Mehmed I known as Mehmed Çelebi or Kirişçi, was the Ottoman Sultan from 1413 to 1421. The fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I and Devlet Hatun, he fought with his brothers over control of the Ottoman realm in the Ottoman Interregnum. Starting from the province of Rûm he managed to bring first Anatolia and the European territories under his control, reuniting the Ottoman state by 1413, ruling it until his death in 1421. Mehmed was born in 1379 as the fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I and one of his consorts, the slave girl Devlet Hatun. Following Ottoman custom, when he reached adolescence in 1399, he was sent to gain experience as provincial governor over the Rûm Eyalet conquered from its Eretnid rulers. On 20 July 1402, his father Bayezid was defeated in the Battle of Ankara by the Turko-Mongol conqueror and ruler Timur; the brothers were rescued from the battlefield, Mehmed being saved by Bayezid Pasha, who took him to his hometown of Amasya. Mehmed made Bayezid Pasha his grand vizier; the early Ottoman Empire had no regulated succession, according to Turkish tradition, every son could succeed his father.
Of Mehmed's brothers, the eldest, Ertuğrul, had died in 1400, while the next in line, was a prisoner of Timur. Leaving aside the underage siblings, this left four princes—Mehmed, Süleyman, İsa, Musa, to contend over control of the remaining Ottoman territories in the civil war known as the "Ottoman Interregnum". In modern historiography, these princes are called by the title Çelebi, but in contemporary sources, the title is reserved for Mehmed and Musa; the Byzantine sources translated the title as Kyritzes, in turn adopted into Turkish as kirişçi, sometimes misinterpreted as güreşçi, "the wrestler". After winning the Interregnum, Mehmed crowned himself sultan in the Thracian city of Edirne that lay in the European part of the empire, becoming Mehmed I, he consolidated his power, made Edirne the most important of the dual capitals, conquered parts of Albania, the Jandarid emirate, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from the Mamelukes. Taking his many achievements into consideration, Mehmed is known as the "second founder" of the Ottoman Sultanate.
Soon after Mehmed began his reign, his brother Mustafa Çelebi, captured along with their father Bayezid I during the Battle of Ankara and held captive in Samarkand, hiding in Anatolia during the Interregnum and asked Mehmed to partition the empire with him. Mehmed refused and met Mustafa's forces in battle defeating them. Mustafa escaped to the Byzantine city of Thessaloniki, but after an agreement with Mehmed, the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos exiled Mustafa to the island of Lemnos. However, Mehmed still faced some problems, first being the problem of his nephew Orhan, who Mehmed perceived as a threat to his rule, much like his late brothers had been. There was a plot involving him by Manuel II Palaiologos, who tried to use Orhan against Sultan Mehmed. Furthermore, as a result of the Battle of Ankara and other civil wars, the population of the empire had become unstable and traumatized. A powerful social and religious movement arose in the empire and became disruptive; the movement was led by a famous Muslim Sufi and charismatic theologian.
He was an eminent Ulema, born of a Muslim father in Simavna southwest of Edirne. Mehmed's brother Musa had made Bedreddin his "qadi of the army," or the supreme judge. Bedreddin created a populist religious movement in the Ottoman Sultanate, "subversive conclusions promoting the suppression of social differences between rich and poor as well as the barriers between different forms of monotheism." Developing a popular social revolution and syncretism of the various religions and sects of the empire, Bedreddin's movement began in the European side of the empire and underwent further expansion in western Anatolia. In 1416, Sheikh Bedreddin started his rebellion against the throne. After a four-year struggle, he was captured by Mehmed's grand vizier Bayezid Pasha and hanged in the city off Serres, a city in modern-day Greece, in 1420; the reign of Mehmed I as sultan of the re-united empire lasted only eight years before his death, but he had been the most powerful brother contending for the throne and de facto ruler of most of the empire for nearly the whole preceding period of 11 years of the Ottoman Interregnum that passed between his father's captivity at Ankara and his own final victory over his brother Musa Çelebi at the Battle of Çamurlu.
