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The thermosphere is the layer in the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere. Within this layer of the atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation causes photoionization/photodissociation of molecules, creating ions in the ionosphere. Taking its name from the Greek θερμός meaning heat, the thermosphere begins at about 80 km above sea level. At these high altitudes, the residual atmospheric gases sort into strata according to molecular mass. Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of energetic solar radiation. Temperatures are dependent on solar activity, can rise to 1,700 °C or more. Radiation causes the atmosphere particles in this layer to become electrically charged, enabling radio waves to be refracted and thus be received beyond the horizon. In the exosphere, beginning at about 600 km above sea level, the atmosphere turns into space, although by the judicial criteria set for the definition of the Kármán line, the thermosphere itself is part of space.

The attenuated gas in this layer can reach 2,500 °C during the day. Despite the high temperature, an observer or object will experience cold temperatures in the thermosphere, because the low density of gas is insufficient for the molecules to conduct heat. A normal thermometer will read below 0 °C, at least at night, because the energy lost by thermal radiation would exceed the energy acquired from the atmospheric gas by direct contact. In the anacoustic zone above 160 kilometres, the density is so low that molecular interactions are too infrequent to permit the transmission of sound; the dynamics of the thermosphere are dominated by atmospheric tides, which are driven predominantly by diurnal heating. Atmospheric waves dissipate above this level because of collisions between the neutral gas and the ionospheric plasma; the International Space Station orbits the Earth within the middle of the thermosphere, between 408 and 410 kilometres. It is convenient to separate the atmospheric regions according to the two temperature minima at about 12 km altitude and at about 85 km.

The thermosphere is the height region above 85 km, while the region between the tropopause and the mesopause is the middle atmosphere where absorption of solar UV radiation generates the temperature maximum near 45 km altitude and causes the ozone layer. The density of the Earth's atmosphere decreases nearly exponentially with altitude; the total mass of the atmosphere is M = ρA H ≃ 1 kg/cm2 within a column of one square centimeter above the ground. 80% of that mass is concentrated within the troposphere. The mass of the thermosphere above about 85 km is only 0.002% of the total mass. Therefore, no significant energetic feedback from the thermosphere to the lower atmospheric regions can be expected. Turbulence causes the air within the lower atmospheric regions below the turbopause at about 110 km to be a mixture of gases that does not change its composition, its mean molecular weight is 29 g/mol with molecular oxygen and nitrogen as the two dominant constituents. Above the turbopause, diffusive separation of the various constituents is significant, so that each constituent follows its own barometric height structure with a scale height inversely proportional to its molecular weight.

The lighter constituents atomic oxygen and hydrogen successively dominate above about 200 km altitude and vary with geographic location and solar activity. The ratio N2/O, a measure of the electron density at the ionospheric F region is affected by these variations; these changes follow from the diffusion of the minor constituents through the major gas component during dynamic processes. The thermosphere contains an appreciable concentration of elemental sodium located in a 10-km thick band that occurs at the edge of the mesosphere, 80 to 100 km above Earth's surface; the sodium has an average concentration of 400,000 atoms per cubic centimeter. This band is replenished by sodium sublimating from incoming meteors. Astronomers have begun utilizing this sodium band to create "guide stars" as part of the optical correction process in producing ultra-sharp ground-based observations; the thermospheric temperature can be determined from density observations as well as from direct satellite measurements.

The temperature vs. altitude z in Fig. 1 can be simulated by the so-called Bates profile: T = T ∞ − e − s with T∞ the exospheric temperature above about 400 km altitude, To = 355 K, zo = 120 km reference temperature and height, s an empirical parameter depending on T∞ and decreasing with T∞. That formula is derived from a simple equation of heat conduction. One estimates a total heat input of qo≃ 0.8 to 1.6 mW/m2 above zo = 120 km altitude. In order to obtain equilibrium conditions, that heat input qo above zo is lost to the lower atmospheric regions by heat conduction; the exospheric temperature T∞ is a fair measurement of the solar XUV radiation. Since solar radio emission F at 10.7 cm wavelength is a good indicator of solar activity, one can apply the empirical formula for quiet magnetospheric conditions.(

Westwood (Uniontown, Alabama)

