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Experimental physics

Experimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines in the field of physics that are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments. Methods vary from discipline to discipline, from simple experiments and observations, such as the Cavendish experiment, to more complicated ones, such as the Large Hadron Collider. Experimental physics regroups all the disciplines of physics that are concerned with data acquisition, data–acquisition methods, the detailed conceptualization and realization of laboratory experiments, it is put in contrast with theoretical physics, more concerned with predicting and explaining the physical behaviour of nature than the acquisition of knowledge about it. Although experimental and theoretical physics are concerned with different aspects of nature, they both share the same goal of understanding it and have a symbiotic relation; the former provides data about the universe, which can be analyzed in order to be understood, while the latter provides explanations for the data and thus offers insight on how to better acquire data and on how to set up experiments.

Theoretical physics can offer insight on what data is needed in order to gain a better understanding of the universe, on what experiments to devise in order to obtain it. As a distinct field, experimental physics was established in early modern Europe, during what is known as the Scientific Revolution, by physicists such as Galileo Galilei, Christiaan Huygens, Johannes Kepler, Blaise Pascal and Sir Isaac Newton. In the early 17th century, Galileo made extensive use of experimentation to validate physical theories, the key idea in the modern scientific method. Galileo formulated and tested several results in dynamics, in particular the law of inertia, which became the first law in Newton's laws of motion. In Galileo's Two New Sciences, a dialogue between the characters Simplicio and Salviati discuss the motion of a ship and how that ship's cargo is indifferent to its motion. Huygens used the motion of a boat along a Dutch canal to illustrate an early form of the conservation of momentum. Experimental physics is considered to have reached a high point with the publication of the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Sir Isaac Newton.

In 1687, Newton published the Principia, detailing two comprehensive and successful physical laws: Newton's laws of motion, from which arise classical mechanics. Both laws agreed well with experiment; the Principia included several theories in fluid dynamics. From the late 17th century onward, thermodynamics was developed by physicist and chemist Boyle and many others. In 1733, Bernoulli used statistical arguments with classical mechanics to derive thermodynamic results, initiating the field of statistical mechanics. In 1798, Thompson demonstrated the conversion of mechanical work into heat, in 1847 Joule stated the law of conservation of energy, in the form of heat as well as mechanical energy. Ludwig Boltzmann, in the nineteenth century, is responsible for the modern form of statistical mechanics. Besides classical mechanics and thermodynamics, another great field of experimental inquiry within physics was the nature of electricity. Observations in the 17th and eighteenth century by scientists such as Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray, Benjamin Franklin created a foundation for work.

These observations established our basic understanding of electrical charge and current. By 1808 John Dalton had discovered that atoms of different elements have different weights and proposed the modern theory of the atom, it was Hans Christian Ørsted who first proposed the connection between electricity and magnetism after observing the deflection of a compass needle by a nearby electric current. By the early 1830s Michael Faraday had demonstrated that magnetic fields and electricity could generate each other. In 1864 James Clerk Maxwell presented to the Royal Society a set of equations that described this relationship between electricity and magnetism. Maxwell's equations predicted that light is an electromagnetic wave. Starting with astronomy, the principles of natural philosophy crystallized into fundamental laws of physics which were enunciated and improved in the succeeding centuries. By the 19th century, the sciences had segmented into multiple fields with specialized researchers and the field of physics, although logically pre-eminent, no longer could claim sole ownership of the entire field of scientific research.

Some examples of prominent experimental physics projects are: Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider which collides heavy ions such as gold ions and protons, it is located at Brookhaven National Laboratory, on Long Island, USA. HERA, which collides electrons or positrons and protons, is part of DESY, located in Hamburg, Germany. LHC, or the Large Hadron Collider, which completed construction in 2008 but suffered a series of setbacks; the LHC began operations in 2008, but was shut down for maintenance until the summer of 2009. It is the world's most energetic collider upon completion, it is located at CERN, on the French-Swiss border near Geneva; the collider became operational March 29, 2010 a year and a half than planned. LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool. Two LIGO observatories exist: LIGO Livingston Observatory in Livingston, LIGO Hanford Observatory near Richland, Washington.