He was buried in Bursa, in a mausoleum erected by himself near the celebrated mosque which he built there, which, because of its decorations of green glazed tiles, is called the Green Mosque. Mehmed I completed another mosque in Bursa, which his grandfather Murad I had commenced but, neglected during the reign of Bayezid. Mehmed founded in the vicinity of his own Green Mosque and mausoleum two other characteristic institutions, one a school and one a refectory for the poor, both of which he endowed with royal munificence. ConsortsŞehzade Hatun, daughter of Dividdar Ahmed Paşa, third ruler of Kutluşah of Canik.
Murad I was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389. He was a son of the Valide Nilüfer Hatun. Murad I conquered Adrianople, renamed it to Edirne, in 1363 made it the new capital of the Ottoman Sultanate, he further expanded the Ottoman realm in Southeast Europe by bringing most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule, forced the princes of northern Serbia and Bulgaria as well as the Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos to pay him tribute. Murad I administratively divided his sultanate into the two provinces of Rumelia. Murad's death against the Serbs would cause the Ottomans to halt their expansion into the territory temporarily and focus their attention once more on the ailing Byzantine Empire. Murad fought against the powerful beylik of Karaman in Anatolia and against the Serbs, Albanians and Hungarians in Europe. In particular, a Serb expedition to expel the Turks from Adrianople led by the Serbian brothers King Vukašin and Despot Uglješa, was defeated on September 26, 1371, by Murad's capable second lieutenant Lala Şâhin Paşa, the first governor of Rumeli.
In 1385, Sofia fell to the Ottomans. In 1386 Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović defeated an Ottoman force at the Battle of Pločnik; the Ottoman army suffered heavy casualties, was unable to capture Niš on the way back. In 1389, Murad's army defeated the Serbian Army and its allies under the leadership of Lazar at the Battle of Kosovo. There are different accounts from different sources about how Murad I was assassinated; the contemporary sources noted that the battle took place and that both Prince Lazar and the Sultan lost their lives in the battle. The existing evidence of the additional stories and speculations as to how Murad I died were disseminated and recorded in the 15th century and decades after the actual event. One Western source states that during first hours of the battle, Murad I was assassinated by Serbian nobleman and knight Miloš Obilić by knife. Most Ottoman chroniclers state that he was assassinated after the finish of the battle while going around the battlefield. Others state that he was assassinated in the evening after the battle at his tent by the assassin, admitted to ask a special favour.
His older son Bayezid, in charge of the left wing of the Ottoman forces, took charge after that. His other son, Yakub Bey, in charge of the other wing, was called to the Sultan's command center tent by Bayezid, but when Yakub Bey arrived he was strangled, leaving Bayezid as the sole claimant to the throne. In a letter from the Florentine senate to the King Tvrtko I of Bosnia, dated 20 October 1389, Murad I's killing was described. A party of twelve Serbian lords slashed their way through the Ottoman lines defending Murad I. One of them Miloš Obilić, had managed to get through to the Sultan's tent and kill him with sword stabs to the throat and belly. Sultan Murad's internal organs were buried in Kosovo field and remains to this day on a corner of the battlefield in a location called Meshed-i Hudavendigar which has gained a religious significance by the local Muslims, it has been renovated recently. His other remains were carried to Bursa, his Anatolian capital city, were buried in a tomb at the complex built in his name.
He established the sultanate by building up a society and government in the newly conquered city of Adrianople and by expanding the realm in Europe, bringing most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and forcing the Byzantine emperor to pay him tribute. It was Murad, he established the title of sultan in 1383 and the corps of the janissaries and the devşirme recruiting system. He organised the government of the Divan, the system of timars and timar-holders and the military judge, the kazasker, he established the two provinces of Anadolu and Rumeli. He was the son of Orhan and the Valide Hatun Nilüfer Hatun, daughter of the Prince of Yarhisar, of ethnic Greek descent Gülçiçek Hatun, he and his ally, Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus' son Andronicus, rebelled against their fathers. Murad had Savcı killed. Andronicus, who had surrendered to his father, was blinded at Murad's insistence. Sultan Bayezid I – son of Gülçiçek Hatun. Bayezid I had Yakub killed during or following the Battle of Kosovo at which their father had been killed.
