Fritz Bornemann was a German architect. Bornemann studied architecture at the Technical University of Berlin. After graduating in 1936, he was Assistant Scenic Designer at the Berlin Municipal Opera and, starting in 1945, Construction Supervisor with the city of Berlin. Since 1950 he became an independent architect active in Berlin; the designs for the Amerika-Gedenkbibliothek, the Deutsche Oper Berlin, the Freie Volksbühne and the Museumszentrum Berlin-Dahlem were drawn up by him. He designed the headquarters of the Commerzbank Berlin, he designed the German Pavilion for the 1970 World’s Fair in Osaka. With this building Bornemann decisively renounced the large architectonic gesture by burying the exhibition area below ground. There appeared, amongst others, the extension of the Rathaus of Berlin-Wedding and the University Library in Bonn, he never built residential houses. Less well-known is his work in multimedia, he designed some exhibitions, amongst them Farmer Smith. The Osaka Pavilion was his crowning achievement in this field.
Bornemann’s architecture was and is a subject of violent controversial opinions over the modern trends of the 1950s and 1960s. The critics speak of "cold" or "austere" architecture and belittle his buildings with expressions like "elegance in exposed-aggregate concrete." His adherents see in his work a model for modern architecture, for modern theatre architecture. For more than 16 years Fritz Bornemann was Chairman of the Bund Deutscher Architekten. Imperial Palace in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 3rd Prize Municipal Theater of Gelsenkirchen, 2nd Prize Municipal Theater of Bonn, 2nd Prize Hanover Playhouse Honorary membership in the Association of German Architects Schindler, Susanne: Inszenierte Moderne. Zur Architektur von Fritz Bornemann. Berlin: Jovis Verlag. ISBN 3-936314-03-9 Sigel, Paul. 2000. "Der deutsche Beitrag auf der Expo70 in Osaka." Arch plus no. 149–150: 116–33. Reprinted online Thema 5, no. 1 Fritz Bornemann in the German National Library catalogue http://www.tu-berlin.de/presse/pi/2003/pi98.htm http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/gesellschaft/0,1518,485512,00.html Fritz Bornemann at archINFORM https://web.archive.org/web/20070927041247/http://www.reffert.de/architekten/bornemann.html
Maglev is a system of train transportation that uses two sets of magnets, one set to repel and push the train up off the track another set to move the'floating train' ahead at great speed taking advantage of the lack of friction. Along certain "medium range" routes Maglev can compete favorably with high-speed rail and airplanes. With Maglev technology, there are no moving parts; the train is the only moving part. The train travels along a guideway of magnets which control the train's speed. Maglev trains are therefore quieter and smoother than conventional trains, have the potential for much higher speeds. Maglev vehicles have set several speed records and Maglev trains can accelerate and decelerate much faster than conventional trains; the power needed for levitation is not a large percentage of the overall energy consumption of a high speed maglev system. Overcoming drag, which makes all land transport more energy intensive at higher speeds, takes up the most energy. Vactrain technology has been proposed as a means to overcome this limitation.
Maglev systems have been much more expensive to construct than conventional train systems, although the simpler construction of maglev vehicles makes them cheaper to manufacture and maintain. Despite over a century of research and development, maglev transport systems are in operation in just three countries; the incremental benefits of maglev technology have been hard to justify against cost and risk where there is an existing or proposed conventional high speed train line with spare passenger carrying capacity, as in high-speed rail in Europe, the High Speed 2 in the UK and Shinkansen in Japan. In the late 1940s, the British electrical engineer Eric Laithwaite, a professor at Imperial College London, developed the first full-size working model of the linear induction motor, he became professor of heavy electrical engineering at Imperial College in 1964, where he continued his successful development of the linear motor. Since linear motors do not require physical contact between the vehicle and guideway, they became a common fixture on advanced transportation systems in the 1960s and 70s.
