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A quasar is an luminous active galactic nucleus, in which a supermassive black hole with mass ranging from millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun is surrounded by a gaseous accretion disk. As gas in the disk falls towards the black hole, energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which can be observed across the electromagnetic spectrum; the power radiated by quasars is enormous: the most powerful quasars have luminosities thousands of times greater than a galaxy such as the Milky Way. The term quasar originated as a contraction of quasi-stellar radio source, because quasars were first identified during the 1950s as sources of radio-wave emission of unknown physical origin, when identified in photographic images at visible wavelengths they resembled faint star-like points of light. High-resolution images of quasars from the Hubble Space Telescope, have demonstrated that quasars occur in the centers of galaxies, that some host-galaxies are interacting or merging galaxies.

As with other categories of AGN, the observed properties of a quasar depend on many factors including the mass of the black hole, the rate of gas accretion, the orientation of the accretion disk relative to the observer, the presence or absence of a jet, the degree of obscuration by gas and dust within the host galaxy. Quasars are found over a broad range of distances, quasar discovery surveys have demonstrated that quasar activity was more common in the distant past; the peak epoch of quasar activity was 10 billion years ago. As of 2017, the most distant known quasar is ULAS J1342+0928 at redshift z = 7.54. The supermassive black hole in this quasar, estimated at 800 million solar masses, is the most distant black hole identified to date; the term "quasar" was first used in a paper by Taiwanese-born U. S. astrophysicist Hong-Yee Chiu in May 1964, in Physics Today, to describe certain astronomically-puzzling objects: So far, the clumsily long name'quasi-stellar radio sources' is used to describe these objects.

Because the nature of these objects is unknown, it is hard to prepare a short, appropriate nomenclature for them so that their essential properties are obvious from their name. For convenience, the abbreviated form'quasar' will be used throughout this paper. Between 1917 and 1922, it became clear from work by Heber Curtis, Ernst Öpik and others, that some objects seen by astronomers were in fact distant galaxies like our own, but when radio astronomy commenced in the 1950s, astronomers detected, among the galaxies, a small number of anomalous objects with properties that defied explanation. The objects emitted large amounts of radiation of many frequencies, but no source could be located optically, or in some cases only a faint and point-like object somewhat like a distant star; the spectral lines of these objects, which identify the chemical elements of which the object is composed, were extremely strange and defied explanation. Some of them changed their luminosity rapidly in the optical range and more in the X-ray range, suggesting an upper limit on their size no larger than our own Solar System.

This implies an high power density. Considerable discussion took place over, they were described as "quasi-stellar radio sources", or "quasi-stellar objects", a name which reflected their unknown nature, this became shortened to "quasar". The first quasars were discovered as radio sources in all-sky radio surveys, they were first noted as radio sources with no corresponding visible object. Using small telescopes and the Lovell Telescope as an interferometer, they were shown to have a small angular size. Hundreds of these objects were recorded by 1960 and published in the Third Cambridge Catalogue as astronomers scanned the skies for their optical counterparts. In 1963, a definite identification of the radio source 3C 48 with an optical object was published by Allan Sandage and Thomas A. Matthews. Astronomers had detected what appeared to be a faint blue star at the location of the radio source and obtained its spectrum, which contained many unknown broad emission lines; the anomalous spectrum defied interpretation.

British-Australian astronomer John Bolton made many early observations of quasars, including a breakthrough in 1962. Another radio source, 3C 273, was predicted to undergo five occultations by the Moon. Measurements taken by Cyril Hazard and John Bolton during one of the occultations using the Parkes Radio Telescope allowed Maarten Schmidt to find a visible counterpart to the radio source and obtain an optical spectrum using the 200-inch Hale Telescope on Mount Palomar; this spectrum revealed the same strange emission lines. Schmidt was able to demonstrate that these were to be the ordinary spectral lines of hydrogen redshifted by 15.8 percent—at the time, a high redshift. If this was due to the physical motion of the "star" 3C 273 was receding at an enormous velocity, around 47,000 km/s, far beyond the speed of any known star and defying any obvious explanation. Nor would an extreme velocity help to explain 3C 273's huge radio emissions. If the redshift was cosmological, the large distance implied that 3C 273 was far more luminous than any galaxy, but much more compact.