Şehzade Ibrahim. Harris, The End of Byzantium. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8 Imber, Colin; the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-57451-9. Notes: References: Media related to Murad I at Wikimedia Commons
Selim I, known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute, was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. His reign is notable for the enormous expansion of the Empire his conquest between 1516 and 1517 of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, which included all of the Levant, Hejaz and Egypt itself. On the eve of his death in 1520, the Ottoman Empire spanned about 576,900 sq mi, having grown by seventy percent during Selim's reign. Selim's conquest of the Middle Eastern heartlands of the Muslim world, his assumption of the role of guardian of the pilgrimage routes to Mecca and Medina, established the Ottoman Empire as the most prestigious of all Sunni Muslim states, his conquests shifted the empire's geographical and cultural center of gravity away from the Balkans and toward the Middle East. By the eighteenth century, Selim's conquest of the Mamluk Sultanate had come to be romanticized as the moment when the Ottomans seized leadership over the rest of the Muslim world, Selim is popularly remembered as the first legitimate Ottoman Caliph, although stories of an official transfer of the caliphal office from the Abbasid Dynasty to the Ottomans were a invention.
Born in Amasya around 1470, Selim was the youngest son of Bayezid II. Selim's mother was Gülbahar Hatun, a Turkish princess from the Dulkadir State centered around Elbistan in Maraş; some academics state that Selim's mother was a lady named Gülbahar Hatun, while chronological analysis suggests that his biological mother's name could be Ayşe Hatun. By 1512, Şehzade Ahmet was the favorite candidate to succeed his father. Bayezid, reluctant to continue his rule over the empire, announced Ahmet as heir apparent to the throne. Angered with this announcement, Selim rebelled, while he lost the first battle against his father's forces, Selim dethroned his father. Selim ordered the purge of Bayezid to Dimetoka. Bayezid died thereafter. Selim put his brothers and nephews to death upon his accession in order to eliminate potential pretenders to the throne, his nephew Şehzade Murad, son of the legal heir to the throne Şehzade Ahmet, fled to the neighboring Safavid Empire after the support meant for him failed to materialize.
This fratricidal policy was motivated by bouts of civil strife, sparked by the antagonism between Selim's father and his uncle, Cem Sultan, between Selim himself and his brother Ahmet. Selim I was described as tall, with broad shoulders and a long mustache, he was said to be fond of fighting. One of Selim's first challenges as Sultan was the growing tension between himself and Shah Ismail, who had brought the Safavids to power and had switched the state religion from Sunni Islam to the adherence of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam. By 1510, he had conquered the whole of Iran and Azerbaijan, southern Dagestan, Armenia, Eastern Anatolia, had made the Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti his vassals, he was a great threat to his Sunni Muslim neighbors to the west. In 1511, Ismail had supported a pro Shia/Safavid uprising in the Şahkulu Rebellion. In 1514, Selim I attacked Ismail's kingdom to stop the spread of Shiism into Ottoman dominions. Selim and Ismā'il had been exchanging a series of belligerent letters prior to the attack.
