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Extreme metal

Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. It has been defined as a "cluster of metal subgenres characterized by sonic and visual transgression"; the term refers to a more abrasive, underground, non-commercialized style associated with the speed metal, thrash metal, black metal, death metal, doom metal genres. Hardcore punk has been considered an integral part of the development of extreme metal, in the case of song structure and speed, in every case other than doom metal. Extreme metal acts set themselves apart from traditional heavy metal acts, such as Iron Maiden, Judas Priest and Motörhead, by incorporating more abrasive musical characteristics such as higher tempos, increased aggression and a harsher extremity. In the majority of the world, extreme metal does not receive much radio-play or achieve high chart positions. Extreme metal's sonic excess is characterized by high levels of distortion, less focus on guitar solos and melody, emphasis on technical control, fast tempos.

Its thematic transgression can be found in more overt and/or serious references to Satanism and the darker aspects of human existence that are considered out of bounds or distasteful, such as death and war." "Visual transgression... medieval weaponry bloody/horrific artwork."According to ethnographer Keith Kahn-Harris, the defining characteristics of extreme metal can all be regarded as transgressive: the "extreme" traits noted above are all intended to violate or transgress given cultural, social or aesthetic boundaries. Kahn-Harris states that extreme metal can be "close to being... formless noise", at least to the uninitiated listener. He states that with extreme metal lyrics, they "offer no possibility of hope or redemption" and lyrics reference apocalyptic themes. Extreme metal lyrics describe Christianity as weak or submissive, many songs express misanthropic views such as "kill every thing". A small number of extreme metal bands and song lyrics make reference to far-right politics; the British band Venom are one of the first bands to venture into extreme metal territory, due to their ideological shift into themes of evil, the devil and hell.

Their first two albums, Welcome to Hell and Black Metal, are considered a major influence on thrash metal and extreme metal in general. This early work by Venom, in combination with bands like Discharge, The Exploited and Amebix as well as American hardcore punk brought integral elements into the budding extreme metal landscape at the time. In 1983, Metallica would release their debut album Kill'Em All, which fused elements of the new wave of British heavy metal with hardcore punk and the style of Motörhead, becoming the first thrash metal album, would be certified triple platinum. A few months Slayer would release their own thrash metal album Show No Mercy, influenced by the sounds of Venom, Judas Priest, Iron Maiden, Mercyful Fate; when extreme metal band Hellhammer first began making music, it was panned by critics, leading to the members forming Celtic Frost in its place, which proved influential on the progression of the genre. During this period, the line between extreme metal genres were blurred, as thrash metal bands such Slayer, Sodom and Kreator were integral to the first wave black metal scene.

The front cover of the Sarcófago's 1987 debut album, I. N. R. I. is regarded as a great influence on black metal's corpse paint style make-up. That record is considered one of the first wave black metal albums that helped shape the genre, their second album, The Laws of Scourge, was one of the first technical death metal records to be released. Black metal Death metal Doom metal Speed metal Thrash metal Subgenres of black metal Ambient black metal Folk black metal Industrial black metal Post-black metalBlackgaze Psychedelic black metal Symphonic black metal Subgenres of death metal Brutal death metal Industrial death metal Melodic death metal Slam death metal Symphonic death metal Technical death metal Subgenres of doom metal Epic doom Traditional doom Black-doomDepressive suicidal black metal Blackened death-doom Blackened death metalMelodic black-death War metal Blackened thrash metal Death-doomFuneral doom Deathrash Crossover thrash Crust punkBlackened crust Crustcore Crack rock steady GrindcoreBlackened grindcore Deathgrind Electrogrind Goregrind Noisegrind Pornogrind MetalcoreDeathcore Electronicore Mathcore Melodic metalcore Nu metalcore Progressive metalcore Sludge metal Black'n' roll Death'n' roll Gothic-doom Progressive doom Stoner metal Drone metal Pagan metal Viking metal Genres influenced by extreme metal but not considered extreme themselves: Avant-garde metal Funk metal, influenced by thrash metal Gothic metal, influenced by death-doom and doom metal Groove metal, influenced by thrash metal and death metal Grunge, influenced by sludge metal and thrash metal.

