An extinction event is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth. Such an event is identified by a sharp change in the diversity and abundance of multicellular organisms, it occurs. Estimates of the number of major mass extinctions in the last 540 million years range from as few as five to more than twenty; these differences stem from the threshold chosen for describing an extinction event as "major", the data chosen to measure past diversity. Because most diversity and biomass on Earth is microbial, thus difficult to measure, recorded extinction events affect the observed, biologically complex component of the biosphere rather than the total diversity and abundance of life. Extinction occurs at an uneven rate. Based on the fossil record, the background rate of extinctions on Earth is about two to five taxonomic families of marine animals every million years. Marine fossils are used to measure extinction rates because of their superior fossil record and stratigraphic range compared to land animals.
The Great Oxygenation Event, which occurred around 2.45 billion years ago, was the first major extinction event. Since the Cambrian explosion, five further major mass extinctions have exceeded the background extinction rate; the most recent and arguably best-known, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, which occurred 66 million years ago, was a large-scale mass extinction of animal and plant species in a geologically short period of time. In addition to the five major mass extinctions, there are numerous minor ones as well, the ongoing mass extinction caused by human activity is sometimes called the sixth extinction. Mass extinctions seem to be a Phanerozoic phenomenon, with extinction rates low before large complex organisms arose. In a landmark paper published in 1982, Jack Sepkoski and David M. Raup identified five mass extinctions, they were identified as outliers to a general trend of decreasing extinction rates during the Phanerozoic, but as more stringent statistical tests have been applied to the accumulating data, it has been established that multicellular animal life has experienced five major and many minor mass extinctions.
The "Big Five" cannot be so defined, but rather appear to represent the largest of a smooth continuum of extinction events. Ordovician–Silurian extinction events: 450–440 Ma at the Ordovician–Silurian transition. Two events occurred that killed off 27% of all families, 57% of all genera and 60% to 70% of all species. Together they are ranked by many scientists as the second largest of the five major extinctions in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct. Late Devonian extinction: 375–360 Ma near the Devonian–Carboniferous transition. At the end of the Frasnian Age in the part of the Devonian Period, a prolonged series of extinctions eliminated about 19% of all families, 50% of all genera and at least 70% of all species; this extinction event lasted as long as 20 million years, there is evidence for a series of extinction pulses within this period. Permian–Triassic extinction event: 252 Ma at the Permian–Triassic transition. Earth's largest extinction killed 57% of all families, 83% of all genera and 90% to 96% of all species.
The successful marine arthropod, the trilobite, became extinct. The evidence regarding plants is less clear; the "Great Dying" had enormous evolutionary significance: on land, it ended the primacy of mammal-like reptiles. The recovery of vertebrates took 30 million years, but the vacant niches created the opportunity for archosaurs to become ascendant. In the seas, the percentage of animals that were sessile dropped from 67% to 50%; the whole late Permian was a difficult time for at least marine life before the "Great Dying". Triassic–Jurassic extinction event: 201.3 Ma at the Triassic–Jurassic transition. About 23% of all families, 48% of all genera and 70% to 75% of all species became extinct. Most non-dinosaurian archosaurs, most therapsids, most of the large amphibians were eliminated, leaving dinosaurs with little terrestrial competition. Non-dinosaurian archosaurs continued to dominate aquatic environments, while non-archosaurian diapsids continued to dominate marine environments; the Temnospondyl lineage of large amphibians survived until the Cretaceous in Australia.
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event: 66 Ma at the Cretaceous – Paleogene transition interval. The event called the Cretaceous-Tertiary or K–T extinction or K–T boundary is now named the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. About 17% of all families, 50% of all genera and 75% of all species became extinct. In the seas all the ammonites and mosasaurs disappeared and the percentage of sessile animals was reduced to about 33%. All non-avian dinosaurs became extinct during that time; the boundary event was severe with a significant amount of variability in the rate of extinction between and among different clades. Mammals and birds, the latter descended from theropod dinosaurs, emerged as dominant large land animals. Despite the popularization of these five events, there is no definite line separating them from other extinction events.