3C 273 was bright enough to detect on archival photographs dating back to the 1900s.

Finnish Centre Youth

Finnish Centre Youth Finnish: Keskustanuoret is the biggest political youth organisation in Finland with 17 000 members. It is the youth wing of the Centre Party, it is formed by 19 regional organisations and 400 local associations. The organisation was known as Nuoren Keskustan Liitto and until 1964 Maaseudun Nuorten Liitto. Finnish Centre Youth is a member of the European Liberal Youth, International Federation of Liberal Youth and a founding member of the Nordic Centre Youth; the organisation was founded after World War II on 30 June 1945 in Salo as a union of 14 regional youth organisations of the Agrarian League. The Salo meeting elected Johannes Virolainen as the first president of the organisation. Two decades Virolainen became the Prime Minister of Finland; the post-war era was a politically active time in Finland. The new centrist youth organisation gained new members, reaching 50 000 members in 1954 and 70 000 members in 1962. Since the number of members has been declining. Tens of Finnish Ministers and hundreds of members of Finnish Parliament have background in Finnish Centre Youth.

This is the list of most notables of them: Ahti Karjalainen, Prime Minister of Finland 1962-1963 and 1970–1971, Foreign Minister of Finland 1959-1962, 1964–1970 and 1971–1975 Anneli Jäätteenmäki, First woman as a Prime Minister of Finland 2003, Speaker of the Parliament of Finland 2003 Esko Aho, Prime Minister of Finland 1991-1995, Speaker of the Parliament of Finland 1991 Heikki Hasu, Olympic Gold Medalist, Member of Finnish Parliament 1962-1970 Johannes Virolainen, Prime Minister of Finland 1964-1966, Speaker of the Parliament of Finland 1966-1968 and 1979–1983 Mari Kiviniemi, Minister for Foreign Trade and Development 2005-2006, Minister of Public Administration and Local Government 2007- Marjatta Väänänen, Minister of Culture 1972-1975.

Dock Square

Dock Square in downtown Boston, Massachusetts is a public square adjacent to Faneuil Hall, bounded by Congress Street, North Street, the steps of the 60 State Street office tower. Its name derives from its original location at the waterfront. From the 1630s through the early 19th century, it served boats in the Boston Harbor as "the common landing place, at Bendell's Cove," called Town Dock. "Around the dock was transacted the chief mercantile business of the town." After the waterfront was filled in in the early 19th century, Dock Square continued as a center of commerce for some years. The addition in the 1960s of Government Center changed the scale and character of the square from a hub of city life, to a place one passes through; as of the 1950s the square has become a tourist spot, with the Freedom Trail running through it. For much of its long history, Dock Square has been a center of commerce in Boston. In the 17th and 18th centuries vendors would sell their wares from stalls. In 1733 a public market building opened, to some controversy.

A few years anti-market sentiment had reached a boiling point: "in 1737 a mob disguised as clergymen turned out one wintry night... and demolished the market house in Dock Square." In 1742 Faneuil Hall opened, again with mixed support. "Town records abound with complaints that Dock Square and other areas near Faneuil Hall were cluttered with carts and market paraphernalia, the market people preferring standing outside the market to paying for a stall inside it and submitting to its other regulations." By 1764, it was illegal for vendors to place "'any horse, carriage, stand, block, provisions or incumbrance in or upon... Dock Square'" and "townspeople were urged not to buy from persons selling in Dock Square or nearby streets."Buying and selling of slaves took place in Dock Square, for instance by "Capt. Thomas Smith, Dock Square, slave boy at 14" in 1717. Four negros, sundry sort of merchandize, all to be seen at the place of sale from two of the clock till the sale begins."One typical 1723 newspaper advertisement declares of a store in Dock Square: "Just arrived from London and to be sold by Mr. John Williams at his ware-house, next door to the Golden-Ball, on Dock Square, choice Bohea tea, at twenty shilling per pound, good Cheshire cheese.