Laithwaite joined one such project, the Tracked Hovercraft, although the project was cancelled in 1973. The linear motor was suited to use with maglev systems as well. In the early 1970s, Laithwaite discovered a new arrangement of magnets, the magnetic river, that allowed a single linear motor to produce both lift and forward thrust, allowing a maglev system to be built with a single set of magnets. Working at the British Rail Research Division in Derby, along with teams at several civil engineering firms, the "transverse-flux" system was developed into a working system; the first commercial maglev people mover was called "MAGLEV" and opened in 1984 near Birmingham, England. It operated on an elevated 600 m section of monorail track between Birmingham Airport and Birmingham International railway station, running at speeds up to 42 km/h; the system was closed in 1995 due to reliability problems. High-speed transportation patents were granted to various inventors throughout the world. Early United States patents for a linear motor propelled train were awarded to German inventor Alfred Zehden.
The inventor was awarded U. S. Patent 782,312 and U. S. Patent RE12,700. In 1907, another early electromagnetic transportation system was developed by F. S. Smith. A series of German patents for magnetic levitation trains propelled by linear motors were awarded to Hermann Kemper between 1937 and 1941. An early maglev train was described in U. S. Patent 3,158,765, "Magnetic system of transportation", by G. R. Polgreen; the first use of "maglev" in a United States patent was in "Magnetic levitation guidance system" by Canadian Patents and Development Limited. In 1959, while delayed in traffic on the Throgs Neck Bridge, James Powell, a researcher at Brookhaven National Laboratory, thought of using magnetically levitated transportation. Powell and BNL colleague Gordon Danby worked out a MagLev concept using static magnets mounted on a moving vehicle to induce electrodynamic lifting and stabilizing forces in specially shaped loops, such as figure of 8 coils on a guideway; these were patented in 1968-1969.
Transrapid 05 was the first maglev train with longstator propulsion licensed for passenger transportation. In 1979, a 908 m track was opened in Hamburg for the first International Transportation Exhibition. Interest was sufficient that operations were extended three months after the exhibition finished, having carried more than 50,000 passengers, it was reassembled in Kassel in 1980. In 1979, in the USSR, in the town of Ramenskoye was built an experimental test site for running experiments with cars on magnetic suspension; the test site consisted of a 600-meter ramp, extended to 980 meters. From the late 1970s to the 1980s five prototypes of cars were built that received designations from TP-01 to TP-05; the early cars were supposed to reach the speed up to 100 km/h. The construction of a maglev track using the technology from Ramenskoye started in Armenian SSR in 1987 and was planned to be completed in 1991; the track was supposed to connect the cities of Sevan via the city of Abovyan. The original design speed was 250 km/h, lowered to 180 km/h.
However, the Spitak earthquake in 1988 and the Nagorno-Karabakh war caused the project to freeze. In the end the overpass was only constructed. In the early 1990s, the maglev theme was continued by th
Fumihiko Maki is a Japanese architect who teaches at Keio University SFC. In 1993, he received the Pritzker Prize for his work, which explores pioneering uses of new materials and fuses the cultures of east and west. After studying at the University of Tokyo, graduating in 1952, he moved to the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, graduating with a master's degree in 1953, he studied at Harvard Graduate School of Design, graduating with a Master of Architecture degree in 1954. In 1956, he took a post as assistant professor of architecture at Washington University in St. Louis, where he was awarded his first commission: the design of Steinberg Hall on the university's Danforth Campus; this building remained his only completed work in the United States until 1993, when he completed the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts building in San Francisco. In 2006, he returned to Washington University in St. Louis to design the new home for the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum and Walker Hall. In 1960 he returned to Japan to help establish the Metabolism Group.
He worked for Skidmore and Merrill in New York City and for Sert Jackson and Associates in Cambridge and founded Maki and Associates in 1965. In 2006, he was invited to join the judging panel for an international design competition for the new Gardens by the Bay in Singapore. Maki designed an extension building for the MIT Media Lab in Cambridge, completed in 2009. After completing a $330 million expansion of the United Nations building in Manhattan, Maki designed Tower 4 at the former World Trade Center site which opened in 2013. While it has criticized his 51 Astor Place project as "out of place," New York magazine called Tower 4 "pretty exquisite."Maki will be designing the London campus of the Aga Khan University along with a cultural centre as part of the King's Cross development project. These will be Maki's first European projects and represent the third and fourth Aga Khan projects for Maki, who designed the Delegation of the Ismaili Imamat in Ottawa and Aga Khan Museum in Toronto, he was assigned by the Sonja & Reinhard Ernst Stiftung to design the Museum Reinhard Ernst in Wiesbaden, Germany, to display the foundations’ collection of abstract art.