JWST, or the James Web

Andrei Pippidi

Andrei-Nicolae Pippidi is a Romanian historian and Professor Emeritus at the University of Bucharest, specialised in South-Eastern European history of the 15th–19th century, in Romanian history of the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, in the relationship between South-Eastern Europe and the Occident. After graduating from the Faculty of History at the University of Bucharest, Pippidi was employed at the Institute of South Eastern European Studies in Bucharest from 1970. Additionally, he conducted research abroad, hosted by the Centre national de la recherche scientifique and Wolfson College, Oxford. In 1981, he earned a doctoral degree at the Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, 1986 at the University of Oxford. In addition to his research at the Institute of South Eastern European Studies, Pippidi worked at the University of Bucharest from 1990, where he was appointed Professor of Medieval History in 1995, he was a Visiting Professor at Collegium Budapest, Amsterdam University, Central European University, Budapest.

A member of various Commissions in Romania and abroad, he was created knight of the French Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2012. 2016, he retired from his position at the University of Bucharest, while continuing to teach courses there. In addition to his main activity as a Medievalist, Pippidi became a founding member of the civil rights organization Grupul pentru Dialog Social in 1990, he was a member of the international historic commission that created the Elie Wiesel Report on the Romanian participation in the Holocaust, as well as the Presidential Commission for the Analysis of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania led by Vladimir Tismăneanu. He advocated the preservation of Bucharest's architectural monuments, publishing a journal column and a two-volume popular scientific work on this issue, he was elected a corresponding member of the Romanian Academy in 2012. Pippidi's parents were his wife Liliana, his maternal grandfather is Nicolae Iorga, a historian, homme des lettres and national conservative politician murdered by the fascist Iron Guard in 1940, whose works Pippidi edits and who founded the Institute of South Eastern European Studies, where his grandson works.

Andrei Pippidi is married to the political scientist Alina Mungiu-Pippidi. Hommes et idées du Sud Est européen à l'aube de l'âge moderne, Bucharest / Paris 1980. Byzantins, Roumains. Le Sud-Est européen entre l’héritage impérial et les influences occidentales, Paris 2006, ISBN 2-7453-1293-6. Visions of the Ottoman World in Renaissance Europe, London 2012, ISBN 9781849041997. Contribuții la studiul legilor războiului în evul mediu, Bucharest 1974. Tradiția politică bizantină în țările române în secolele XVI-XVIII, Bucharest 1983 / 2nd, revised and extended edition Bucharest 2001. Mihai Viteazul în arta epocii sale, Cluj-Napoca 1987. România regilor, Bucharest 1994, ISBN 973-43-0162-4. Rezerva de speranță, Bucharest 1995, ISBN 9739611151. Despre statui și morminte. Pentru o teorie a istoriei simbolice, Iași 2000, ISBN 9736834697. București. Istorie și urbanism, Colecția București care au fost, Iași 2002, ISBN 9738590183. Case și oameni din 2 Bde. Bucharest 2012, ISBN 9789735035853 / ISBN 9789735035860

Owen J. Baggett

Owen John Baggett was a second lieutenant in the United States 7th Bomb Group based at Pandaveswar, in India, during the Second World War. Baggett was born in Graham, Texas in 1920, he graduated from Hardin -- Simmons University in 1941. After graduation, he found employment on Wall Street. Baggett enlisted in the Army Air Corps and graduated from pilot training on July 26, 1942, at the New Columbus Army Flying School. On March 31, 1943, while stationed in British India, Baggett's squadron, part of the 7th Bombardment Group, was ordered to destroy a bridge at Pyinmana, Burma. Before reaching their target, the 12 B-24s of 7th BG were intercepted by 13 Ki-43 fighters of 64 Sentai IJAAS. Baggett's plane was damaged and was set on fire by several hits to the fuel tanks; the crew was forced to bail out. The Japanese pilots began attacking U. S. airmen. Two of the crewmen were killed in the air, though contrary to some reports that the pilot, Lloyd K. Jensen was "summarily executed", Jensen did survive the war.)

