SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Exosphere

The exosphere is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other. In the case of bodies with substantial atmospheres, such as Earth's atmosphere, the exosphere is the uppermost layer, where the atmosphere thins out and merges with interplanetary space, it is located directly above the thermosphere. Little is known about it due to lack of research. Mercury, the Moon and three Galilean satellites of Jupiter have surface boundary exospheres, which are exospheres without a denser atmosphere underneath; the gases that can be found in the exosphere are hydrogen, carbon dioxide. Mercury and several large moons, such as the Moon and three Galilean satellites of Jupiter, have exospheres without a denser atmosphere underneath, referred to as a surface boundary exosphere. Here, molecules are ejected on elliptic trajectories. Smaller bodies such as asteroids, in which the molecules emitted from the surface escape to space, are not considered to have exospheres.

The most common molecules within Earth's exosphere are those of the lightest atmospheric gases. Hydrogen is present throughout the exosphere, with some helium, carbon dioxide, atomic oxygen near its base; because it can be hard to define the boundary between the exosphere and outer space, the exosphere may be considered a part of interplanetary or outer space. The lower boundary of the exosphere is called the exobase, it is called exopause and'critical altitude' as this is the altitude where barometric conditions no longer apply. Atmospheric temperature becomes nearly a constant above this altitude. On Earth, the altitude of the exobase ranges from about 500 to 1,000 kilometres depending on solar activity; the exobase can be defined in one of two ways: If we define the exobase as the height at which upward-traveling molecules experience one collision on average at this position the mean free path of a molecule is equal to one pressure scale height. This is shown in the following. Consider a volume of air, with horizontal area A and height equal to the mean free path l, at pressure p and temperature T.

For an ideal gas, the number of molecules contained in it is: n = p A l R T where R is the universal gas constant. From the requirement that each molecule traveling upward undergoes on average one collision, the pressure is: p = m A n g A where m A is the mean molecular mass of the gas. Solving these two equations gives: l = R T m A g, the equation for the pressure scale height; as the pressure scale height is equal to the density scale height of the primary constituent, because the Knudsen number is the ratio of mean free path and typical density fluctuation scale, this means that the exobase lies in the region where K n ≃ 1. The fluctuation in the height of the exobase is important because this provides atmospheric drag on satellites causing them to fall from orbit if no action is taken to maintain the orbit. In principle, the exosphere covers distances where particles are still gravitationally bound to Earth, i.e. particles still have ballistic orbits that will take them back towards Earth.

The upper boundary of the exosphere can be defined as the distance at which the influence of solar radiation pressure on atomic hydrogen exceeds that of Earth's gravitational pull. This happens at half the distance to the Moon; the exosphere, observable from space as the geocorona, is seen to extend to at least 10,000 kilometres from Earth's surface. On 17 August 2015, based on studies with the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer spacecraft, NASA scientists reported the detection of neon in the exosphere of the moon. Gerd W. Prolss: Physics of the Earth's Space Environment: An Introduction. ISBN 3-540-21426-7

Red Ames

Leon Kessling "Red" Ames was an American pitcher in Major League Baseball for the New York Giants, Cincinnati Reds, St. Louis Cardinals, Philadelphia Phillies. Born in Warren, Ames was a third or fourth starter for the New York Giants during their early period of dominance under John McGraw, he made his debut on September 14, 1903, pitching an abbreviated five-inning no-hitter against the Cardinals, but was not in the rotation full-time until 1905, when his 22 wins and 2.74 ERA helped the Giants to their first twentieth-century world championship. This was by far his best season. A career ERA of 2.63 ties him with Cy Young. He pitched in three World Series with the Giants, but appeared entirely in relief in the fall classic, starting only once, the last game in 1911, which he lost decisively to the world champion Philadelphia Athletics, he was traded to the Reds in 1913, never again approached his earlier success with the Giants. Ames' greatest distinction was being one of the wildest pitchers in history with a curveball charitably described as "dramatic."

Other of his notable accomplishments are leading the National League in saves with 6 in 1914 and 8 in 1916, in strikeouts per 9 innings pitched in 1905, 1906 and 1907. On Opening Day, April 15, 1909, he achieved the feat of losing a no-hitter in a game in which he did not give up a hit until the 10th inning or a run until the 13th, but received credit for nine no-hit innings at a moment, but this was negated because you must start and finish the game or another pitcher without allowing a hit. Ames, Lee Meadows and Bill Doak were involved in a car accident on April 16, 1919, when the car they were in crashed into a street car in St. Louis. Initial reports indicated that none were injured. After leaving the majors, he pitched in the minors for three more years and managed in the minors in 1923, his son, Red Ames Jr, played in the minor leagues for several years. List of Major League Baseball annual saves leaders Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference Red Ames at the SABR Bio Project, by R. J. Lesch, retrieved November 16, 2013 Red Ames at Find a Grave

Cambridge Jones

Cambridge Jones is a British celebrity portrait photographer. His subjects, in a series of books and exhibitions, include several British Prime Ministers, Queen Elizabeth II, well-known actors and musicians. Several of his books and exhibitions have involved musical themes, his first major exhibition, Face The Music, at The Proud Galleries in London, featured pictures of 120 well-known faces who chose and commented on a favourite piece of music. Gallery visitors could listen to each subject’s chosen track on headphones as they looked at their portrait. Notable commissions include work for RADA, Prince Charles’ charity The Prince's Trust, The BBC, Nelson Mandela, London 2012, Mayor of London Boris Johnson, Christ Church, Oxford. In 2009 he was made an ambassador to The Prince's Trust. Cambridge Jones’ next project is "Boris Johnson - Climate Change", an exhibition & book to accompany the launch of a consultative website intended to engage Londoners with the issue of Climate Change, featuring 20 well-known faces and their views.

Launch is scheduled for February 2010. Other forthcoming projects include an exhibition and book on the greatest living Olympians, to mark the London 2012 games, Talking Heads, an exhibition looking at iconic performers and their inspiration, due to open in four US and UK cities in September 2010. "Face The Music", Proud Galleries, London, 2004Portraits of 120 famous Brits who talked about their favourite music. "OFFSTAGE", Getty Gallery, London, 2005Exhibition to mark 100 years of The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, featuring portraits of 100 famous RADA-trained British actors. "The Royal Academy Centenary Portraits Reprised", O3 Gallery, 2006Reprise of the Offstage exhibition. "Persona", Theatre Royal, Brighton, 2007Voice Portraits by synaesthetic artist Philippa Stanton and portraits by Cambridge Jones. "Home Time", Getty Gallery, London, 2008Cambridge Jones asked Terry O'Neil and well-known names to help him produce an exhibition where celebrities were paired with children needing adoption.

"Country Couture", Country Music Hall of Fame, 2009Exhibition looking at the work of couturier Manuel and the stage clothes he designs for country music stars such as Merle Haggard, Loretta Lynn, Porter Wagoner and Dwight Yoakam. OFFSTAGE, 2005 Christ Church – A Portrait of The House, 2007 Inspired By Music, 2009 Each portrait subject is accompanied by lyrics of a song that inspired them. "A Wider Sky" 2005Collaboration with composer Adrian Munsey & Cambridge Jones using photography & music. Interview with Cambridge Jones in The British Theatre Guide. Cambridge Jones' website