Neoclassical metal and power metal, influenced by speed metal and thrash metal Post-metal, influenced by doom metal and black metal Crocker, Chris. Metallica: The Frayed Ends of Metal. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-08635-0

Oak Park, Victoria

Oak Park is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 11 km north of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Moreland. At the 2016 Census, Oak Park had a population of 6,205. Oak Park is bounded by New Road, Victoria Street, Kiama Street and Charlotte Street in the north, Watt Avenue and Pascoe Vale Road in the east, Moonee Ponds Creek in the west and Main Street in the south. Oak Park was formed from part of the John Pascoe Fawkner estate; the name of the area derived from the name chosen by the purchasers of the Fawkner Estate. Oak Park was slowly developed, as the area did not have a railway station until housing development had commenced in the 1950s. Through the 1950s and 1960s development of the area proceeded with the post office opening on 2 April 1957. Major features of the area include McDonald's on Pascoe Vale Road, the Winifred Street Shopping Centre, two reserves along Moonee Ponds Creek including the Oak Park Sports Centre, the Moonee Ponds Creek Trail for cyclists.

The Oak Park Sports Centre is home to the Oak Park Football Club, a member of the Essendon District Football League as well as Therry Penola Football Club, a member of the Victorian Amateur Football Association. Public transport is provided by the Oak Park railway station, opened in August 1956 on the Craigieburn railway line. Oak Park Football Club, an Australian Rules football team, competes in the Essendon District Football League. Therry Penola Football Club compete in the Victorian Amateur Football Association. St. Francis Junior Football Club compete in the Essendon District Football League. Oak Park is served by the St Francis de Sales Cricket Club, based at Rayner Reserve, Forbes Grove, Oak Park. St Francis have 13 teams, 6 senior in the MMVCA and 7 junior in the NWCA and have been the winner of the Club Championship 5 of the past 7 years, they are the biggest club in success and numbers over the past 15 years. All new players of all abilities and sex are welcome. Danny Carreras - Celebrity Chef Rav Thomas - Musician City of Broadmeadows - the former local government area of which Oak Park was a part St Francis de Sales Cricket Club

Stirrup cup

A stirrup cup is a "parting cup" given to guests when they are leaving and have their feet in the stirrups. It is the traditional drink served at the meet, prior to a traditional foxhunt; the term can describe the cup. In Scots the host may well, in inviting his guest to stay for that farewell drink, call it a dochan doruis. In Anya Seton's Katherine the custom occurs before English royalty and nobility leave on travels abroad or progresses. In G. G. Coulton's Chaucer and his England it is referred to in relation to the Canterbury pilgrims setting out, it is used in a number of Rosemary Sutcliff's historical novels set in England after the Norman Invasion. See the poem "The Stirrup-Cup" by the nineteenth-century American poet, Sidney Lanier; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne


Bregaglia is a municipality in the Maloja Region in the canton of Grisons in Switzerland. It was formed by the 2010 merger of the municipalities of Bondo, Soglio and Vicosoprano, all located in the Val Bregaglia. Under the Carolingian dynasty Bondo belonged to the Ministerium Bergallia, a dependant of the early Bishops of Chur, though after 960 it was owned directly by the Bishop; the valley church of S. Maria at Castelmur is first mentioned in 988, while the village church for Bondo, S. Martino, was consecrated in 1250. During the High Middle Ages Bondo was part of a several villages that were collectively known as di là dell'acqua, which were part of the district of Sotto Porta/Unterporta. In 1367 Bondo, together with the rest of Sotto Porta/Unterporta, joined the League of God's House. In 1380 it was first mentioned under the name of Bondo. In German it was known as Bundth while in Romansh it was known as Buond. In 1552 the Protestant Reformation reached the village. During the 16th century some of the population left Bondo to Italy, to eastern Europe.