Selim I defeated Ismā'il at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514. Ismā'il's army was more mobile and their soldiers were better prepared, but the Ottomans prevailed due in large part to their efficient modern army, possession of artillery, black powder and muskets. Ismā'il was wounded and captured in battle, Selim I entered the Iranian capital of Tabriz in triumph on September 5, but did not linger; the Battle of Chaldiran was of historical significance, as the reluctance of Shah Ismail to accept the advantages of modern firearms and the importance of artillery was decisive. After the battle, referring to Ismail, stated that his adversary was: "Always drunk to the point of losing his mind and neglectful of the affairs of the state". Selim conquered the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, defeating the Mamluk Egyptians first at the Battle of Marj Dabiq, at the Battle of Ridanieh; this led to the Ottoman annexation of the entire sultanate, from Syria and Palestine in Sham, to Hejaz and Tihamah in the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt itself.
This permitted him to extend Ottoman power to the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina, hitherto under Egyptian rule. Rather than style himself the Ḥākimü'l-Ḥaremeyn, or The Ruler of The Two Holy Cities, he accepted the more pious title Ḫādimü'l-Ḥaremeyn, or The Servant of The Two Holy Cities; the last Abbasid caliph, al-Mutawakkil III, was residing in Cairo as a Mamluk puppet at the time of the Ottoman conquest. He was subsequently sent into exile in Istanbul. In the eighteenth century a story emerged claiming that he had transferred his title to the Caliphate to Selim at the time of the conquest. In fact, Selim did not make any claim to exercise the sacred authority of the office of caliph, the notion of an official transfer was a invention. After conquering Damascus in 1516, Selim ordered the restoration of the tomb of Ibn Arabi, a famous Sufi master, revered among Ottoman Sufis; this campaign was cut short when Selim was overwhelmed by sickness and subsequently died in the ninth year of his reign.
He was about fifty years of age. It is said that Selim succumb
The Isfendiyarids or Isfendiyarid dynasty known as the Beylik of Sinop, Beylik of Isfendiyar, Jandarids or Beylik of Jandar, was an Anatolian Turkoman beylik that ruled principally in the regions corresponding to present-day Kastamonu and Sinop provinces of Turkey covering parts of Zonguldak, Bartın, Karabük, Bolu, Ankara and Çankırı provinces, between 1292–1461, in the Black Sea region of modern-day Turkey. The region is known in Western literature as Paphlagonia, a name used for the same geographic area during the Roman period; the founder of the beylik was Şemseddin Yaman Candar. The Seljuq Sultan Masud II gave Kastamonu to Temür Yaman Jandar, a commander from the sultan's candar corps, in thanks for rescuing him from Mongol captivity; this province, was under the control of the Chobanids. Following Temür's death, his son Süleyman I conquered the province and annexed Safranbolu and Sinop ruled by the descendants of Mu‘in al-Din Suleyman. Süleyman appointed his son Ibrahim I as governor to Sinop and a second son Ali to Safranbolu.
Süleyman reigned under the authority of the Ilkhanate, the Mongols of Persia, until the death of the ruler Abu Sa'id. Following the death of Süleyman I, his sons Ibrahim. In 1339 Ibrahim took over the rule of Kastamonu. Upon his death, his cousin Adil replaced him; when Adil died, his son Kötürüm Bayezid became bey. Bayezid fought twice with Kadi Burhan al-Din, the ruler of the Sivas region, in 1383 lost Kastamonu to one of his own sons, Süleyman II, who received military support from the Ottoman sultan Murad I. Bayezid left for Sinop, thus the Jandarid Principality was divided. After Bayezid's death in 1385, his son Isfendiyar succeeded him. Based in Kastamonu, Süleyman II remained faithful to Murad I, his supporter in his revolt against his father, participated in Ottoman campaigns in Europe in 1386 and 1389. Murad's successor, the aggressive Beyazid I launched an assault in 1391 on Kastamonu as part of an effort to control the Anatolian beyliks. Süleyman II was killed and Jandarids' rule in Kastamonu ended.