Prince Egon von Fürstenberg was a socialite, banker and interior designer, member of the German aristocratic family Fürstenberg. In 1969, he married fashion designer Diane von Fürstenberg, with whom he had two children Prince Alexandre Egon and Princess Tatiana Desirée; the couple separated in 1973 and divorced in 1983. The same year, he married Lynn Marshall, an American and a Mississippi native, co-owner of a flower shop. Between his marriages, Egon had a male partner: He was frank about his bisexuality and the openness of his first marriage. Fürstenberg wrote two books on fashion and interior design as well as opened an interior design firm, he died in Rome on 11 June 2004 of liver cancer deriving from an earlier hepatitis C infection. He was survived by both wives. Eduard Egon Peter Paul Giovanni Prinz zu Fürstenberg, born 29 June 1946 in Lausanne, was the elder son of Prince Tassilo zu Fürstenberg and his first wife Clara Agnelli, elder sister of Fiat's chairman Gianni Agnelli. After Clara's departure, his father married.
Fürstenberg's younger brother is Prince Sebastian zu Fürstenberg, his sister is socialite and actress Princess Ira zu Fürstenberg. Egon von Fürstenberg was born at Lausanne, was baptized by Pope John XXIII, was thereafter brought up in great privilege in Venice, Italy, he earned a degree in economics at the University of Geneva, followed by an 18-month term in the Peace Corps in Burundi working as a teacher, two years as an investment banker in New York. While studying at university, he met fellow student Diane Simone Michelle Halfin, a Belgian-born, Jewish woman of Romanian-Greek descent and daughter of a Holocaust survivor, they married on 16 July 1969, at Montfort-l'Amaury, France. The new Princess Diane von Fürstenberg was pregnant, Egon's father, who objected to his marrying a Jew, boycotted the ceremony, his wife opened her fashion house in New York at Egon's urging, creating an iconic wrap dress, a career as designer that pre-dated and arguably eclipsed Egon's. Fürstenberg began his career as a buyer for Macy's, taking night classes at the Fashion Institute of Technology, Parson's School of Design.
The von Fürstenbergs had two children: Tatiana Desirée. They divorced in 1983. Fürstenberg began independent work as a fashion designer in 1977, designing clothes for plus-size women, expanding to full fashion and product licensing, with ready-to-wear and made to measure lines based in Rome. Next von Furstenberg designed ready-made clothing for the masses, an off-the-peg line of fashion. Fürstenberg wrote two top selling books: The Power Look, a guide to fashion and good taste, The Power Look at Home: Decorating for Men, a book on home furnishings, he opened an interior design firm in 1981. In 1991, he exhibited at Alta Moda days in Rome. Fürstenberg collected art, his collection included works by Zachary Selig. Egon von Fürstenberg died at Spallanzani Hospital in Rome on 11 June 2004; the New York Post reported Fürstenberg's widow stating that he died of liver cancer caused by a hepatitis C infection that he acquired in the 1970s. Fürstenberg's published works included: The Power Look, 1978, New York, NY: Holt and Winston The Power Look at Home: Decorating for Men, 1980, New York, NY: Morrow Homepage Egon von Fürstenberg FMD, 2015, "Designers: Egon von Fürstenberg, Fashion Model Directory, accessed 14 July 2015
Bengt Tomas Holmström is a Swedish former professional ice hockey left winger who played his entire National Hockey League career with the Detroit Red Wings, with whom he won four Stanley Cup championships. During his playing career, Holmström was considered as one of the NHL's best at screening the opposition's goaltender, as well as for his physical presence in front of the opposition's net. Holmström was first noticed by Detroit Red Wings scout Håkan Andersson in 1993 during a Swedish national team selection camp, where Holmström missed the cut again the next year while playing with Boden, where his coach, Niklas Wikegård, told Andersson that Holmström was the team's best player, he was drafted 257th overall by Detroit in the 1994 NHL Entry Draft and began playing for the Red Wings in the 1996–97 season. During the 2004–05 NHL lockout, Holmström returned to Sweden to play for his old team, Luleå HF, in the Swedish top flight league, the Elitserien. Homström was inducted into the Piteå Wall of Fame in his hometown in 2006.