This trend has continued into the 20th century, except many now leave for northern Graubünden or the rest of Switzerland. During the Thirty Years' War the Three Leagues were rocked by the Bündner Wirren or Confusion of the Leagues, as the decentralized leagues fought each other over religion and politics. In 1621, during the Confusion, Spanish troops burned the entire town to the ground, destroying about 248 structures; the town was rebuilt along new central streets. Castasegna is first mentioned in 1374 as Castexegnia. Castasegna has the largest Chestnut forest in Europe, known as Brentan; the town's name means the tree is featured on the coat of arms. Soglio is first mentioned in 1186 as de Solio. Stampa is first mentioned after 1354 as Stamppa. Vicosoprano is first mentioned in 1096 as Vicus Supranus. Bregaglia had an area, of 251.45 km2. Of this area, about 14.1 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 0.9% is settled and 63.4% is unproductive land. Over the past two decades the amount of land, settled has increased by 37 ha and the agricultural land has decreased by 355 ha.

Bregaglia has a population of 1,544. As of 2014, 13.4% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 4 years the population has changed at a rate of -3.62%. The birth rate in the municipality, in 2014, was 7.7, while the death rate was 11.6 per thousand residents. As of 2014, children and teenagers make up 16.6% of the population, while adults are 59.2% and seniors make up 24.2%. In 2015 there were 608 single residents, 726 people who were married or in a civil partnership, 124 widows or widowers and 78 divorced residents. In 2014 there were 692 private households in Bregaglia with an average household size of 2.21 persons. In 2013 the rate of construction of new housing units per 1000 residents was 1.28. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2015, was 0.87%. The historical population is given in the following chart: The Castelmur medieval fortifications, the church of S. Maria and the Palazzo Salis in Bondo, the Casa Antonio No. 139, the Casa Battista no. 131, the Casa Di Mezzo No. 137 and the Cas’Alta No. 120 in Soglio and the Palazzo Castelmur in Stampa are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance.

The church of S. Maria in Castelmur was rebuilt in the 19th century, but still has its Romanesque campanile. S. Maria in Bondo has a Romanesque bell tower; this church was restored in the 17th century but retains an important late 15th-century fresco cycle. The remains of the painter Varlin are interred in the nearby cemetery. Further notable buildings include the Casa Molinari, the Palazzo Scartazzini of 1690, the Palazzo Scartazzini am Platz of 1763 and the Palazzo Salis. There is a group of crotti towards Promontagno. In the twentieth century the painter Varlin captured much of the spirit of the village; as of 2014, there were a total of 896 people employed in the municipality. Of these, a total of 104 people worked in 31 businesses in the primary economic sector. A vast majority of the primary sector employees worked in small businesses; the remainder worked in 1 small business with a total of 19 employees. The secondary sector employed 306 workers in 45 separate businesses. A minority of the secondary sector employees worked in small businesses.

There were 9 small businesses with a total of 170 employees. The tertiary sector provided 486 jobs in 147 businesses. There were 6 small businesses with a total of 142 employees. In 2014 a total of 1.3% of the population received social assistance. In the second quarter of 2016 an average of 370 workers commuted from outside Switzerland to work in the municipality, representing a large minority of the employees. In 2015 local hotels had a total of 41,439 overnight stays, of which 31.4% were international visitors. Elektrizitätswerk der Stadt Zürich operates a power plant in Castasegna. In the 2015 federal election the most popular party was the FDP with 28.3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SVP, the BDP and the SP. In the federal election, a total of 554 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 46.1%. The 2015 election saw a large change in the voting when compared to 2011; the percentage of the vot

Joseph Nolan (organist)