Westwood is a historic plantation in Uniontown, United States. The main house was built between 1850 by James Lewis Price, it is in the Greek Revival style with some Italianate influence. The outbuildings include a smokehouse with architectural detailing identical to the main house, a carriage house, a dairy, a cook's quarters. Westwood Plantation was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district on November 21, 1974. Boundary increases were made to the district on March 15, 1984 and December 10, 1984. James Lewis Price migrated to Perry County in 1835 from his native Virginia, he began naming it after his grandfather's Virginia home. His slaves cleared the land and were responsible for the construction of his estate, including the main house. By 1850 Price had finished work on Westwood, now its sprawling plan was complete with projecting corner pavilions and two-story end loggias with recessed cast-iron porches. Westwood continues to be owned by Price descendants; the 1860 United States Census of Perry County indicates that James Lewis Price owned 108 slaves in that year

Lucy Meredith Bryce

Lucy Meredith Bryce was an Australian haematologist and medical researcher, who worked with the Australian Red Cross Society to establish the first blood transfusion service in Australia. Lucy Bryce was born in Lindfield, New South Wales, educated in Melbourne, at the Melbourne Girls Grammar School, she earned degrees at the University of Melbourne in 1918 and 1922. Bryce started her career at the Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research after college. While still in her twenties, she spent a year working at the Lister Institute in London. From 1928 to 1934, she was on staff as a bacteriologist at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, before launching a private practice as a pathologist. During World War II, she held the rank of major in the Australian Army Medical Corps. In 1948, she was called upon as an expert witness in a case involving the identification of two newborns, alleged to have been switched at birth. Beginning in 1929, Bryce was the founding director of the Victoria Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Australia's first blood transfusion service.

Her work involved planning how donors should be screened, how blood should be typed and stored, supervising the establishment of a blood reserve in case of major disaster. She retired from active involvement in this work in 1954, but continued to hold her title as honorary chair of the transfusion committee until 1966, she was named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1951 for this work. Bryce wrote a history of the transfusion service, An Abiding Gladness, as well as many scientific articles. Bryce died in 1968, age 72. There is a crater on Venus named for Bryce, a portrait of her is on display in Lucy Bryce Hall, which houses the Central Blood Bank in Melbourne. Bryce Place in the Canberra suburb of Florey is named in her honour. In 2001 Bryce was inducted to the Victorian Honour Roll of Women

Sarao Motors

Sarao Motors, Inc. is a Filipino automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Brgy. Pulang Lupa in the city of Las Piñas in Metro Manila, Philippines; the company designs, engineers and distributes the jeepney, the most popular form of transportation in the country, labeled as the'king of the road' in the Philippines. The company was first established as a small automotive shop in 1953 by starting entrepreneur Leonardo Sarao, a mechanic and a former calesa driver. From an initial budget of ₱700, the company grew into a multimillion corporation. At its peak, the ratio of Sarao jeepneys rolling the streets of Manila outnumbered other names by nearly 7 to 1, the name Sarao became synonymous with the vehicle. Sarao promoted the jeepney as a symbol of Philippine culture. A Sarao was exhibited at the Philippine pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair as a national image for the Filipinos. In 1971, a Sarao jeepney traveled from Manila to London and all over Europe as the Phlippine icon of the London-Manila Express, a roadshow sponsored by the Philippine Tourism and Travel Association to boost the country's tourism and industry to European countries.

Sarao is a manufacturer of owner-type, custom-built jeepneys and other type of vehicles for schools and other institutions. Pope John Paul II rode on a specially built owner-type jeepney by Sarao during his first travel to the country in 1981. On October 2, 2000 Sarao Motors was forced to halt jeepney production due to rising costs. Sarao Motors' employees were downsized from 300 to only 50; the collection department was the only part of the company. Sarao Motors resumed its operation albeit in a lesser scale. A Sarao jeepney manufactured in 1955

Dive Bar Tour (Lady Gaga)

The Dive Bar Tour was a promotional concert tour by American singer Lady Gaga, sponsored by Bud Light, in support of the singer's fifth studio album Joanne. The tour visited three dive bars in the United States, on October 5, 20 and 27. All performances were live. In a statement, Gaga said: "My first performances were in dive bars in New York City and around the country, so working with Bud Light to go back to my roots to perform songs from my new album Joanne is such an exciting way to connect with my fans and share this music with them for the first time", added that the venues would accentuate the "raw Americana vibe" of her upcoming album, she added that she wanted to "have a more natural human experience" with her audience, something, not possible with her stadium shows. Prior the tour, it was reported that the audience will be made up of “winners” of an unknown contest, all shows will be live streamed on Bud Light's Facebook page; the locations of the shows were kept a secret, passes were given to the selected audience members only shortly before each show took place, to avoid large groups of people turning up, who wouldn't be able to fit into the small clubs.

