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Expansion of the universe

The expansion of the universe is the increase in distance between any two given gravitationally unbound parts of the observable universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion; the universe does not require space to exist "outside" it. Technically, neither space nor objects in space move. Instead it is the metric governing the geometry of spacetime itself that changes in scale. Although light and objects within spacetime cannot travel faster than the speed of light, this limitation does not restrict the metric itself. To an observer it appears that space is expanding and all but the nearest galaxies are receding into the distance. During the inflationary epoch about 10−32 of a second after the Big Bang, the universe expanded, its volume increased by a factor of at least 1078, equivalent to expanding an object 1 nanometer in length to one 10.6 light years long. A much slower and gradual expansion of space continued after this, until at around 9.8 billion years after the Big Bang it began to expand more and is still doing so.

The metric expansion of space is of a kind different from the expansions and explosions seen in daily life. It seems to be a property of the universe as a whole rather than a phenomenon that applies just to one part of the universe or can be observed from "outside" of it. Metric expansion is a key feature of Big Bang cosmology, is modeled mathematically with the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric and is a generic property of the universe we inhabit. However, the model is valid only on large scales, because gravitational attraction binds matter together enough that metric expansion cannot be observed at this time, on a smaller scale; as such, the only galaxies receding from one another as a result of metric expansion are those separated by cosmologically relevant scales larger than the length scales associated with the gravitational collapse that are possible in the age of the universe given the matter density and average expansion rate. Physicists have postulated the existence of dark energy, appearing as a cosmological constant in the simplest gravitational models, as a way to explain the acceleration.

According to the simplest extrapolation of the currently-favored cosmological model, the Lambda-CDM model, this acceleration becomes more dominant into the future. In June 2016, NASA and ESA scientists reported that the universe was found to be expanding 5% to 9% faster than thought earlier, based on studies using the Hubble Space Telescope. While special relativity prohibits objects from moving faster than light with respect to a local reference frame where spacetime can be treated as flat and unchanging, it does not apply to situations where spacetime curvature or evolution in time become important; these situations are described by general relativity, which allows the separation between two distant objects to increase faster than the speed of light, although the definition of "separation" is different from that used in an inertial frame. This can be seen. Light, emitted today from galaxies beyond the cosmological event horizon, about 5 gigaparsecs or 16 billion light-years, will never reach us, although we can still see the light that these galaxies emitted in the past.

Because of the high rate of expansion, it is possible for a distance between two objects to be greater than the value calculated by multiplying the speed of light by the age of the universe. These details are a frequent source of confusion among amateurs and professional physicists. Due to the non-intuitive nature of the subject and what has been described by some as "careless" choices of wording, certain descriptions of the metric expansion of space and the misconceptions to which such descriptions can lead are an ongoing subject of discussion within education and communication of scientific concepts. In 1912, Vesto Slipher discovered that light from remote galaxies was redshifted, interpreted as galaxies receding from the Earth. In 1922, Alexander Friedmann used Einstein field equations to provide theoretical evidence that the universe is expanding. In 1927, Georges Lemaître independently reached a similar conclusion to Friedmann on a theoretical basis, presented the first observational evidence for a linear relationship between distance to galaxies and their recessional velocity.

Edwin Hubble observationally confirmed Lemaître's findings two years later. Assuming the cosmological principle, these findings would imply that all galaxies are moving away from each other. Based on large quantities of experimental observation and theoretical work, the scientific consensus is that space itself is expanding, that it expanded rapidly within the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang; this kind of expansion is known as "metric expansion". In mathematics and physics, a "metric" means a measure of distance, the term implies that the sense of distance within the universe is itself changing; the modern explanation for the metric expansion of space was proposed by physicist Alan Guth in 1979 while investigating the problem of why no magnetic monopoles are seen today. Guth found in his investigation that if the universe contained a field that has a positive-energy false vacuum state according to general relativity it would generate

Robert Waterman (governor)

Robert Whitney Waterman was an American politician. He served as the 17th governor of California from September 12, 1887 until January 8, 1891. Waterman was born on December 1826 in Fairfield, New York, he was born to Mary Graves Waldo. His middle name derives from the second wife of his maternal grandfather, he had seven siblings, including James Sears Waterman, John Calvin Waterman, Henry Franklin Waterman, Charlotte Judith Waterman, Mary Waterman, Charles Waterman, Caroline Waldo Waterman, Theodore Francis Waterman. Waterman moved to Illinois when he was thirteen to join his brother as a clerk; until 1850, he was a store postmaster in Geneva, Illinois. In 1850, he headed to California, he traveled with F. A. Park, befriended Brigham Young in Salt Lake City along the way; when he arrived in California, he joined one of his brothers prospecting near the South Fork of the Feather River on Oregon Creek. In 1851, Waterman returned to his family in Wilmington and became a successful grain dealer, he returned to Illinois, helped form the Illinois Republican party in 1854 and published the Willmington Independent newspaper.

