Uwe H. Schmidt known as Atom™, Atom Heart, or Señor Coconut, is a German composer and producer of electronic music, he is regarded as the father of electrolatino and aciton music. In the nineties, Schmidt moved to Chile and developed part of his career there, adopting the alias Mr. Coconut. Uwe Schmidt began making music in the early 1980s, first playing drums switching to programming a drum computer after he had heard a Linn Drum on the radio. In 1986 he co-founded the cassette label N. G. Medien, on which various tapes of international artists, including the Canadian electronic body music act Frontline Assembly and his first musical work under the name Lassigue Bendthaus, entitled The Engineer's Love, were released. Soon after, he started to work on what would become his first official Lassigue Bendthaus record release, the album Matter; the recordings and production for Matter began in 1986 and took 4 years, until the album came out in 1991 on the German Parade Amoureuse label. Matter as well as its related singles and maxi-singles were mixed by Tobias Freund.
Lassigue Bendthaus, until that point, was musically categorized as EBM though part of the success of Matter may have been the fact that it didn't quite fit the category and incorporated musical elements of the 1990s. Uwe Schmidt played his first live show as Lassigue Bendthaus as the opening act for the British group Meat Beat Manifesto at the Frankfurt Batschkapp in 1989. Still living in Frankfurt, Uwe Schmidt was directly influenced by the emerging "pre-techno" movement of the late 1980s known as house and acid house. A sub-label of Parade Amoureuse released some of Schmidt's dance floor oriented productions under the alias Atom Heart which he adopted as his main artist name from on; the early 1990s saw a series of 12-inch vinyl productions aimed at the dance floor, which were released under a variety of different project titles such as Atom Heart, etc. In 1992 he was in charge of producing a series of tracks for the yet to be known DJs Pascal F. E. O. S. Ata and Heiko M/S/O. Uwe Schmidt produced and co-wrote titles such as "Ongaku" and "Cosmic Love", which became successful prototypes for the appearing trance movement.
His activities as a music producer continued with the Austrian multimedia artists Station Rose whom had just moved from Vienna to Frankfurt in 1992. The 12-inch "Digit Eyes" was produced by Station Rose the same year. During the production of "Digit Eyes" he was introduced to Tetsu Inoue, a New York-based Japanese electronic music producer, with whom he founded the Datacide project in 1993. Out of the N. G. Medien nucleus the record label POD Communication was founded in 1992. After the bankruptcy of Parade Amoureuse and its sub-labels in 1992, Schmidt moved his activities to POD Communication on which he released a series of 12-inches and albums under the guises of Atom Heart, Lisa Carbon and Atomu Shinzo. Releasing on POD Communication was the German artist Pete Namlook whom Uwe Schmidt first met at the POD office in Frankfurt. Due to his releases on Parade Amoureuse and POD Communication and his successful production works, Schmidt had obtained a reputation that let him play live concerts all around the world.
Together with Tobias Freund, who by used the Pink Elln pseudonym, Schmidt played a live show at one of the first rave parties in Finland in 1992. The live concert was recorded and released on Ongaku Music in 1992 known as "Elektronikkaa – Atom Heart & Pink Elln live in Montreux and Helsinki". A vast amount of productions were released worldwide due to the licensing activities of POD Communication, Ongaku Music and a variety of other Frankfurt-based record companies. After Parade Amoureuse closed down in 1992, his first album Matter was re-released by the Italian record label Contempo Records from Florence. In 1993 Schmidt released the follow up album to Matter: Lassigue Bendthaus' Cloned. Cloned was produced and licensed to Contempo Records together with a sample CD titled Cloned:Binary which contained the sounds used on the original album. Contempo Records went bankrupt in 1993. Due to open payments by those labels, lack of a recording studio and unresolved recording contracts, Schmidt decided to take some months off and lived for half a year in Costa Rica.
On the way back from Costa Rica, he stopped over in New York City, where he visited Tetsu Inoue to record the first Datacide album. Back home in Frankfurt, his interest in Latin Music started to grow and in fact the birth of the Señor Coconut moniker can be allocated somewhere around that time. Though Lassigue Bendthaus had not brought him much luck until he decided to start recording his third album during 1993 entitled Render; because of the stagnation and inherent ignorance of the techno movement that surrounded Schmidt's work, he soon began to distance from this musical format and scene. He felt that the DJ and the dance floor where limiting targets for his musical output and that many of his musical ideas would not be compatible with it; as a consequence he founded his own record label Rather Interesting in 1994. By this time, Pete Namlook had founded his FAX +49-69/450464 label and a new scene of musical styles appeared, such as ambient, jungle, IDM and others. Uwe Schmidt, apart from his monthly release on Rather Interesting, continued recording with Tetsu Inoue, Pete Namlook and Victor Sol during 1994.