According to People, hearing impaired people representing the group Not Impossible were invited to the first concert, in Nashville, who were introduced to a "groundbreaking technology" that included "a custom vest and ankle bands that vibrated in time with the music." In addition, all songs were performed in sign language by famed interpreter Amber Gallego. For her Nashville show, Gaga took the stage in a black and gold jacket and a pink hat with matching rhinestone-bedecked hat band, she sat down, started performing "Sinner's Prayer" while strumming an acoustic-guitar, before her band started to play their instruments. For "A-Yo", she played an electric guitar. After asking the audience to call her Joanne for the night, she invited Hillary Lindsey on stage, with whom she co-wrote two songs for the Joanne album, they performed "Million Reasons" together. For the final song, "Perfect Illusion", Gaga removed the hat and jacket, danced around the stage in a crop top, while whipping her ponytail around.

At The Bitter End, in New York City, Gaga donned a see-through shirt, emblazoned with the logo of tour sponsor Bud Light, jean shorts. After debuting the track "Diamond Heart", she invited Mark Ronson on stage, they performed "A-Yo" together, with both of them playing electric guitar. Gaga shared the story of her late aunt Joanne with the audience, how her death impacted her family, she performed the song named after her while playing acoustic guitar, dedicated it to her father. She called Lindsey on stage, telling the audience how they wrote the following song "Grigio Girls" together, which Gaga dedicated to her friend, battling cancer and was present in the audience. "Million Reasons" and "Just Another Day" was performed with Gaga playing a piano. After the performance was over, Gaga went on to the roof of the bar using the fire escape, where she reprised "Joanne" and debuted new track "Angel Down" to the crowd standing outside, who were unable to get in due to the limited capacity of the venue.

The final show in Los Angeles's The Satellite started with Gaga walking through the audience with two of her dancers, while performing "Come to Mama". They were dressed in matching jackets with two letters written on each of them, which made up the word Joanne when they stood next to each other. After performing "A-Yo", for which she was again joined on stage by Ronson, Gaga debuted new song "John Wayne", she thanked her global audience for purchasing the track "Million Reasons", performed the song. After giving a speech about the importance of love and respect, she sang "Angel Down", changed up the lyrics to reference shooting victim Trayvon Martin in the outro of the song. Talking about her family led to a performance of the track "Joanne". Before performing the final song, "Perfect Illusion", Gaga changed into a white crop top and denim shorts. During the performance, she crowdsurfed, poured beer onto her head. Reviewing Gaga's Nashville performance, Jewly Hight from Billboard opined that the Dive Bar Tour is "a return to her humble performing roots" and an "experiment with transforming how she presents her music and herself."

She added that "judging from Wednesday's show, Gaga's latest reinvention has her embracing emotional directness, coming from her, that too packs a punch."Reviewing the show at New York City, Yohana Desta from Vanity Fair wrote that "the show featured some of Gaga's best characteristics: strong vocals, dedicated performance, coaxed emotions." She highlighted her performance of "Just Another Day", "in which the singer hammed it up behind the piano, resting her foot on the instrument in a trademark move", Gaga's impromptu performance on the bar's roof as the most memorable parts of the show. Eve Barlow from LA Weekly reviewed her show in Los Angeles's The Satellite, called it "bonkers" to watch "one of the world's biggest superstars in a room with just 300 people", appreciated the opportunity to get to see her up close, not possible with her stadium-sized shows, she added that "her set runs through emotions the way musicals move through scenes", while she believed that "at the age of 30 she seems to have left some of the poses of her 20s behind, she remains pure theater, a one-woman Annie Get Your Gun."