In 1856, he was one of two Illinois delegates to the first Republican National Convention in Bloomington, Illinois. The other was Abraham Lincoln. In 1860 he played a key role in delivering Illinois to Abraham Lincoln. In 1873, Waterman returned to California and became a machinery salesman in Redwood City, California. In 1874, he moved to California, he operated the Stonewall Jackson Mine. In 1880, while residing in San Bernardino, Waterman discovered a silver mine with John Porter a few miles north of Barstow, California called Grapevine. In 1881, he formed a mining partnership with John Porter called Waterman and Porter, with 3/4 of the interest owned by Waterman. A stamp mill settlement about four miles away was named Waterman; the Southern Pacific Railroad came through Waterman in 1882 and 100 men were employed at the mill and mine. The mine produced 40,000 tons of ore worth US$1.7 million before it closed in 1887 after silver prices declined. In 1886, he purchased Rancho Cuyamaca, including California's Stonewall gold mine.

On the Cuyamaca Ranch, he raised cattle and helped build the San Diego and Eastern Railroad. He was elected lieutenant governor in 1886 as a Republican, he became governor in 1887 upon the death of Governor Washington Bartlett; the 1886 election was the first split between the two posts in California's history. As governor, the "Waterman Rifles" militia was authorized for San Bernardino, named in his honor since he was a resident of the City prior to election. In 1889 at Waterman's urging, the 300-acre Harlem tract in Patton, California was chosen for the first Southern California Insane Asylum, it would become Patton State Hospital in the Highland area of San Bernardino. He served on the U. C. Regents as an ex officio member as both lieutenant governor and governor, his administration suffered from his lack of poor advisory support. He supported the Congressional Resolution creating Yosemite National Park; the question whether to divide California was a major issue in his term. His nickname was "Old Honesty", he would not tolerate drunkenness, nor dishonesty, vowed to run the state as a business.

He chastised the Legislature for having 228 clerks. Though he served out the remainder of the term, his poor health caused him not to seek re-election, he moved to San Diego, where he is buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery. In 1891, he purchased for US$17,000 a Queen Anne-style house built in 1889 known as the Long-Waterman Mansion, now located at 2408 First Avenue, San Diego, 92101. Waterman married Jane Gardner on September 29, 1847, in Belvedere, Illinois, his children were: Frank G. Waterman Waldo Sprague Waterman, married Hazel Emma Wood in Erie Villa, California on April 11, 1889, died February 23, 1903 in San Diego, California) James Sears Waterman, married Sarah C. Brown on December 15, 1902) Mary Pamela Waterman-Rice, married to Hyland W. Rice, San Bernardino County's Public Administrator) Helen Jane Waterman Anna Charlotte Waterman married Irving M. Scott in San Diego, CA, Sept. 29, 1891 Abby Lou Waterman After his death, on April 12, 1891, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in the case of Waterman v. Alden reported at 143 U.

S. 196. That case involved the will of his brother, James S. Waterman of Sycamore Illinois, who died on July 19, 1883 without children or descendants. On May 14, 1881, Waterman gave his brother an agreement in writing to give his brother within 12 months on demand 24/100th of mining property in California. Waterman testified. James Waterman advanced $25,000 to $30,000 to the Waterman Porter partnership, part of, repaid before James' death. James held five promissary notes dated in late 1881, for $10,000, payable from February to March 1882 at 8 percent per annum interest; the notes were transferred by Robert Waterman to Philander M. Alden and George S. Robinson, citizens of Illi