Meanwhile, fearing conflict with the powerful Ottomans, Isfendiyar requested immunity from Beyazid in return for being subject to Ottoman reign. Beyazid granted Isfendiyar an autonomy. Following the sultan's defeat by the Mongols in 1402, Isfendiyar recognized the authority of the Mongol khan Timur, who confirmed him in the traditional Jandarids' lands of Kastamonu, Tosya, Çankırı. After Timur left Anatolia, during the Ottoman Interregnum, Isfendiyar stood close to all the four sons of Beyazid avoiding any conflict; when one of his sons, Kasım claimed control over Çankırı and Tosya, declared the annexation of these areas to the Ottoman Empire, the Jandarids' dominion was divided once more. But Isfendiyar revolted against the new sultan Murad II, only to be defeated, retreated to Sinop. Isfendiyar died in 1439, to be succeeded by his son Ibrahim II, who upon his death was replaced by Ismail in 1443. After his conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II turned to Anatolia to unite the Anatolian beyliks and principalities under his rule.
In 1461, joining forces with Ismail's brother Ahmed, he captured Sinop and ended the official reign of the Jandarid dynasty, although he appointed Ahmed as the governor of Kastamonu and Sinop, only to revoke Ahmed's appointment the same year. According to new research, this seems to have happened in 1464. Following the incorporation of the principality in the Ottoman Empire, the ruling dynasty was offered various important functions within the Ottoman administration, which they maintained until its collapse in 1922. Descendants of the Jandarid dynasty live today as citizens of the Turkish Republic in Istanbul and in Europe, using various family names. Ayşe Sultan, the last identified descendant of the Jandarid dynasty, having benefited from the status offered by the Ottoman Empire to the dynasty, died in 1981 in Ankara; the flag of Jandarids may confuse many with. In medieval times however, this was not a Jewish symbol, but an Islamic one known as the Seal of Solomon and was popular amongst the Turkish beyliks of Anatolia.
Another state known to use the seal on their flag was the Beylik of Karaman. The Jandarids was located at a important region in the northeast of Anatolia, they were quite significant in their area with their high population and political influence, existing along other beyliks and states in their era. Having reigned for about 170 years, Jandarids were quite advanced in architecture and social life and welfare. Many books in Turkish were written during their reign by court scientists and writers, including poems, books on medicine, social sciences, translations from Arabic and Persian. Many architectural structures have remained from the Jandarid era in the region, including hammams, numerous mosques, religious schools and libraries; the 14th century geographer al-Umari notes that the seat of the beylik, Kastamonu was one of the most prominent provinces in that region, that Sinop was one of the most important ports in the Black Sea where the Genoese managed a warehouse. These lay on a crucial trade route leading to the interior of Anatolia.
The nearby province Sivas was inhabited by many Genoese merchants, transporting the goods that would arrive from the east and the south to
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region. It is the fourth most populous city in Turkey and one of the most industrialized metropolitan centres in the country; the city is the administrative centre of Bursa Province. Bursa was the first major and second overall capital of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1363; the city was referred to as Hüdavendigar during the Ottoman period, while a more recent nickname is Yeşil Bursa'Green Bursa' in reference to the parks and gardens located across its urban fabric, as well as to the vast and richly varied forests of the surrounding region. Mount Uludağ, the ancient Mysian Olympus, towers over it, has a well-known ski resort. Bursa borders a fertile plain; the mausoleums of the early Ottoman sultans are located in Bursa and the city's main landmarks include numerous edifices built throughout the Ottoman period. Bursa has thermal baths and several museums, including a museum of archaeology; the shadow play characters Karagöz and Hacivat are based on historic personalities who lived and died in Bursa.
The city is known for Turkish dishes such as İskender kebap, its candied marron glacé chestnuts, Bursa peaches, production of Turkish Delight. Bursa houses the Uludağ University, its population can claim one of the highest overall levels of education in Turkey; the historic towns of İznik and Zeytinbağı are in its province. In 2015, Bursa had a population of 1,854,285. Bursa Province had 2,842,000 inhabitants; the earliest known human settlement near Bursa's current location was at Ilıpınar Höyüğü around 5200 BC. It was followed by the ancient Greek city of Cius, which Philip V of Macedon granted to Prusias I, the King of Bithynia, in 202 BC. Prusias renamed it Prusa. After 128 years of Bithynian rule, Nicomedes IV, the last King of Bithynia, bequeathed the entire kingdom to the Roman Empire in 74 BC. An early Roman Treasure was found in the vicinity of Bursa in the early 20th century. Composed of a woman's silver toilet articles, it is now in the British Museum. Bursa became the first major capital city of the early Ottoman Empire following its capture from the Byzantines in 1326.