Baggett, wounded, decided to play dead, hoping the enemy pilots would ignore him. One Ki-43 fighter flew close to Baggett and slowed to make sure. Baggett saw the pilot decided to take a chance, he fired four shots at the pilot. He watched as the plane stalled and plunged toward the ground. Baggett gained fame as the only person to shoot down an aircraft using a pistol, though this is contradicted by Japanese wartime records, which indicate that no Japanese planes were lost during this action; the Japanese pilot regained control of his aircraft and flew it back to his airfield. Baggett landed and was captured by Japanese soldiers on the ground, he remained a prisoner of the Japanese for the rest of the war. Baggett and 37 other POWs were liberated at the war's end by eight OSS agents who parachuted into Singapore. While he was assigned to Mitchel Air Force Base, Baggett was noted for his work with children, including sponsoring a boy and a girl to be commander for a day. Baggett retired from the Air Force as a colonel and worked as a defense contractor manager for Litton.

Biography portal Sight M1911

Lumayo Ka Nga Sa Akin

Lumayo Ka Nga Sa Akin is a series of satirical parody novel by Filipino writer Bob Ong, published in 2011 by Visprint Inc. The book, written in a screenplay form, is divided into three parts. In a recent interview with The Philippine Star, Ong explained that the book is "basically all about the ills of mass media that you wish would change. It’s about, but not limited to, Pinoy movies. It’s the insanity and absurdity of our lives, our concept of entertainment, misplaced values and thoughtless existence as reflected through our abuse of art, it is laughable, but more deplorable". The book is divided into three "short films", each one pokes fun to a particular genre; the first film in the trilogy centers around Diego, an action star who wants to take revenge against a group of bad guys known as "Bandidos", after they killed his parents, his wife and everyone who attended their wedding, just a few moments right after they get married at the beginning of the film. As the story unfolds, being an action star, gets into misadventures and finds himself in trouble-after-trouble.

Divina Tuazon, a famous actress and Diego's new found leading lady, was kidnapped by the Bandidos. In an abandoned warehouse, Diego tries to save Divina from the evil hands of Bandido's merciless and heartless leader named "Bos"; the plot follows themes from classic Filipino action movies, as well as comedy films from early 1980s to 1990s. For example, Diego's sidekicks and Momoy uses slapstick from time to time, a type of comedy, popular in the country for the past decades. A middle-class family was forced to enter and stay in a white haunted house for several days after being stranded in an unfamiliar place; the title is play on the Shake, Rattle & Roll film series and the plot is a ludicrous horror film. A rags-to-riches story about Marie, a poor girl who has a confusing status in life and love; the plot is similar to Philippine dramas and soap operas Marimar. A film adaptation as a same title under Viva Films was released on January 13, 2016

Madison Heights, Michigan

Madison Heights is a city in Oakland County in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is a suburb of Detroit; as of the 2010 census, its population was 29,694. Part of Royal Oak Township, Madison Heights incorporated as a city by popular vote on January 17, 1955, chartered on December 6 that same year, becoming the tenth city government in southern Oakland County. At that time, the 7.2 square miles city was one of the largest suburban communities in the Metro Detroit area. The first city hall was located at the former township offices. On April 5, 1963, a new municipal building was dedicated, on the present location at 300 West Thirteen Mile Road; the city lies in the Interstate 696 and I-75 corridor and is served by two primary school districts and Madison, as well as a full-service municipal government. The current mayor of Madison Heights is Brian Hartwell. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.09 square miles, all land. Although 91% of the buildings in Madison Heights are single-family homes or condominiums, 60% of the tax base is fueled by light industrial or commercial property.