In 1789, tenants in the square included innholder Mrs. Baker. In 1805: E. Bonnemort's snuff shop. In the early 19th century, Samuel Eliot, ran "what might today be called a department store in Dock Square, he dealt in everything from diapers to tombstones." In the middle of the 20th century the square and environs became surrounded by automotive traffic and tall buildings. Interstate 93 was constructed nearby. In the 1960s some of the smaller streets and pedestrian passageways were demolished — including Brattle Street and Cornhill, abutting Dock Square — to make way for the construction of the large-scale, brutalist Boston City Hall and similar structures in the Government Center complex. Faneuil Hall, built 1742 Old Feather Store Anne Whitney, sculptor of Sam Adams statue in Dock Sq. Thomas Tileston Waterman, "The Savage House, Dock Square, Mass." Old Time New England 17, no. 3. Bostonian Society has materials related to the square. Boston Public Library. A draught of Boston Harbor by Capt. Cyprian Southake.

1694 map, showing "Dock." City of Boston Archives. Dock Square and Faneuil Hall, c. 1960s Google News Archive. Articles related to Dock Sq. Boston

Other People (novel)

Other People is a novel by British writer Martin Amis, published in 1981. Mary, an amnesiac young woman, wakes in a hospital and cannot remember who she is, what has happened to her, or simple things such as how to blow her nose or what clouds are, she takes the name "Mary Lamb" after overhearing a nursery rhyme. Mary befriends a woman named Sharon, an alcoholic who seems well-meaning to the naïve Mary until she prostitutes her for money. After enduring painful sex, Mary smashes the man's mouth in, she flees. Mary lives for a while with Sharon's parents alcoholics, but she moves into a shelter for "fallen women." She receives a letter from Prince that includes a newspaper clipping concerning her before she lost her memory. Mary learns that her real name is Amy Hide and that her past was quite dark, a fact which causes Mary a great deal of distress. During her stay at the shelter, she gets a job as a waitress in a seedy café. With one exception, all of the male employees sexually harass her, but she does not understand the significance of their actions.

The exception is Alan, a meek and insecure man, infatuated with Mary but does nothing to ward off the attentions of others. Mary meets Prince again, she learns that Amy had asked someone to kill her. According to Prince, the failed killing was; the man who did it is behind due to be released. When Alan and another coworker, the cocksure but illiterate Russ, find out where Mary lives, they are appalled and ask her to join them at their squat. Alan appears tortured by her presence and by the continued kisses and fondling she receives from other men Russ. To comfort him, Mary begins sleeping with Alan; this does not seem pleasant for either of them, after a while Mary decides to break their relationship off. In response, Alan hangs himself. Mary goes to see a man named Michael. Pretending to be Amy's cousin, she asks Michael about the things. Amy, according to him, was abusive and unfaithful, she is escorted out of Michael's office by his assistant, who takes pity on the shabby-looking Mary and invites her to live with him.

Jamie is wealthy, he squanders his wealth on drugs and alcohol. Mary is crushed when he does not return her affection; the two begin a sexual relationship, but it is clear that Jamie does not return Mary's love. After their relationship ends, Mary begins going by Amy, they develop a relationship, one, deeper than any other that Amy has experienced in the course of the novel. One night, Prince informs Amy that her would-be killer has been released, that she must confront him, it is never directly revealed. The confrontation scene ends ambiguously—it is unclear if Mary is killed; the next scene recalls the opening lines of the novel, but it is not certain whether this is a recapitulation, an event that happened in Mary's past, or what occurred after the confrontation scene. The book starts as a comedy, slips into a thriller, ends a horror story. Amis saw the novel as a kind of overall investigation. "Mary doesn't know what her role is," Amis explained in 1981. "Because of this, men start questioning their own attitudes towards women, about themselves.