Joseph Nolan is an English-born Australian organist and conductor. Joseph Nolan received a scholarship for the Royal College of Music in London, where he studied organ with Professor Richard Popplewell. During his time at the Royal College, he was awarded the Canon Bark Prize for most promising organ student. After receiving First Class Honours for his BMus final recital at the Temple Church in London, he continued his postgraduate studies for two years with Marie-Claire Alain in Paris. While in Paris, he was supported by scholarships he obtained from the Countess of Munster Musical Trust and the Hattori Foundation. In London, he completed his studies with Dame Gillian Weir while being supported by the Royal Philharmonic Society. In 2004, Nolan was appointed organist to the Chapel Royal St. James's Palace; this allowed him to perform on numerous occasions at Buckingham Palace, it was here that he gave the opening concert on the refurbished organ in the Buckingham Palace Ballroom. He was the first organist to make a commercial recording with this organ on the UK recording label Signum Records.

In 2008, Nolan was appointed Organist and Master of the Choristers of St George's Cathedral, Perth in Western Australia. The Cathedral's consort is now described as "One of Australia's Best". In addition to his cathedral duties, Nolan performs in concert around Australia and in Europe, he has appeared with the West Australian Symphony Orchestra and has performed solo in recital at the Sydney Opera House as part of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra's 2017 concert season. He has performed with several groups, including the King's Singers at the Bad Homberg International Festival, with trumpeters Alison Balsom, Crispian Steele-Perkins and David Elton; as a recording artist, Nolan is known for his recordings of the complete organ works of Charles-Marie Widor for Signum Records. These pieces were recorded at the French churches of Paris. Nolan completed recording Widor's Organ Symphonies with the release of Volume 5 in February 2016, featuring the Symphony gothique, Op.70 and Symphony romane, Op.73 which received five-star reviews in Limelight Magazine and in the UK magazine Choir & Organ, a nomination for Limelight Magazine's 2016 instrumental recording of the year.

In June 2017 Nolan embarked on a cycle of complete performances of the Widor Symphonies - 10 symphonies in 7 days - in Melbourne, the following month released a sixth disc of Widor's other works for solo organ, a 2017 Critics' Choice in Gramophone Magazine. His most recent release for Signum in January 2018 was recorded at St. Etienne du Mont and features, amongst other works, the world premiere recording of David Briggs' Le Tombeau de Duruflé, it was awarded Limelight Magazine's Recording of the Month in March 2018. In April 2016, Nolan was made a Chevalier in the Order of French Arts and Letters for his services to French Music, he was appointed as an Honorary Research Fellow of the University of Western Australia Conservatorium of Music in recognition for his musical accomplishments in Perth and abroad. In March 2018 the University awarded Joseph their prestigious higher doctorate, the Doctor of Letters, he became an Australian citizen in 2012. Supernova, Ripon Cathedral, Herald AV HAVPCD274 Widor: Organ Symphonies Nos. 1&2, Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, ASV Records ASV1165 Widor Organ Symphony No.4, Guilmant Organ Sonata, Roger-Ducasse Pastorale in F, Church of St. Ouen, Rouen, ASV Records ASV1175 Toccare Incandescent, Coventry Cathedral, Herald AV HAVPCD329 The Organ of Buckingham Palace Ballroom, Buckingham Palace Ballroom, Signum Records SIGCD114 The Organ of Saint Sulpice, Church of Saint-Sulpice, Signum Records SIGCD167 Widor: The Organ Symphonies, Vol. 1, La Madeleine, Signum Records SIGCD292 Organ Collection, Signum Records SIGCD302 Widor: The Organ Symphonies, Vol. 2, La Madeleine, Signum Records SIGCD319 Widor: The Organ Symphonies, Vol. 3, La Madeleine, Signum Records SIGCD334 Widor: The Organ Symphonies, Vol. 4, La Madeleine, Signum Records SIGCD337 Widor: The Organ Symphonies, Vol. 5, La Madeleine, Paris and St. Sernin Toulouse, Signum Records SIGCD347 Widor: Solo Organ Works, St. Sernin Toulouse and St. Francois de Sales, Signum Records SIGCD438 Midnight at St Etienne du Mont, St. Etienne du Mont, Signum Records SIGCD470 Joseph Nolan, Organist – St George's Cathedral, Perth Joseph Nolan Artist Page, Signum Records UK