Madison Heights was named a "High Tech Hot Spot" by a local magazine. The city's average number of fires per 1,000 people is 4.12, well below the national average of 6.7 fires per 1,000 people. The city contains 15 voting precincts. Robert Earl Richardson was the first Chief of Police when the city was chartered in December 1955. There are more than 112 miles of road within Madison Heights, of which the city maintains 105 miles, 95 miles for snow removal and patching. Interstate 75 passes north to south on the west side of the city, Interstate 696 is the major feature of its southern border; the junction of these two highways is shared with Royal Oak and Hazel Park on the southwest corner of Madison Heights. As of the 2010 census Madison Heights had a residential vacancy rate of 7.1%. As of the census of 2010, there were 29,694 people, 12,712 households, 7,543 families residing in the city; the population density was 4,188.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,685 housing units at an average density of 1,930.2 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the city was 83.9% White, 6.4% African American, 0.5% Native American, 5.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.5% of the population. There were 12,712 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.7% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 38.3 years. 20.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 31,101 people, 13,299 households, 8,005 families residing in the city; the population density was 4,341.3 people per square mile.

There were 13,623 housing units at an average density of 1,901.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.60% White, 1.82% African American, 0.44% Native American, 4.97% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 2.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.61% of the population. There were 13,299 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.8% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 35.4% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $42,326, the median income for a family was $51,364. Males had a median income of $41,478 versus $29,345 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,429. About 7.0% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over. As of 2009 there are several Vietnamese businesses, including markets and specialty shops, along Dequindre and John R in Madison Heights. Nicole Rupersburg of Metro D Media wrote that the prevalence of Vietnamese businesses is due to the higher than average Vietnamese population in Madison Heights; the area along John R caters to a pan-Asian clientele, with businesses oriented to other ethnicities present alongside Vietnamese ones. 168 Asian Mart, a 38,000-square-foot supermarket, is the largest Asian supermarket in southeast Michigan, one of the largest in the state. The store, owned by Ricky and Cindy Dong of Troy, opened on Monday June 1, 2015.

Ricky Dong originated from Fuzhou, China. According to data from the U. S. Census Bureau, in 2008 1.9% of people in Madison Heights were of Vietnamese descent. About 0.2% of all people in Michigan and about 0.2% of people in

Chen Chao-jung (politician)

Chen Chao-jung is a Taiwanese politician. He served on the Changhua County Council from 1982 to 1990, four terms on the Legislative Yuan, first from 1993 to 2002, again between 2005 and 2008. Chen attended Pu-yen Elementary and Middle School, graduating from the Affiliated Industrial Vocational High School of National Changhua University of Education, he earned a degree from the Taichung School of Commerce. As a member of the Kuomintang, Chen served on the Changhua County Council from 1982 to 1990, he was elected to two terms on the Legislative Yuan, before switching to the People First Party in 2000. Soon after joining the party, Chen was named the chief executive of the PFP legislative caucus. Chen and other Pan-Blue Coalition figures accused president Chen Shui-bian of having an affair with Hsiao Bi-khim in 2000; as a result, Chen Chao-jung was subsequently suspended. He criticized Taiwan's police force for failing to keep pornography out of the hands of minors in June 2000, drew attention to increasing rates of identity theft in August, stating that perpetrators were using the stolen information to register for cell phones.

He was active in reporting electoral fraud and white-collar crimes, charges which involved the former aide of legislator Tsai Ling-lan and the 2001 legislative campaign of Charles Chiang. Tuan Yi-kang accused an unnamed legislator of selling pirate media in 2001, and, in response Chen sued him for slander. Chen returned to the legislature in 2005, rejoined the Kuomintang the next year. During that year's Double Ten Day festivities, Chen participated in a protest calling for the resignation of President Chen Shui-bian. In January 2007, Chen Chao-jung and Chen Hsien-chung were involved in a physical altercation on the floor of the Legislative Yuan during a meeting of the Organic Laws and Statutes Committee. In 2016, Chen represented the People First Party in Changhua County's 3rd legislative district