That same year, the Lassigue Bendthaus albums Render, Render Audible, Matter and the 12-inch "Overflow" were released by the Belgian KK Records, a label that would officiall
Music of Germany
Germany claims some of the most renowned composers, singers and performers of the world. Germany is the largest music market in Europe, third largest in the world. German Classical is one of the most performed in the world. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was among the composers. One of the most famous film score. German popular music of the 20th and 21st century includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, Metal/Rock, Pop rock and Indie. Famous female singers were Hildegard Knef. German Electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream being pioneer groups in this genre; the Electro and Techno scene being internationally popular with Scooter. Germany hosts many large rock music festivals annually; the Rock am Ring festival and the Wacken Open Air are among the largest in the world. Since about 1990 the new-old German capital Berlin has developed a diverse music and entertainment industry; the beginning of what is now considered German music could be traced back to the 12th-century compositions of mystic abbess Hildegard of Bingen, who wrote a variety of hymns and other kinds of Christian music.
After Latin-language religious music had dominated for centuries, in the 12th century to the 14th centuries, singing in German, spread across Germany. Minnesingers were aristocrats traveling from court to court who had become musicians, their work left behind a vast body of literature, Minnelieder; the following two centuries saw the minnesingers replaced by middle-class meistersingers, who were master craftsmen in their main profession, whose music was much more formalized and rule-based than that of the minnesingers. Minnesingers and meistersingers could be considered parallels of French troubadours and trouvère. Among the minnesingers, Hermann, a monk from Salzburg, deserves special note, he incorporated folk styles from the Alpine regions in his compositions. He made some primitive forays into polyphony as well. Walther von der Vogelweide and Reinmar von Hagenau are the most famous minnesingers from this period. Germans have played a leading role in the development of classical music. Many of the best classical musicians such as Bach, Händel, Schumann, Wagner, Mahler, or Schoenberg were German.
At the beginning of the 15th century, German classical music was revolutionized by Oswald von Wolkenstein, who travelled across Europe learning about classical traditions, spending time in countries like France and Italy. He brought back some techniques and styles to his homeland, within a hundred years, Germany had begun producing composers renowned across the continent. Among the first of these composers was the organist Conrad Paumann; the largest summer festival for classical music in Germany is the Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival. Beginning in the 16th century, polyphony, or the intertwining of multiple melodies, arrived in Germany. Protestant chorales predominated. Composers included Dieterich Buxtehude, Heinrich Schütz and Martin Luther, leader of the Protestant Reformation. Luther happened to accompany his sung hymns with a lute recreated as the waldzither that became a national instrument of Germany in the 20th century. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Die Zauberflöte is said to be the beginning of German opera.
An earlier starting date for German opera, could be Heinrich Schütz's Dafne from 1627. Schütz is said to be the first great German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach, was a major figure in 17th-century music. In the 19th century, two figures were paramount in German opera: Carl Maria von Weber and Richard Wagner. Wagner introduced devices like the Leitmotiv, a musical theme which recurs for important characters or ideas. Wagner based his operas of German history and folklore, most including the Ring of the Nibelung. Into the 20th century, opera composers included Richard Strauss and Engelbert Humperdinck, who wrote operas meant for young audiences. Across the border in Austria, Arnold Schoenberg innovated a form of twelve-tone music that used rhythm and dissonance instead of traditional melodies and harmonies, while Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht collaborated on some of the great works of German theater, including Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny and The Three-Penny Opera. Following the war, German composers like Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Werner Henze began experimenting electronic sounds in classical music.