The Sunny South or The Whirlwind of Fate

The Sunny South, or the Whirlwind of Fate is a 1915 Australian silent film directed by Alfred Rolfe based on the popular play by George Darrell. It is considered a lost film. Charles Villiers Matt Morley/Morley Chester Worthy Chester Clarice Chester Ivo Chester Bertha/Bubs Berkley Plantageant Smiffers Rebecca Hann Eli Grup Perfidy Pounce Ben Brewer Dick Duggan Black Steve Sergeant Swoop Monte Jack Jinks Bank Teller True Darrell's play premiered in 1883 and was a massive success. Darrell himself performed in it over 1,500 times, it was one of a series of melodramas. In an English country mansion lives Worthy Chester, his daughter Clarice and nephew Ivo Carew. Worthy Chester is in debt to a money lender, Eli Grup, who threatens Chester with ruin unless Clarice marries him. Clarice and Ivo are in love with each other but neither have any money. An old friend of the family, Matt Morley, returns from Australia, he reveals himself to be Morley Chester, the long supposed dead son and heir to the late owner of the estate, claims ownership of the property.

A telegram arrives from Bubs Berkely, Morley's adopted daughter, indicating the discovery of gold in Australia. Morley and Bubs sail for Australia to find gold to save the family property. Morley's friend Ben Brewer discovers a five thousand pound gold nugget on Morley's El Dorado claim, it is placed in a local bank stood up by bushranger. Duggan is defeated in a massive fight and the nugget is recovered. Duggain escaped. Perfidy Pounce, a lawyer who works for Eli Grup and has come to Australia upon his employer's wishes, arranges for Duggan to kill Morley, but has a change of heart and betrays Duggan and Grup to Morley and company. Duggan kidnaps imprisons her in a hut, he captures Morley who has come to rescue her and ties him to a tree. He threatens to use Morley as a target for pistol practice unless Morley gives him a thousand pounds and Bubs marries him. Both refuse; the police attack the gang in their hide out. The hut is burned down and Morley and Bobs are rescued but Duggan and his men escape.

Duggan and his gang plan to hold up the Zig Zag railway train on the Blue Mountains. It is carrying Morley, their friends and the gold to Sydney; however the bushrangers are defeated. Bubs marries Morley and Clarice and Ivo are married; the film was the second Rolfe directed for Photographic Company. Rolfe had appeared in several of Darrell's plays as an actor. According to the Referee "the cast was chosen from some of the most popular Thespians in Australia. No expense was spared in producing both the comedy and drama on a scale comparing favorably With American offerings."The film was shot on location at French's Forest in late 1914. A riot scene was shot at Manly Beach, involving a large number of extras carrying fire arms and weapons. According to star Charles Villiers: All went well for a few moments, a military patrol swooped down and held up the show. Expostulations were useless. We were evidently up to some mischief, the military men were determined to stop it, they thought we were, a party of Germans having our morning strafe.

So we were all duly lined up against a nearby fence. A closer view of the weapons, however' satisfied the officer in charge that we were harmless, the'riot' came off Without further interruption. On 10 January 1915 it was announced the film was "just completed"; the movie was released with two supporting films from Fraser, We'll Take her Children in amongst our own, The Unknown. Contemporary advertising for the film stated that: A feature of the picture is the restraint exhibited by the author in dealing with the most exciting series of incidents, the Australian characteristics having been sustained throughout and the interest preserved without resource to the lurid sensationalism, the mark of many imported films; the play was revived in 1980 by the Sydney Theatre Company in a production directed by Richard Wherrett with music by Terence Clarke. It was the first production at the STC; the Sunny South or The Whirlwind of Fate on IMDb The Sunny South at AusStage The Sunny South film at AustLit The Sunny South play at AustLit