On April 7, 2007, Holmström scored his 30th goal of the 2006–07 season against the Chicago Blackhawks, reaching the 30-goal plateau in a season for the first time in his career. Holmström scored 12 points during the 2008 Stanley Cup playoffs as the Red Wings won the Stanley Cup for the fourth time in 11 years over the Pittsburgh Penguins. On his day with the Cup, he had his cousin's daughter baptized in it. During the 2009–10 season, Holmström was selected to play in the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia. A knee injury sustained on 13 February 13, 2010, in a game against the Ottawa Senators, prevented him from playing in the tournament, it was announced the next day, on February 14, that he would be replaced by friend and Red Wing teammate Johan Franzén. The announcement came from Sweden Head Coach Bengt-Åke Gustafsson. On June 4, 2010, during the season's subsequent off-season, Holmström agreed on a two-year contract extension to remain in Detroit after an impressive season in which he scored 25 goals, second on the team only to sniper Pavel Datsyuk's 27.
On February 12, 2012, Holmström became only the sixth Red Wing and 272nd NHL player to play 1,000 games. After the retirement of long-time Red Wings defenceman Nicklas Lidström at the end of the 2011–12 season, Holmström became the last active player from the 1997 and 1998 Stanley Cup-winning Detroit teams to still be active with the team. On January 22, 2013, Holmström announced his retirement from professional hockey just hours before Detroit's home opener at Joe Louis Arena against the Dallas Stars in the lockout-shortened season; as of January 2013, Holmström held the following records with the Red Wings: sixth in most regular season games played, fourth in playoff games played and 13th in points scored. After his retirement he applyed to join the high advanced education of Kaarle school which he joined 2015 and still is a part of; this education will for sure give him a good future for a long period. During his playing career, Holmström was known for his presence in front of the opposition's goal and his ability to screen the opposing team's goaltender.
Because he had to withstand teammates' shots towards goal, as well as efforts from opponents to vacate him from in front of the net, Holmström wore additional padding to protect his body. During a playoff series against the Columbus Blue Jackets in 2009, Detroit Head Coach Mike Babcock said of Holmström, "I think there's out there who think they might get to him. That's just not possible."Due to his obstructive playing style and close proximity to goalies and the crease, Holmström attained a reputation and was charged with goaltender interference penalties as well as having goals called back because of his proximity to the goaltender's crease. Holmström himself, as well as Red Wings TV announcers Mickey Redmond and Ken Daniels and various national hockey pundits questioned the legitimacy of these calls by the on-ice officials. Holmström was known to many fans in Detroit by the nickname of "Homer." He acquired the nickname "Demolition Man" while playing in Sweden, where he was called "Holma."
Holmström has participated in four international tournaments for Sweden: 1996 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships 2002 Winter Olympics 2004 World Cup of Hockey 2006 Winter Olympics Elitserien gold medal with Luleå HF in 1996. List of NHL players with 1,000 games played Tomas Holmström career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database
Whitby—Oshawa was a provincial electoral district in Ontario, represented in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from the 2007 provincial election until 2018. The riding was adjusted by the 2015 Representation Act for the 2018 provincial election, losing some territory to the district of Oshawa, replaced as the district of Whitby; the riding was created in 2003 and consists of 68 percent of the Whitby—Ajax district, 20 percent of the Oshawa district and three percent of the Durham. The provincial electoral district was created from the same ridings in 2007, it consists of northwestern section of the City of Oshawa. For the 2018 election, Whitby-Oshawa was re-districted as Whitby to more correspond to the actual town's borders. According to the Canada 2011 Census Population: 146,307 Ethnic Groups: 81.4% White, 5.5% Black, 4.3% South Asian, 1.7% Chinese, 1.7% Filipino, 1.4% Aboriginal Languages: 85.3% English, 2.1% French, 1.5% Italian, 1.1% Chinese Religion: 71.2% Christian, 2.6% Muslim, 1.4% Hindu, 23.6% No religion.