As a result, the city witnessed a considerable amount of urban growth throughout the 14th century. After conquering Edirne in East Thrace, the Ottomans turned it into the new capital city in 1363, but Bursa retained its spiritual and commercial importance in the Ottoman Empire; the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I built the Bayezid Külliyesi in Bursa between 1390 and 1395 and the Ulu Cami between 1396 and 1400. Bursa remained to be the most important administrative and commercial centre in the empire until Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453; the population of Bursa was 45,000 in 1487. During the Ottoman period, Bursa continued to be the source of most royal silk products. Aside from the local silk production, the city imported raw silk from Iran, from China, was the main production centre for the kaftans, pillows and other silk products for the Ottoman palaces until the 17th century. Following the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, Bursa became one of the industrial centres of the country.
The economic development of the city was followed by population growth and Bursa became the 4th most populous city in Turkey. The city has traditionally been a pole of attraction, was a major centre for refugees from various ethnic backgrounds who immigrated to Anatolia from the Balkans during the loss of the Ottoman territories in Europe between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the most recent arrival of Balkan Turks took place in the 1940s until the 1990s, when the People's Republic of Bulgaria expelled 150,000 Bulgarian Turks to Turkey. About one-third of these 150,000 Bulgarian Turkish refugees settled in Bursa. Bursa is settled on the northwestern slopes of Mount Uludağ in the southern Marmara Region, it is the capital city of Bursa Province bordered by the Sea of Yalova to the north. Bursa has a Mediterranean climate under the Köppen classification, dry-hot summer temperate climate Trewartha classification; the city has dry summers that last from June until September. Winters are cold and damp containing the most rainfall.
There can be snow on the ground which will last for two. Bursa is the centre of the Turkish automotive industry. Factories of motor vehicle producers like Fiat and Karsan, as well as automotive parts producers like Bosch, Valeo, Johnson Controls, Delphi have been active in the city for decades; the textile and food industries are strong, with Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola and other beverage brands, as well as fresh and canned food industries being present in the city's organized industrial zones. The top 10 industry corporations in the Bursa province are as follows: Oyak Renault Tofaş Fiat Bosch Borçelik Sütaş Dairy Products Bursa Eczacılar Kooperatifi Türk Prysmian Kablo Özdilek Asil Çelik Componenta DöktaşApart from its large automotive industry, Bursa produces a substantial amount of dairy products, processed food, beverages. Traditionally, Bursa was famous for being the largest centre of silk trade in the Byzantine and the Ottoman empires, during the period of the lucrative Silk Road; the city is still a major centre for textiles in Turkey and is home to the Bursa International Textiles and Trade Centre (Bursa Uluslararas
Fall of Constantinople
The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453. The attackers were commanded by the 21-year-old Sultan Mehmed II, who defeated an army commanded by Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos and took control of the imperial capital, ending a 53-day siege that began on 6 April 1453. After conquering the city, Sultan Mehmed transferred the capital of the Ottoman State from Edirne to Constantinople and established his court there; the capture of the city marked the end of the Byzantine Empire, a continuation of the Roman Empire, an imperial state dating to 27 BC, which had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. The conquest of Constantinople dealt a massive blow to the defense of mainland Europe, as the Muslim Ottoman armies thereafter were left unchecked to advance into Europe without an adversary to their rear, it was a watershed moment in military history. Since ancient times, cities had used ramparts and city walls to protect themselves from invaders, Constantinople's substantial fortifications had been a model followed by cities throughout the Mediterranean region and Europe.