Germany is very well known for its many subsidised opera houses, such as Semperoper, Munich State Theatre and the Bayreuth Festspielhaus. Baroque music, the first music to use tonality in the modern sense, is known for its ornamentation and artistic use of counterpoint, it originated in Northern Italy at the end of the 16th century, the style migrated to Germany, one of the most active centers of early Baroque music. Early German Baroque composers included Heinrich Schütz, Michael Praetorius, Johann Schein, Samuel Scheidt; the culmination of the Baroque era was undoubtedly
Trance is a genre of electronic music that emerged from the British new-age music scene and the early 1990s German techno and hardcore scenes. At the same time trance music was developing in Europe. Trance music is characterized by a tempo lying between 110–150 bpm, repeating melodic phrases, a musical form that distinctly builds tension and elements throughout a track culminating in 1 to 2 "peaks" or "drops". Although trance is a genre of its own, it liberally incorporates influences from other musical styles such as techno, pop, chill-out, classical music, tech house and film music. A trance is a state of hypnotism and heightened consciousness; this is portrayed in trance music by the mixing of layers with distinctly foreshadowed build-up and release. A common characteristic of trance music is a mid-song climax followed by a soft breakdown disposing of beats and percussion leaving the melody or atmospherics to stand alone for an extended period before building up again. Trance tracks are lengthy to allow for such progression and have sufficiently sparse opening and closing sections to facilitate mixing by DJs.
Trance is instrumental, although vocals can be mixed in: they are performed by mezzo-soprano to soprano female soloists without a traditional verse/chorus structure. Structured vocal form in trance music forms the basis of the vocal trance subgenre, described as "grand and operatic" and "ethereal female leads floating amongst the synths". However, male singers, such as Jonathan Mendelsohn, are featured; the "Trance" name may refer to an induced emotional feeling, euphoria, chills, or uplifting rush that listeners claim to experience, or it may indicate an actual trance-like state the earliest forms of this music attempted to emulate in the 1990s before the genre's focus changed. Another possible antecedent is Yuzo Koshiro and Motohiro Kawashima's electronic soundtracks for the Streets of Rage series of video games from 1991 to 1994, it was promoted by the well-known UK club-night "Megatripolis" whose scene catapulted it to international fame. Examples of early trance releases include but are not limited to KLF's 1988 release'What Time Is Love', German duo Jam & Spoon's 1992 12" Single remix of the 1990 song "The Age Of Love", German duo Dance 2 Trance's 1990 track "We Came in Peace".
The writer Bom Coen traces the roots of trance to Paul van Dyk's 1993 remix of Humate's "Love Stimulation". However, Van Dyk's trance origins can be traced further back to his work with Visions of Shiva, being the first tracks he released In subsequent years, one genre, vocal trance, arose as the combination of progressive elements and pop music, the development of another subgenre, epic trance, finds some of its origins in classical music, with film music being influential. Trance was arguably at its commercial peak in the second part of 1990s and early 2000s. Classic trance employs a 4/4 time signature, a tempo of 125 to 150 BPM, 32 beat phrases and is somewhat faster than house music. A kick drum is placed on every downbeat and a regular open hi-hat is placed on the upbeat or every 1/8th division of the bar. Extra percussive elements are added, major transitions, builds or climaxes are foreshadowed by lengthy "snare rolls"—a quick succession of snare drum hits that build in velocity and volume towards the end of a measure or phrase.
Rapid arpeggios and minor keys are common features of Trance, the latter being universal. Trance tracks use one central "hook", or melody, which runs through the entire song, repeating at intervals anywhere between 2 beats and 32 bars, in addition to harmonies and motifs in different timbres from the central melody. Instruments are removed every 4, 8, 16, or 32 bars. In the section before the breakdown, the lead motif is introduced in a sliced up and simplified form, to give the audience a "taste" of what they will hear after the breakdown; the final climax is "a culmination of the first part of the track mixed with the main melodic reprise". As is the case with many dance music tracks, trance tracks are built with sparser intros and outros in order to enable DJs to blend them together immediately. More recent forms of trance music incorporate other styles and elements of electronic music such as electro and progressive house into its production, it emphasizes harsher basslines and drum beats which decrease the importance of offbeats and focus on a four on the floor stylistic house drum pattern.
The bpm of more recent styles tends to be on par with house music at 120 to 135 beats per minute. However, unlike house music, recent forms of trance stay true to their melodic breakdowns and longer transitions. Trance music is broken into a number of subgenres including acid trance, classic trance, hard trance, progressive trance, uplifting trance. Uplifting trance is known as "anthem trance", "epic trance", "commercial trance", "stadium trance", or "euphoric trance", has been influenced by classical music in the 1990s and 2000s by leading artists such as Ferry Corsten, Armin Van Buuren, Tiësto, Rank 1 and at present with the development of the subgenre "orchestral uplifting trance" or "uplifting trance with symphonic orchestra" by such artists as Andy Blueman, Ciro Visone, Arctic Moon, Sergey Nevone & Simon O'Shine, among others. Related to Uplifting Trance is Euro-trance, which has become a general term for a wide variety of commercialized European dance music. Several subgenres are crossovers with other major genres of electronic music.
