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Fárbauti

In Norse mythology, Fárbauti is the jötunn husband of Laufey and the father of Loki, also of Helblindi and Byleistr. He is attested in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in the poetry of Viking Age skalds. Fárbauti's name and character are thought to have been inspired by the observation of the natural phenomena surrounding the appearance of wildfire. In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, the enthroned figure of High says Loki is the son of the jötunn Fárbauti and that "Laufey or Nál is his mother". In Skáldskaparmál, Fárbauti receives. In chapter 16, Lokakenningar or "ways of referring to Loki" are provided, one of which reads "son of Fárbauti and Laufey, or Nál". In chapter 17, a work by the 10th century skald Úlfr Uggason is quoted referring to Loki as "Fárbauti's sly son". In chapter 22, Fárbauti is referenced in the Haustlöng of 10th century skald Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, where Loki is referred to as "Fárbauti's son". If, as according to Axel Kock, Fárbauti as "dangerous striker" refers to "lightning", the figure would appear to be part of an early nature myth alluding to wildfire being produced by lightning striking dry tinder such as leaves or pine needles.

Though not directly attested in any original source, scholars have considered Loki's brothers Helblindi and Býleistr to be sons of Fárbauti. However, their exact role in the ancient mythic complex surrounding Loki's family remains unclear

Dobet Gnahoré

Dobet Gnahoré is a singer from Côte d'Ivoire. The daughter of percussionist Boni Gnahoré, she plays with the group Na Afriki, consisting of French and Tunisian musicians, who accompany her with the guitar, the balafon, the calebasse and bongos. Due to the civil war, she moved to France in 1999. In 2004, Gnahoré released her debut album Ano Neko. In 2006, she was a nominee at the World music for Newcomer and shared an award for Best Urban/Alternative Performance with India. Arie at the 52nd Grammy Awards. A self-taught musician, who incorporates elements of song, dance and theatre into her repertoire, she is the daughter of percussionist Boni Ngahoré, who performs with her and the sister of kiff no beat band member Black k, she settled in Marseille in 1999 due to the civil war. In France, Gnahoré decided to form a band, Na Afriki, it consists of French and Tunisian musicians, who accompany her with the sanza, the balafon, the calebasse and bongos. The group toured Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea in the 2000s, aspects of music from a number of Africa countries are evident, including Cameroonian bikutsi, East African rumba and Manding music, alongside reggae.

Her lyrics deal with pressing social issues, including the importance of family and AIDS. She can sing in seven different languages, her music ranges from "delicate ballads to upbeat African grooves". In 2004, Gnahoré released her debut album Ano Neko, she was a nominee at the 2006 World music for Newcomer and in 2010 she shared an award for Best Urban/Alternative Performance for the song “Pearls” with India. Arie at the 52nd Grammy Awards. Ano Neko, 2004 Na Afriki, 2007 Djekpa La You, 2010 Na Drê, 2014 Miziki, 2018 Dobet Gnahoré's website Facebook page

Tachinidae

The Tachinidae are a large and variable family of true flies within the insect order Diptera, with more than 8,200 known species and many more to be discovered. Over 1300 species have been described in North America alone. Insects in this family are called tachinid flies or tachinids; as far as is known, they all are protelean parasitoids, or parasites, of arthropods other insects. The family is known from many habitats in all zoogeographical regions and is diverse in South America. Reproductive strategies vary between Tachinid species but not always according to their respective life cycles; this means. Comparatively few are restricted to a single host species, so there is little tendency towards the close co-evolution one finds in the adaptations of many specialist species to their hosts, such as are typical of protelean parasitoids among the Hymenoptera. Larvae of most members of this family are parasitoids. In contrast a few are parasitic. Tachinid larvae feed on the host tissues, either after having been injected into the host by the parent, or penetrating the host from outside.

Various species have different modes of oviposition and of host invasion. Tachinid larvae are endoparasites of caterpillars of butterflies and moths, or the eruciform larvae of sawflies. For example, they have been found to lay eggs in African sugarcane borer larva, a species of moth common in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the more northerly Arctic woolly bear moth. However, some species attack some attack beetle larvae. Others attack various types of true bugs, others attack grasshoppers. Parasitised are bees and sawflies; the majority of female Tachinids lay white, ovoid eggs with flat undersides onto the skin of the host insect. Imms mentions the genera Gymnosoma, Thrixion and Eutachina as examples. In a related strategy some genera are ovoviviparous and deposit a hatching larva onto the host. For example, this occurs in Tachinidae species which parasitize the butterfly Danaus chrysippus in Ghana; the free larvae bore into the host's body. Illustrative genera include: Exorista and Plagia. Many Tachinid eggs hatch having developed inside the mother's uterus, long and coiled for retaining developing eggs.

However, it is suggested that the primitive state is to stick unembryonated eggs to the surface of the host. Many other species inject eggs into the host's body, using the extensible, penetrating part of their ovipositor, sometimes called the oviscapt, which translates to "egg digger". Species in the genera Ocyptera and Compsilura are examples. Only one egg is laid on or in any individual host, accordingly such an egg tends to be large, as is typical for eggs laid in small numbers, they are large enough to be visible if stuck onto the outside of the host, they are so stuck that eggs cannot be removed from the skin of the host without killing them. Furthermore, scientists have observed in studies with the host cabbage looper that being glued to the host insect helps maggots burrow into the larva, where they remain until developed, yet another strategy of oviposition among some Tachinidae is to lay large numbers of small, darkly coloured eggs on the food plants of the host species. Sturmia and Gonia are such genera.

Many Tachinids are important natural enemies of major insect pests, some species are used in biological pest control. Conversely, certain tachinid flies. One notorious silkworm pest is the Uzi fly. Another reproductive strategy is to leave the eggs in the host's environment, for example the female might lay on leaves, where the host is to ingest them; some tachinids that are parasitoids of stem-boring caterpillars deposit eggs outside the host's burrow, letting the first instar larvae do the work of finding the host for themselves. In other species, the maggots use an ambush technique, waiting for the host to pass and attacking it and burrowing into its body. Adult Tachinids are not parasitic, but either do not feed at all or visit flowers, decaying matter, or similar sources of energy to sustain themselves until they have concluded their procreative activities, their non-parasitic behaviour after eclosion from the pupa is what justifies the application of the term "protelean". Tachinid flies are varied in appearance.

Some adult flies may be brilliantly colored and resemble blow-flies. Most however are rather drab, some resembling house flies. However, Tachinid flies are more bristly and more robust, they have a characteristic appearance. They have three-segmented antennae, a diagnostically prominent postscutellum bulging beneath the scutellum, they are aristate flies, the arista is bare, though sometimes plumose. The calypters are very large, their fourth long vein bends away sharply. Adult flies feed on flowers and nectar from aphids and scale insects; as many species feed on pollen, they can be important pollinators of some