The Ottomans prevailed due to the use of gunpowder. The conquest of the city of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire was a key event in the Late Middle Ages which marks, for some historians, the end of the Medieval period. Constantinople had been an imperial capital since its consecration in 330 under Roman Emperor Constantine the Great. In the following eleven centuries, the city had been besieged many times but was captured only once: during the Fourth Crusade in 1204; the crusaders established an unstable Latin state in and around Constantinople while the remaining empire splintered into a number of Byzantine successor states, notably Nicaea and Trebizond. They fought as allies against the Latin establishments, but fought among themselves for the Byzantine throne; the Nicaeans reconquered Constantinople from the Latins in 1261. Thereafter, there was little peace for the much-weakened empire as it fended off successive attacks by the Latins, the Serbians, the Bulgarians, most the Ottoman Turks.
The Black Plague between 1346 and 1349 killed half of the inhabitants of Constantinople. The city was depopulated due to the general economic and territorial decline of the empire, by 1453 consisted of a series of walled villages separated by vast fields encircled by the fifth-century Theodosian walls. By 1450 the empire was exhausted and had shrunk to a few square miles outside the city of Constantinople itself, the Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmara, the Peloponnese with its cultural center at Mystras; the Empire of Trebizond, an independent successor state that formed in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade survived on the coast of the Black Sea. When Sultan Mehmed II succeeded his father in 1451, he was just nineteen years old. Many European courts assumed that the young Ottoman ruler would not challenge Christian hegemony in the Balkans and the Aegean; this calculation was boosted by Mehmed's friendly overtures to the European envoys at his new court. But Mehmed's mild words were not matched by actions.
By early 1452, work began on the construction of a second fortress on the Bosphorus, on the European side several miles north of Constantinople, set directly across the strait on the Asian side from the Anadolu Hisarı fortress, built by his great-grandfather Bayezid I. This pair of fortresses ensured complete control of sea traffic on the Bosphorus. In October 1452, Mehmed ordered Turakhan Beg to station a large garrison force in the Peloponnese to block Thomas and Demetrios from providing aid to their brother Constantine XI Palaiologos during the impending siege of Constantinople. Michael Critobulus says about the speech of Mehmed II to his soldiers: "My friends and men of my empire! You all know well that our forefathers secured this kingdom that we now hold at the cost of many struggles and great dangers and that, having passed it along in succession from their fathers, from father to son, they handed it down to me. For some of the oldest of you were sharers in many of the exploits carried through by them—those at least of you who are of maturer years—and the younger of you have heard of these deeds from your fathers.
They are not such ancient events nor of such a sort as to be forgotten through the lapse of time. Still, the eyewitness of those who have seen testifies better than does the hearing of deeds that happened but yesterday or the day before." Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI swiftly understood Mehmed's true intentions and turned to Western Europe for help. Since the mutual excommunications of 1054, the Pope in Rome was committed to establishing authority over the eastern church. Nominal union had been negotiated in 1274, at the Second Council of Lyon, indeed, some Palaiologoi emperors had since been received into the Latin church. Emperor John VIII Palaiologos had recently negotiated union with Pope Eugene IV, with the Council of Florence of 1439 proclaiming a Bull of Union; these events, stimulated a propaganda initiative by anti-unionist Orthodox partisans in Consta
Budin Eyalet was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire in Central Europe and the Balkans. It was formed on the territories that Ottoman Empire conquered from the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and Serbian Despotate; the capital of the Budin Province was Budin. Population of the province was ethnically and religiously diverse and included Hungarians, Serbs, Muslims of various ethnic origins and others; the city of Buda itself became majority Muslim during the seventeenth century through the immigration of Balkan Muslims. In the 16th century the Ottoman Empire had conquered the southern "line of fortresses" of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács where the Kingdom of Hungary was defeated, the turmoil caused by the defeat, the influence was spread on the middle part of the Kingdom of Hungary. While Ottoman troops invaded Buda in 1526 and 1529, Suleyman I used the Buda area as a territory of the allied kingdom and did not annex it to the Empire. In 1541, Suleyman decided to consolidate the conquered Buda area and to set it up as an organic part of the Empire.