Jolene Brand

Jolene Brand is an American actress. She is married to George Schlatter and has two daughters – Andrea Justine Schlatter and Maria S. Schlatter, she acted most in the 1950s/60s, appeared in seven episodes of the Ernie Kovacs television programs. In 1958, she acted in the B-film Giant from the Unknown, about a man, frozen in suspended animation for 500 years and was freed by a lightning bolt and goes on a killing spree; that year she was signed up to play a part in the Disney television show Zorro. She played the romantic interest for the main character played by Guy Williams. Brand portrayed "Indian Emily" in the 1959 episode of the same name on the syndicated television anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews; the setting is the United States Army outpost at Texas. Emily, an Apache captive, adopts the white man's ways but flees when a young officer, Tom Easton, whom she loves prepares to marry another, she returns to warn the fort of a pending Apache attack and dies after saving the fort of a gunshot wound fired in error.

Meg Wyllie played Mrs. Easton. A memorial at Fort Davis honors the heroism of Indian Emily, she worked with Ernie Kovacs until the comedian's death in 1962. Brand and her husband George Schlatter were his wife Edie Adams. Jolene Brand on IMDb

Alondra Park, California

Alondra Park known as El Camino Village, is a census designated place in Los Angeles County, United States. It is the unincorporated area north of El Camino College, it is east of Lawndale, south of Hawthorne, west of Gardena, north of Torrance. Manhattan Beach Boulevard and Crenshaw Boulevard are the two major cross streets in the area; the population was 8,592 at the 2010 census, down from 8,622 at the 2000 census. Alondra Park is located about two miles southeast of Hawthorne. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.1 square miles. 1.1 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Alondra Park had a population of 8,592; the population density was 7,518.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alondra Park was 3,716 White, 806 African American, 32 Native American, 1,396 Asian, 48 Pacific Islander, 2,167 from other races, 427 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4,304 persons.

The Census reported that 8,527 people lived in households, 59 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 6 were institutionalized. There were 2,719 households, out of which 1,198 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,383 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 442 had a female householder with no husband present, 223 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 174 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 17 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 513 households were made up of individuals and 132 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.14. There were 2,048 families; the population was spread out with 2,332 people under the age of 18, 818 people aged 18 to 24, 2,581 people aged 25 to 44, 2,091 people aged 45 to 64, 770 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.4 males. There were 2,818 housing units at an average density of 2,465.9 per square mile, of which 1,362 were owner-occupied, 1,357 were occupied by renters.

The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.7%. 4,188 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 4,339 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Alondra Park had a median household income of $54,484, with 20.7% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,622 people, 2,830 households, 2,046 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 7,562.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,933 housing units at an average density of 2,572.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 41.57% White, 12.62% Black or African American, 0.81% Native American, 16.32% Asian, 0.42% Pacific Islander, 22.04% from other races, 6.23% from two or more races. 40.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,830 households out of which 40.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families.

20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.05 and the average family size was 3.56. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 29.5% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,722, the median income for a family was $45,852. Males had a median income of $33,000 versus $28,494 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,175. About 15.8% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department operates the Lennox Station in Lennox, serving El Camino Village. In the California State Legislature, Alondra Park is in the 35th Senate District, represented by Democrat Steven Bradford, in the 66th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Al Muratsuchi.

In the United States House of Representatives, Alondra Park is in California's 43rd congressional district, represented by Democrat Maxine Waters. Alondra Park is served by the Lawndale Elementary School District. Three elementary schools, Kit Carson Elementary School, Franklin D. Roosevelt Elementary School, Mark Twain Elementary School, are located inside and serve portions of Alondra Park. Residents are zoned to Rogers Middle School in Lawndale. For high school residents are in the Centinela Valley Union High School District. El Camino College is inside Alondra Park. County of Los Angeles Library operates the Masao W. Satow Library, located in Alondra Park. In 1913 the Moneta Branch was formed. In 1919 the Strawberry Park branch was formed. In 1958 the Strawberry Park and Moneta branches merged into the West Gardena Branch. In 1969 a fire forced the West Gardena branch to go to a new location; the current Satow building, dedicated on February 26, 1977, was na

FC Pirin Gotse Delchev

Football Club Pirin is a Bulgarian football club, based in Gotse Delchev. The club plays in the fourth division of Bulgarian football; the team's biggest success came in 2012, when they managed to promote to the A PFG for the first time. Their spell in the top-flight lasted two years. Pirin play home games at the Gradski stadium, with a capacity of 5,000, they play in white stripped kits. The club logo represents the Pirin mountain range in Southwestern Bulgaria and the predominant green color on the kits is in reference to the many forested areas around Gotse Delchev. Pirin Gotse Delchev were founded in 1925 as Pirin Nevrokop, their traditional colours are green and white. In 1981–82 Pirin were promoted for the first time to B PFG; the club spent three years in second division, before being relegated in 1985 to third division. After 8 years in the lowers divisions of Bulgarian football, in 1993 Pirin returned to B PFG. In their first season back in second division Pirin finished in eight place in the league.

