady. In Denmark, some counts those related by blood or marriage to the monarch, who have entered a morganatic marriage or otherwise left the Royal Family have the right to be styled as Your Excellency, e.g. the Counts of Danneskiold-Samsøe, some of the counts of Rosenborg and the Countess of Frederiksborg. In the Sultanate of Sulu, senior nobility and holders of royal offices that are granted the title of Datu Sadja are addressed as His/Her Excellency. Excellency can attach to a prestigious quality, notably in an order of knighthood.

For example, in the Empire of Brazil, it was attached to the highest classes, each time called Grand Cross, of all three imperial orders: Imperial Order of Pedro I, Imperial Order of the Southern Cross and Order of the Rose. In modern days, Knights Collar and Knights Grand Cross of the Spanish Orders of Chivalry, like the Order of Charles III, Order of Isabella the Catholic, Order of Civil Merit, Order of Alfonso X the Wise, Royal Order of Sports Merit, Civil Order of Health, as well as recipients of the Grand Cross of Military and Aeronautical Merit are addressed as such. Furthermore, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Gregory the Great and the Order of St. Sylvester of the Holy See, Knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Knights Grand Cross of several other orders of high prestige, are addressed as Excellency. By a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonial of 31 December 1930 the Holy See granted bishops of the Catholic Church the title of Most Reverend Excellency. In the years following the First World War, the ambassadorial title of Excellency given to nuncios, had begun to be used by other Catholic bisho

Trust (1999 film)

Trust is a British television crime drama, written by Richard McBrien and directed by David Drury, first broadcast on ITV on 4 May 1999. Broadcast in two parts, re-cut into three episodes for international broadcast, Trust stars Mark Strong as psychiatrist Michael Mitcham, accused of the murder of one of former patients, with whom he fathered a child. Meanwhile, his wife, Anne, a successful solicitor, begins an affair with Michael's best friend, who brings Michael's credibility into question during the trial for the crimes he is accused of; the film was broadcast on BBC America on 1 January 2007 as the first in a series of five British thrillers unbroadcast in the United States. The film was released on DVD in Germany in 2004, but this remains the only home video release to date. Notably, the DVD features audio dubbing in German, rather than subtitles; the two parts of Trust attracted 7.76 million viewers respectively. Adam Sweeting from The Guardian gave the film a mixed review. Director David Drury has piled on the emotional turbulence.

The background music is an eerie, oppressive mix of lurid orchestral writing and technological effects. Michael and Anne's home is like a three-dimensional model of the killer's diseased brain, with the camera stalking the open-plan walkways to peer through its glass walls like a murderous voyeur; the closing sequence was a mordant parody of the shower scene in Psycho, all panicky close-ups and shrieking violins." Mark Strong as Michael Mitcham Caroline Goodall as Anne Travers Nathaniel Parker as Andrew Pearce John McGlynn as DI Jim Hinton Caroline Strong as DS Sarah Miller Roger Griffiths as Trevor Macer Joseph Kpobie as Joshua Macer John Grillo as Dr. Ian Matthews Aneirin Hughes as Neil Davis Robert Lang as Nathan Anderson Georgia Mackenzie as Tara Reeves Felicity Montagu as Beth Simpson Hugh Simon as Geoff Keens Patrick Field as Vere Abigail Thaw as Caroline Pip Torrens as Jenkins Mark Umbers as Simon Trust on IMDb

Silvana Mangano

Silvana Mangano was an Italian actress. Raised in poverty during World War II, Mangano trained as a dancer and worked as a model before winning a Miss Rome beauty pageant in 1946; this led to work in films. Born in Rome to an Italian father and an English mother, Mangano lived in poverty during the World War II. Trained for seven years as a dancer, she was supporting herself as a model. In 1946, at age 16, Mangano won the Miss Rome beauty pageant, through this, she obtained a role in a Mario Costa film. One year she became a contestant in the Miss Italia contest; the contest that year became a springboard for a pool of potential actresses, including the winner Lucia Bosé, Mangano and several other future stars of Italian cinema such as Gina Lollobrigida, Eleonora Rossi Drago and Gianna Maria Canale. Mangano's earliest connection with filmmaking occurred through her romantic relationship with actor Marcello Mastroianni; this led her to a film contract, though it took some time for Mangano to ascend to international stardom with her performance in Bitter Rice.

She signed a contract with Lux Film in 1949, married Dino De Laurentiis, on the verge of becoming a known producer. Though she never scaled the heights of her contemporaries Sophia Loren and Gina Lollobrigida, Mangano remained a favorite star between the 1950s and 1970s, appearing in Anna, The Gold of Naples, Theorem, Death in Venice, The Scientific Cardplayer, it is claimed. Married to film producer Dino De Laurentiis from 1949, the couple had four children: Veronica, Raffaella and Federico. Veronica's daughter Giada De Laurentiis is the host of Everyday Italian and Giada at Home on the Food Network. Raffaella co-produced with her father on Dune. Federico died in an airplane crash in 1981 in Alaska. De Laurentiis and Mangano separated in 1983, Mangano began divorce proceedings in 1988. Following surgery on 4 December 1989 that left her in a coma, Mangano died of lung cancer in Madrid, Spain on 16 December 1989. Although it was sung by Flo Sandon's, Silvana Mangano was credited on the record label of "El Negro Zumbón", from the soundtrack of the film Anna and was a hit song in 1953.

A clip of the opening of this performance is featured in the film Cinema Paradiso. Silvana Mangano on IMDb Silvana Mangano at AllMovie Silvana Mangano at Find a Grave Front Cover of Life Magazine, 11 April 1960