He drove away the Austrian commander Roggendorf, besieging the city, on 29 August 1541 he took control of the city with a trick. He organised the first Central European vilajet with capital in Buda; the same year, several other cities fell under Ottoman rule: Szeged, Szabadka. In the years 1543-44, the Ottomans conquered the fortresses of Nógrád, Vác, Fehérvár, Pécs and Siklós which were embedded into the new vilajet. In 1552 the vilajet was expanded with new territories in the North, the new Vilajet of Temeşvar was established. Military control of the surrounding areas was driven from Budin; the following year, the advance of the Ottomans slowed down and the territory of the Budin vilajet did not change until the ending of the Fifteen Years War and the Peace of Zsitvatorok, where the Ottomans lost territories North of Nógrád. However Eğri and Kanije were captured during these wars and were shortly managed as sanjaks in this province; the territory of the eyalet was reduced in size with the establishment of the eyalets of Eğri and Kanije.
It remained the foremost Ottoman province in Central Europe, owing to the strategic importance of Budin as a major port on the Danube. In the 17th century Kara Mustafa conquered more vast areas from the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary and its vassal Principality of Transylvania, but did not succeed in conquering Vienna in 1683; this failed attempt heralded the gradual decline of Ottoman power in Europe. On 2 September 1686 Budin was captured by the troops of the Holy League. Military conflicts were a regular occurrence on the Ottoman-Habsburg border, so there was a constant need of a significant military presence. If the sultan or the great commander was not present the post of general commander was taken by the pashas of Budin, his power was enlarged to Varad. The title of the Budin pasha was enhanced to be the great commander from 1623; the number of the troops in the province at this time is difficult to estimate. There are documents to show 10,200 soldiers in the fortresses in 1546, 12,451 soldiers in 1568.
Auxiliary troops called spahi's were present, but no accurate figures are available. The cost of maintaining this large force put pressure on the budget of the province. In 1552, for example, the Porte sent 440,000 gold coins to Budin to provision the army; the Ottoman Empire put all efforts to strengthen the stronghold at Budin. They built several rings of defence around Budin and defended roads for supplies to Vienna, as their aim was to crush the capital of the Habsburgs, which they did not succeed; the most important fortresses around Budin were Esztergom, Székesfehérvár, less important Vác and Visegrád. To the south, the most relevant fortress was Szigetvár. In the 145 years Ottoman era, the city of Budin was not converted to the "Italian" type of defensive fortress, in the fashion at that time; the old fortress was enlarged by the "Víziváros" walls and a small stronghold was built on the Gellért hill. The Budin Castle was standing on a Medieval castle, with more or less same walls as per now.
Various towers were built by Ottomans i.e. "Murad pasha tower" between 1650 and 1653. The walls were enlarged in Rózsadomb, Nap-hegy and on the side of the Danube; the main castle was walled inside, where they have made small openings so that the sentry could move easily. After 1541, province included following sanjaks: In about 1566, province included following sanjaks: In about 1600, province included following sanjaks: In 1610, province included following sanjaks: Before the end of Ottoman administration, province included following sanjaks: Ottoman Hungary Transformation of the Ottoman Empire#Hungary - on the Ottoman defensive system in Hungary. History of Ottoman Serbia Ottoman Croatia Ottoman Kosovo Peter Rokai - Zoltan Đere - Tibor Pal - Aleksandar Kasaš, Istorija Mađara, Beograd, 2002. Dr. Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 1, Novi Sad, 1990. Beylerbeys of Budin 1541 - 1686 Map Map Map Map Map Fortresses of the Kingdom of Hungary