In the following 1994–95 season was a poor one for the club, ending with the team in second lowest place and relegated back to the third division. In 2005 they won the third promotion to the B PFG in its history. In December 2005, Yordan Bozdanski was appointed as manager. Pirin finished the 2006–07 season in third place in the West B PFG, their highest finish in the league since their еstablishment. On 27 June 2011, Yakov Paparkov was announced as the club's new manager. In the 2011–12 season, Pirin won the West B PFG with a 62 points, scoring 41 goals and losing only three times. Pirin were promoted to Bulgarian football's top division for the first time in their history, their first season in the top level of Bulgarian football was successful. The team managed to draw 4, earning them 34 points; these results placed them three points above the relegation zone. At home, Pirin managed to win 6 games, as well as draw 3, including a 1-1 draw against Levski Sofia, the eventual runners-up of the 2012-13 season.

Away results were good, considering that this was the debut season for Pirin in the elite. They managed to draw once. Manager for the season was Tencho Tenev, appointed at the beginning of the season. For the upcoming season, the format of the Bulgarian league was changed, with the bottom seven teams qualifying for the relegation group. Pirin did not manage to repeat the same results from last season, as the team spent the majority of the season in the relegation group, they started the season with a draw against Lokomotiv Sofia. This was followed by eight defeats in a row, they finished 13th in the regular season, thus being placed in the relegation zone. The team did not improve its results there, losing four out of their six home games, as well as losing five out of six away games. At the end of the season, Pirin were 32 points below the relegation line, thus being relegated; this ended Pirin's two year stay in the A PFG. Although they were supposed to play in the B PFG next season, Pirin Gotse Delchev did not obtain a license, were demoted to the third tier.

At the end of the 2017-18 season, Pirin were relegated to the fourth amateur league. West B PFG Champions: 2011–12 As of 2 July 2018 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official site Pirin Gotse Delchev at Bulgarian Club Directory. Pirin Gotse Delchev at Soccerway


Neohelice granulata is a species of crab in the family Varunidae, the only species in the genus Neohelice. In 2009, it was estimated. Neohelice is found in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, from the Golfo San José to the Laguna Araruama in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil; the diet of Neohelice in the wild most consists of sediment and plant-derived detritus. The first report of Neohelice was that made by Alcide d’Orbigny during an expedition to South America between 1826 and 1834, he did not name the species. The first person to describe the species taxonomically was James Dwight Dana, who named it Chasmagnathus granulatus in his 1851 work reporting the results of the United States Exploring Expedition. In 1918, Mary J. Rathbun redescribed the species under the modified name "Chasmagnathus granulata", which remained in occasional use along Dana's name until 2006, when Katushi Sakai, Michael Türkay and Si-Liang Yang revised the genera Helice and Chasmagnathus, they restricted both genera to those species occurring in East Asia, erected a new genus for C. granulatus, which thus became Neohelice granulata, as well as the genera Austrohelice and Pseudohelice.

Neohelice granulata has emerged since the 1980s as a model species in a variety of biological fields. Much of the scientific research has focused on the species' tolerance of both fresh water and brine and its semiterrestrial habit, it has been investigated for research into neurophysiology and ecosystem dynamics. Such breadth of study is unusual for a model organism. In 2009, Eduardo Spivak tallied the number of scientific papers published about different crab species over the previous 23 years, found that Neohelice granulata was the sixth most studied crab species, after Carcinus maenas, Callinectes sapidus, Scylla serrata, Cancer pagurus and Metacarcinus magister, but ahead of the invasive and edible Chinese mitten crab and the commercially important "snow crab", Chionoecetes opilio. Katsushi Sakai, Michael Türkay & Si-Liang Yang. Revision of the Helice/Chasmagnathus complex. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. 565. Schweizerbart. ISBN 978-3-510-61385-4