When one's role is undermined, you begin to look at everything around you in a different light." Though narrated in the third person, the book's descriptions seem to come from Mary's point of view. This can sometimes make for poignant tragic irony—it is clear to the readers, but not to Mary, that other characters do not mean well; this is true, for example, of the scene where Sharon prostitutes Mary for money, or of the repeated scenes of sexual harassment that Mary endures at the café where she works. The book was well received in the United States; the writer J. G. Ballard called Other People "Powerful and electrifying...'Other People' is a metaphysical thriller, Kafka reshot in the style of Psycho." Writing in Britain's The Guardian, poet and critic Anthony Thwaite spoke the novel's "enormous confidence of address," continuing, "Other People is'about' a descent into Hell, Hell being'other people'-- it's a strange and impressive performance." The Times found "For all its savagery... Other People is a funny book... an achievement light years ahead of his earlier novels."

Judy Dempsey wrote in The Irish Times, "Amis has done something important in'Other People.'" In the Los Angeles Times, Charles Champlin called Amis "an English literary celebrity who, like Norman Mailer and Truman Capote here, finds himself in the columns more than some film stars," and found the book, "an ingenious and mischievous piece of writing, nothing like a mystery with a tidy ending...a tour de force." Other People is the first book Amis completed after choosing to become a full-time fiction-writer. Amis told an interviewer, it was the responsibility of doing something else, not wholly connected with my writing that exhausted me from writing what I wanted. I enjoyed it, but I felt writing was more important." Bentley, Nick. Martin Amis. Northcote House Publishing Ltd. Diedrick, James. Understanding Martin Amis (Understanding C

Giada Trebeschi

Giada Trebeschi is an Italian author of historical fiction, theater plays and screenplays. Her novels being based on true historical events touch various periods. In addition she publishes some short stories on her blog in English and Italian. Giada Trebeschi only coincidentally was born in Reggio Emilia as her mother visited her family in the vicinity. In fact the parents, her father Alberto Trebeschi, an engineer and business man and her mother Anna Maria Francesconi-Trebeschi a specialist for ancient furniture, lived in Bologna, which after moving several times, Giada Trebeschi refers to as "her city". Here she went to the school of the Dominicans from early age till high school, her father first guided her into the direction of natural science though as a teenager, she took pleasure in humanistic subjects like Literature and History of Art and thanks to one of her teachers, Sister Ignazia, she grew fond of History. From early stage she was a ravenous reader and her father encouraged this attitude feeding her hunger with many different genres so that at the age of twelve she had read, among others, Hemingway’s The old man and the sea, nearly all Emilio Salgari and Jules Verne novels, Dumas’s The Three Musketeers and Italo Calvino’s The Cloven Viscount, The nonexistent Knight and The Baron in the Trees.

Early in her life she started learning foreign languages and, in order to do it and with adequate pronunciation, she went to England and France for some time before she turned eighteen. At the age of nineteen the family moved to Pescara, Italy where she went to G. D'Annunzio University. Being fascinated by international Literature and, based on her curiosity for other places and cultures, she decided to study Foreign Languages and Literature. On 27 November 1996 she graduated in foreign languages cum laude at the university of Pescara and two years on 27 November 1998 she graduated a second time in Italian Literature and History of Art at the University of Chieti. In 1994 she initiates a theater University group called The Merry Devils Group of Players with the goal of putting on stage plays in original language in English and from 1997 to 2002 in French, Spanish and Italian; as an actress she went on stage with Shakespearian plays like Much Ado About Nothing, A Midsummer Night's Dream, 12th Night, Marlowe´s Faustus and, in 2002, she is Katarina in The Taming of the Shrew.