Steinberg Hall at Washington University Hillside Terrace work at Expo'70, with Kenzo Tange and others St. Mary's International School Osaka Prefectural Sports Center Spiral Makuhari Messe Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium Yerba Buena Center for the Arts Ensemble Global Gate Office Building Solitaire TV Asahi Republic Polytechnic Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum and Walker Hall at Washington University Delegation of the Ismaili Imamat Building Square 3 at Novartis Campus Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania MIT Media Lab Extension at Massachusetts Institute of Technology 51 Astor Place Tower 4 of the new World Trade Center Aga Khan Museum Skyline @ Orchard Boulevard Sea World Culture and Arts Center Works in progressUnited Nations new building in New York City Taipei Main Station of Taoyuan International Airport Access MRT System in Taipei Andhra Pradesh capital city, Amaravati_ New city hall of Yokohama 1988: Wolf Prize in Arts 1993: Pritzker Architecture Prize 1993: International Union of Architects Gold Medal 1999: Praemium Imperiale 2011: AIA Gold Medal Maki, Fumihiko, "Investigations in Collective Form", A Special Publication Number 2, The School of Architecture, Washington University: St. Louis: June 1964 10 Stories of Collective Housing, by a+t research group.
Chapter 08. Hillside Terrace. Fumihiko Maki. Tokio, 1967-1998 Maki and Associates, official site Pritzker Prize – Fumiho Maki Interview with Fumihiko Maki Images of Tower 4, WTC
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
Suita is a city located in northern Osaka Prefecture, Japan. As of October 1, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 378,322 and a population density of 9,880 persons per km²; the total area is 36.11 km². The city was founded on April 1, 1940, was the site of Expo'70, a World's Fair held in 1970; the J-League soccer club Gamba Osaka plays at Suita City Football Stadium. It is connected to central by Hankyu Railway, West Japan Railway Company and the Osaka Municipal Subway; the Osaka Monorail passes through the area, connecting the city to Osaka, the Expo Commemoration Park and Osaka International Airport. Asahi Suita Brewery Headquarters of SNK, the producer of Neo Geo arcade boards and games Mister Donut, a fast food franchise that offers doughnuts, coffee and pastries. Kansai University's main branch is located here, it is accessible through Kandaimae Station on the Hankyu Senri Line. Osaka University's main administrative campus is hosted here, right beside the Expo Park, it is accessible via the Osaka Monorail at Handaibyoinmae Station, or via Hankyu Senri Line at Kita-Senri Station.
Osaka Gakuin University, accessible through Kishibe Station on JR Kyoto Line. Senri Kinran University, accessible through Kita-Senri Station on Hankyu Senri Line. Osaka University Foreign Student House Senri International Student House Kansai University International Student House JASSO Student House National Museum of Ethnology International Institute for Children's Literature, Osaka The Japan Folk Crafts Museum, Osaka Kansai University Museum Suita City Museum JR West JR Kyoto Line: - Senrioka - Kishibe - Suita - Hankyu Railway Hankyu Kyoto Line: - Shojaku - Hankyu Senri Line: - Suita - Toyotsu - Kandai-mae - Senriyama - Minami-Senri - Yamada - Kita-Senri Osaka Metro Midosuji Line - Esaka - Ryokuchi-koen - Momoyamadai - Osaka Monorail Main Line - Yamada - Banpaku Kinen Koen - Saito Line - Koen-higashiguchi - Banpaku Kinen Koen Meishin Expressway Chūgoku Expressway Kinki Expressway National Route 423 National Route 479 Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. Since July 20, 1982. Canterbury-Bankstown, New South Wales, Australia.
Since May 12, 2016. Suita was involved in Bankstown's first international Sister City in March 1989. Suita City official website Suita City official website
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc