SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Exeter

Exeter is a cathedral city in Devon, with a population of 130,428. The city is located on the River Exe 36 miles northeast of Plymouth and 65 miles southwest of Bristol, it is the county town of Devon, the base of Devon County Council. Situated in Exeter are two campuses of the University of Exeter, Streatham Campus and St Luke's Campus. In Roman Britain, Exeter was established as the base of Legio II Augusta under the personal command of Vespasian. Exeter became a religious centre during the Middle Ages and into the Tudor times: Exeter Cathedral, founded in the mid 11th century, became Anglican during the 16th-century English Reformation. During the late 19th century, Exeter became an affluent centre for the wool trade, although by the First World War the city was in decline. After the Second World War, much of the city centre was rebuilt and is now considered to be a centre for modern business and tourism in Devon and Cornwall; the administrative area of Exeter has the status of a non-metropolitan district under the administration of the County Council.

The modern name of Exeter is a development of the Old English Escanceaster, from the anglicised form of the river now known as the Exe and the Old English suffix -ceaster, used to mark important fortresses or fortified towns. The name "Exe" is a separate development of the Brittonic name—meaning "water" or, more "full of fish" —that appears in the English Axe and Esk and the Welsh Usk. Exeter began as settlements on a dry ridge ending in a spur overlooking a navigable river teeming with fish, with fertile land nearby. Although there have been no major prehistoric finds, these advantages suggest the site was occupied early. Coins have been discovered from the Hellenistic kingdoms, suggesting the existence of a settlement trading with the Mediterranean as early as 250 BC; such early towns had been a feature of pre-Roman Gaul as described by Julius Caesar in his Commentaries and it is possible that they existed in Britannia as well. The Romans established a 42-acre'playing-card' shaped fort named Isca around AD 55.

The fort was the southwest terminus of the Fosse Way and served as the base of the 5 000-man Second Augustan Legion led by Vespasian Roman Emperor, for the next 20 years before they moved to Caerleon in Wales, known as Isca. To distinguish the two, the Romans referred to Exeter as Isca Dumnoniorum, "Watertown of the Dumnonii", Caerleon as Isca Augusta. A small fort was maintained at Topsham; the presence of the fort built up an unplanned civilian community of natives and the soldiers' families to the northeast of the fort. This settlement served as the tribal capital of the Dumnonii and was listed as one of their four cities by Ptolemy in his Geography; when the fortress was abandoned around the year 75, its grounds were converted to civilian purposes: its large bathhouse was demolished to make way for a forum and a basilica, a smaller-scale bath was erected to the southeast. This area was excavated in the 1970s, but could not be maintained for public view owing to its proximity to the present-day cathedral.

In January 2015, it was announced that Exeter Cathedral had launched a bid to restore the baths and open an underground centre for visitors. In the late 2nd century, the ditch and rampart defences around the old fortress were replaced by a bank and wall enclosing a much larger area, some 92 acres. Although most of the visible structure is older, the course of the Roman wall was used for Exeter's subsequent city walls, thus about 70% of the Roman wall remains, most of its route can be traced on foot. The Devonian Isca seems to have been most prosperous in the first half of the 4th century: more than a thousand Roman coins have been found around the city and there is evidence for copper and bronze working, a stock-yard, markets for the livestock and pottery produced in the surrounding countryside; the dating of the coins so far discovered, suggests a rapid decline: none have been discovered dated after the year 380. Bishop Ussher identified the Cair Pensa vel Coyt listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons as Isca, although David Nash Ford read it as a reference to Penselwood and thought it more to be Lindinis.

Nothing is known of Exeter from the time of the Roman withdrawal from Britain around the year 410 until the seventh century. By that time, the city was held by the Saxons, who had arrived in Exeter after defeating the British Dumnonians at Peonnum in Somerset in 658, it seems that the Saxons maintained a quarter of the city for the Britons under their own laws around present-day Bartholomew Street, known as "Britayne" Street until 1637 in memory of its former occupants. Exeter was known to the Saxons as Escanceaster. In 876, it was attacked and captured by Danish Vikings. Alfred the Great drove them out the next summer. Over the next few years, he elevated Exeter to one of the four burhs in Devon, rebuilding its walls on the Roman lines; these permitted the city to fend off another at

Central Air Command

The Central Air Command is one of the five operational commands of the Indian Air Force. It is headquartered in Prayagraj in Uttar Pradesh, it was formed on 19 March 1962, at Calcutta. Due to the possibility of war with China, No. 1 Operational Group was formed on 27 May 1958 at Ranikuthee in Calcutta, to look after all the units. In 1959, it was upgraded to Eastern Air Force. In 1962, after the Sino-Indian War, EAF was moved to Shillong and Central Air Command was formed on 19 March 1962 with its headquarters at Rani Kuthee, Calcutta. Calcutta was considered an inappropriate location for the Central Air Command Headquarters and it was relocated to Allahabad in February 1966. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, CAC English Electric Canberras carried out 163 bombing and 33 close air support sorties against Pakistani forces, raided Pakistan Air Force airbases at Mauripur, Sargodha and Chaklala. Squadron Leader Charanjit Singh and Flt Lt Mangat Singh made a'brilliant raid' on the night of 13–14 September 1965, by carrying out a major air base attacks at Peshawar.

Three Mahavir Chakras were awarded to the members of Canberra squadrons. In a major attack, seven Canberras of No. 35 Squadron attacked the oil storage tanks at Karachi, destroying about 60% of Pakistan's oil reserves. On 3 November 1988, during the 1988 Maldives coup d'état, Indian troops were airlifted to Maldives in two CAC Ilyushin Il-76s and landed at Hulule airport on a dark unlit runway. By 2.30am on 4 November the Indian forces completed their mission and safely brought back the President of Maldives. In operation "Safed Sagar" during the Kargil war in 1999, CAC played a prominent role by carrying out attacks on enemy bases; the IAF's first exercise with a foreign air force took place with the French Air Force in Gwalior in 2003 and CAC participated in an eight-day exercise. A number of joint exercises have been conducted with the United States Air Force, Royal Air Force, the Singapore Air Force and South African Air Force at Gwalior and Agra. Squadrons include: The CAC patrols the North Central part of India.

It has airbases at Agra, Gorakhpur and Bamraulli and some units are located at Bihta, Bakshi-ka-Talab, Nainital and Varanasi. The CAC operates fixed-wing aircraft such as the Mirage 2000, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Antonov An-32, Ilyushin Il-76 and Dornier Do 228. Indian Air Force No. 22 Squadron, Indian Air Force Operation Meghdoot Orissa Super Cyclone

Goliath and the Vampires

Goliath and the Vampires is a 1961 Italian peplum film directed by Sergio Corbucci and Giacomo Gentilomo. Set in the ancient world, this film follows a powerful muscular man out to battle a vampire and his forces that go from village to village taking slaves and female victims. Gordon Scott: Maciste Gianna Maria Canale: Astra Jacques Sernas: Kurtick Leonora Ruffo: Guja Annabella Incontrera: Magda Mario Feliciani: Omar Both Giacomo Gentilomo and Sergio Corbucci are credited as directors of the film. Barry Atkinson stated. Goliath and the Vampires was released theatrically in Italy as Maciste control il vampiro on 21 August 1961, it was released theatrically in the United States in April 1964. American International Television released the film to television as part of its 1968 Young Adult Theatre package as The Vampires; the film was made available on home video by Something Weird. From contemporary reviews, the Monthly Film Bulletin stated that the film was a "mixture of handsomely decorated spectacle and the supernatural" with "first rate-editing".

The review concluded that the reviewer "missed the guiding hands of a Cottafavi. The review found the film "ludicrously written and crudely executed" and that Gordon Scott's acting was unsubtle. From retrospective reviews, Howard Hughes wrote in his book on Italian cinema that Gordon Scott's performance was "above average" in comparison to other contemporary genre films. In their book on Italian Sword and Sandal Films, Roy Kinnard and Tony Crnkovich noted that the film's production design by Kosta Krivokapic and Gianni Polidori was aided by Alvaro Mancori's cinematography, described as "striking" and that the film was a memorable entry in the peplum film genre; the review lamented that "most of the available prints have faded color." In his book on Italian peplum films, Barry Atkinson praised the set design and cinematography as "an artful blend of creepy fantasy and Gothicism". Goliath and the Vampires on IMDb