Based on these experiences in 2002 she starts writing for the theatre with her first play Nouvelle – Omaggio a D´Annunzio being a theatre-dance opera. Her intensive experience as an actress helps her to write for the stage and many of her original plays as well as her translations and adaptations are produced and taken on stage locally and on Italian tournées. From 1998 to 2005 Giada Trebeschi worked as an assistant of Modern and Contemporary History at G. D'Annunzio University in Pescara; these years are frustrating and inspiring for her at the same time whereas 2005 becomes a key year in her life, in February she accomplishes her Ph. D. in History at the University of Basilicata in Potenza, Italy, in May she publishes her first novel Gli Ezzelino. Signori della Guerra and in June she marries and moves to Switzerland. While building up her family, starting to learn German and spending some time in the Goethe city of Weimar, in 2008 her second novel, Le donne del Grimorio, a book about three generations of witches, is published.

In 2012, the year she starts to add Spanish to her collection of foreign languages she moves to Spain and her third novel: La Dama Roja is published in Spanish. Since 2014 Giada Trebeschi is living in Germany whilst she is present on various literature festivals in Italy presenting authors like Wulf Dorn, Petros Markaris, Tim Willocks and many others, making use of her language skills and international experience. First Prize for the unpublished novel "L'autista di Dio" - Giallo Garda 2017. Special Prize of the jury for the historical novel "Il vampiro di Venezia" - Garfagnana in giallo 2017. First price historical thriller for the novel "L'autista di Dio" Garfagnana in giallo - Barga noir 2018. Special price of the popular jury Palmastoria 2018 for the novel "Il vampiro di Venezia". Gli Ezzelino. Signori della Guerra, Firenze Libri 2005, ISBN 978-8872561379 Le Donne del Grimorio, Firenze Libri 2008, ISBN 978-8851717247 La Dama Roja, Bóveda 2012, ISBN 978-8415497172 La Dama Rossa, Mondadori 2014, ISBN 978-8804634461 Elisabetta allo specchio, Aracne 2015, ISBN 978-8854886902 L'emigrante, in Meglio non morire d'estate anthology chosen by Cristina Marra, Giulio Perrone Editore 2016, ISBN 978-8860044310 Omaggio al Bardo, Erba Moli Editore 2016, ISBN 978-8894039030 La punta di fuoco,in Free Zone anthology chosen by Nuela Celli, Echos edizioni 2017, ISBN 978-8898824847 Il vampiro di Venezia, Oakmond Publishing 2017, ISBN 978-3-96207-888-1 Essere o non essere Shakespeare, Oakmond Publishing 2017, ISBN 978-3-96207-005-2 L'Autista di Dio, Oakmond Publishing 2018, ISBN 978-3-96207-112-7 In principio era KAOS, Illustrator: Valeria Corciolani, Oakmond Publishing 2018, ISBN 978-3-96207-144-8 Dio è morto, in Il bivio, Oakmond Publishing 2018, ISBN 978-3-96207-083-0 L'amante del diavolo, Oakmond Publishing 2019, ISBN 978-3-96207-124-0 L'eredità della luna, in Moon, Lisciani Libri 2019, ISBN 978-88-3351-079-8 Undici passi, Oakmond Publishing 2019, ISBN 978-3-96207-177-6 2002 Nouvel

Flax Pond (New York)

Flax Pond is a tidal estuary located in Old Field, New York, on the north shore of Long Island. As a 146-acre salt marsh, Flax Pond is a natural site of natural beauty. Flax Pond is owned by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and is accessed by researchers at Stony Brook University as a Marine Lab for the state In addition to research, Flax Pond serves as a recreational beach for Long Islanders, though its location prevents many from utilizing the facility, which has served as a point of contention. In recent years, the management of Flax Pond has become a important issue; the environmentally conscious group Friends of Flax Pond has used the facility to educate those in the community through lectures and science programs. However, the NYSDEC has sought to make the Pond more accessible to residents, thus risking the environmentally pristine nature of the Pond. State Assemblyman Steven Englebright, who has roots in geology, has stressed the importance of Flax Pond as an environmental sanctuary.

He has funded projects for Flax Pond, such as their summer learning institute and has held lectures to promote these ideals. Http://