Average household income: $104,969 Median household income: $89,608 Average individual income: $48,444 Median individual income: $37,099 ^ Change is from redistributed results. Elections Ontario Past Election Results
The Uganda Chess Federation is the governing body of chess competition in Uganda and a member of FIDE, the international chess federation. It administers the official national chess rating system which awards both numeric ratings and titles of distinction; the UCF was founded in 1972, became affiliated with the National Council of Sports in 1973, in 1978 was affiliated with FIDE, the first Federation in East Africa to achieve this. The UCF was known as the Chess Association of Uganda, formed in 1972 by a group of Ugandan physicians in the wake of excitement over the defeat of Boris Spassky by Bobby Fischer at that year's World Chess Championship. Chess was not well known and played in the country prior to the early 1970s. After the organization's formation, the initial venue for matches was Mulago Hospital or Makarere University, both located in Uganda's capital city of Kampala; the name change to Uganda Chess Federation took place after FIDE's involvement in 1976. In the late 1970s the UCF began publishing Checkmate, a pamphlet that helped foster wider interest in the sport.
Habsburg Hunting Palace is a Classicist palace built in 1838-1840 in Cieszyn, Poland. It has been designed by Viennese architect Joseph Kornhäusel, constructed on the earthwork of the lower castle. In 1838 the arch-prince Karl Ludwig Habsburg brought Joseph Kornhäusel, a representative of Viennese classicism, to Cieszyn; the upper and lower castles were destroyed during the Thirty Years' War. Karl Ludwig ordered Kornhäusel to rebuild the remains of the castle to make it his residence. To achieve the aim the ruins were demolished and the remains of the lower castle were used to build the so-called Hunting Palace between 1838-1840. Next to the Palace a single-story classicist conservatory was built, demolished in 1966; the Palace did not perform its original function. It was visited by the Habsburgs and on everyday basis was the seat of the Chamber of Cieszyn; however and performances that took place in the conservatory, located next to the palace became historical. Occasional visits of the Habsburgs were always special events – one of the visitors was the emperor Francis Joseph the First who stayed in the Hunting Palace in 1880, 1890 and 1906.
On the first floor of the palace there was a special suite consisting of a study, living room, reception room and a bedroom with a toilet, waiting for him. During the visits of Franz Joseph, the so-called Tent from Custoza was put up for him and his guests - a gift from the arch-duke Albrecht; when between 1914 – 1916 Cieszyn was the headquarters of the Austro-Hungarian Army, the archduke Frederick hosted his allies in the Palace, among others the German emperor Wilhelm II, Bulgarian king Ferdinand and Marshal Hindenburg. The last visit of the archduke Ferdinand to the palace took place on 3 December 1916. In 1918 the Hunting Palace became the seat of the National Council of the Duchy of Cieszyn, the first Polish authority in the area of Cieszyn Silesia. Since 1974 a part of the Hunting Palace has been the seat of the Ignacy Paderewski State School of Music. Since 2005, i.e. the time of renovation, the remaining part of the palace and a newly build conservatory has served as the seat of Zamek Cieszyn - a cultural institution, a design centre.
The Habsburg Palace was constructed as a hunting lodge. The Palace, constructed on the plan of an inverted letter T, is located on the site of the lower castle on the eastern slope of a hill and its façade faces the city; the Habsburg residence is a two-story brick building. Its central part has three storeys; the central part of the palace is of a palladian structure of a serliana. It is located between by two storeyed wings with symmetrically distributed vestibules. Builders used the remains of two fortified towers located in the north wings. In the 19th century side wings were added; the interior arrangement of the main part of the palace is based on a three bay plan, whereas the wings are based on a one bay plan with a corridor and a two bay plan. The interiors have a barrel vault with a sail vault. There are ceilings with coves; the façade of the residence has thirteen axes, the three central ones of which have been emphasised by a protrusion and crowned by a triangular bridgehead. The one storey part has a balcony with a cast-iron balustrade.
A storey of the building is made distinct by a central arch emphasised by pilasters that support entablature. The windows on the ground floor are square with dimpled frames, whereas the ones on the first floor are closed with triangular pediments on consoles and cornices on the side parts; the side walls of the palace are multi-axis. A loggia located in the south fortified tower has four opened doric columns that support a triangular pediment. In front of the palace there is a two-arm and symmetrical access road with the Monument to honour Silesian Legionnaires fallen for Poland, located between the arms of the road; the monument commemorates the fallen legionnaires of Silesia. The Monument to honour Silesian Legionnaires fallen for Poland is called The Silesian Woman and Nike of Cieszyn; the walls of the north bastei are 2.1 metres thick