Lady Gaga – vocals and piano Brockett Parsons – keyboards Aaron Spearsdrums Jonny Good – bass Ricky Tillo – guitar Tim Stewart – guitar Mark Ronson – guitar Hillary Lindsey – Background vocals Bud Light +

Terry Lundgren

Terrence James Lundgren is an American business executive who retired on January 31, 2018, as executive chairman of Macy's, Inc. the parent company of fashion retailers Macy's, Bloomingdale's and Bluemercury. He had served for 14 years as chairman and chief executive officer of Macy's, Inc. becoming the company's executive chairman in 2017. He was named an executive in residence at Columbia Business School in 2017. After graduating from the University of Arizona in 1974, he joined Federated Department Stores, Inc. and rose to lead the upscale specialty Bullocks Wilshire division in Los Angeles at age 35. He served as CEO of Neiman Marcus before returning to Federated in 1994. Through his career at Macy's, Lundgren is credited with being an innovator in merchandising and localization, he was instrumental in developing the company's private brands of merchandise and led the 2005 merger of Federated and May Department Stores Company, creating one of the largest retailers in the world, with more than 800 U.

S. stores and 2008 net sales of US$24.9 billion. The May Company acquisition allowed Macy's to become a nationwide retailing brand for the first time. Under Lundgren, Macy's implemented a successful "My Macy's", localization initiative in spring 2008 to tailor a portion of every store's assortment to local tastes and color; the company reported that of its top 15 best-performing geographic markets in the key holiday selling month of December 2008, 13 were My Macy's pilot districts. The My Macy's organizational model was rolled out across the U. S. in 2009 and became a Harvard Business School case study for successful localization within a national retailing model. Lundgren led Macy's significant investments in ecommerce and mobile shopping, which led it to become one of the largest online retailers in America. Under Lundgren, Macy's, Inc. acquired beauty retailer Bluemercury in 2015. Lundgren has been awarded numerous honors. In 2008, he received the Gold Medal Award from the National Retail Federation, considered the retailing industry's pre-eminent honor.

In spring 2008, he was presented with Carnegie Hall's third annual Medal of Excellence for outstanding philanthropic leadership in the arts. The gala held in Lundgren's honor raised $4.2 million for Carnegie Hall. Lundgren was named one of the Top 30 CEOs in the world by Barron's in 2015, he was Women's Wear Daily's "Newsmaker of the Year" in 2014 and is the recipient of the Deming Cup by Columbia Business School for distinction in leading continuous improvement. Lundgren is active in the community. At the request of NYC Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg he served as one of the industry chairs of Fashion. NYC.2020, which looked at the future of NYC's fashion industry and made recommendations for actionable steps the NYC government could take to promote NYC's fashion industry He has been presented with numerous business recognition awards and has served as dinner chairman or as honoree for numerous retail industry organizations and charities, including Carnegie Hall, MoMA, BRAG, the Fresh Air Fund, American Jewish Council, Breast Cancer Awareness, NOW Legal Defense, Parsons School, Fashion Institute of Technology and the Ovarian Cancer Society.

Lundgren is a former board member of The New York City Partnership and United Way of New York City, in addition to participating in numerous other charitable and civic efforts. He served for two terms as chairman of the National Minority Supplier Development Council, was co-chair of the American Heart Association's CEO Roundtable. Lundgren serves on the board of directors of the Procter & Gamble Company and was a board member of Kraft Foods Inc, he chaired the Economic Club of New York and served on the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He served twice as chairman of the National Retail Federation, the retail industry's primary trade association. Born in Long Beach, Lundgren was one of six children. Lundgren was married to Nancy Cross until their divorce. Lundgren married Tina Stephan in 2005. Lundgren is the namesake of the Terry J. Lundgren Center for Retailing at the University of Arizona, where he is an alumnus, having graduated in 1974 with a bachelor's degree. In 2000, Lundgren was awarded an honorary doctorate and delivered the university's commencement address.

Federated Department Stores: Bullock's division, 1975–1987 Bullocks Wilshire: 1987–1988, president Neiman Marcus: 1988–1994, EVP chairman/CEO Federated Merchandising Group: 1994–1997, chairman/CEO Macy's, Inc.:1997–2003 President and chief merchandising officer 2003–2004 President and chief executive officer 2004–2014 Chairman, president and CEO 2014–2017 Chairman and CEO 2017–2018 Executive chairman Biography on