For instance, Tech trance is a mixture of trance and tech
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno in reference to a specific genre of music was in 1988. Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of sub-genres have been built. In Detroit, techno resulted from the melding of black styles including Chicago house, funk and electric jazz with electronic music by artists such as Kraftwerk, Giorgio Moroder, Yellow Magic Orchestra. Added to this is the influence of futuristic and fictional themes relevant to life in American late capitalist society, with Alvin Toffler's book The Third Wave being a notable point of reference. Pioneering producer and DJ Juan Atkins cites Toffler's phrase "techno rebels" as inspiring him to use the word techno to describe the musical style he helped to create; this unique blend of influences aligns techno with the aesthetic referred to as afrofuturism.
To producers such as Derrick May, the transference of spirit from the body to the machine is a central preoccupation. In this manner: "techno dance music defeats what Adorno saw as the alienating effect of mechanisation on the modern consciousness". Stylistically, techno is repetitive instrumental music produced for use in a continuous DJ set; the central rhythmic component is most in common time, where time is marked with a bass drum on each quarter note pulse, a backbeat played by snare or clap on the second and fourth pulses of the bar, an open hi-hat sounding every second eighth note. The tempo tends to vary between 120 to 150 beats per minute, depending on the style of techno; the creative use of music production technology, such as drum machines and digital audio workstations, is viewed as an important aspect of the music's aesthetic. Many producers use retro electronic musical devices to create what they consider to be an authentic techno sound. Drum machines from the 1980s such as Roland's TR-808 and TR-909 are prized, software emulations of such retro technology are popular among techno producers.
Music journalists and fans of techno are selective in their use of the term. The initial blueprint for techno developed during the mid-1980s in Belleville, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit by Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson and Derrick May, all of whom attended school together at Belleville High, with the addition of Eddie Fowlkes, Blake Baxter and James Pennington. By the close of the 1980s, the pioneers had recorded and released material under various guises: Atkins as Model 500, Magic Juan. There were a number of joint ventures, including Kevin Saunderson's group Inner City, which saw collaborations with Atkins, vocalist Paris Grey, fellow DJs James Pennington and; the Electrifying Mojo was the first radio DJ to play music by Atkins and Saunderson. Mojo refused to follow pre-established radio formats or playlists, he promoted social and cultural awareness of the African American community. In exploring techno's origins writer Kodwo Eshun maintains that "Kraftwerk are to Techno what Muddy Waters is to the Rolling Stones: the authentic, the origin, the real."
Juan Atkins has acknowledged that he had an early enthusiasm for Kraftwerk and Giorgio Moroder Moroder's work with Donna Summer and the producer's own album E=MC2. Atkins mentions that "around 1980 I had a tape of nothing but Kraftwerk, Devo, Giorgio Moroder and Gary Numan, I'd ride around in my car playing it." Atkins has claimed he was unaware of Kraftwerk's music prior to his collaboration with Richard "3070" Davis as Cybotron, two years after he had first started experimenting with electronic instruments. Regarding his initial impression of Kraftwerk, Atkins notes that they were "clean and precise" relative to the "weird UFO sounds" featured in his "psychedelic" music. Derrick May identified the influence of Kraftwerk and other European synthesizer music in commenting that "it was just classy and clean, to us it was beautiful, like outer space. Living around Detroit, there was so little beauty... everything is an ugly mess in Detroit, so we were attracted to this music. It, ignited our imagination!".
May has commented that he considered his music a direct continuation of the European synthesizer tradition. He identified Japanese synthpop act Yellow Magic Orchestra member Ryuichi Sakamoto, British band Ultravox, as influences, along with Kraftwerk. YMO's song "Technopolis", a tribute to Tokyo as an electronic mecca, is considered an "interesting contribution" to the development of Detroit techno, foreshadowing concepts that Atkins and Davis would explore with Cybotron. Kevin Saunderson has acknowledged the influence of Europe but he claims to have been more inspired by the idea of making music with electronic equipment: "I was more infatuated with the idea that I can do this all myself." Prior to achieving notoriety, Saunderson and Fowlkes shared common interests as budding musicians, "mix" tape traders, aspiring DJs. They found musical inspiration via the Midnight Funk Association, an eclectic five-hour late-night radio program hosted on various Detroit radio stations, including WCHB, WGPR, WJLB-FM from 1977 through the mid-1980s by DJ Charles "The Electrifying Mojo" Johnson.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b
Sound art is an artistic discipline in which sound is utilised as a primary medium. Like many genres of contemporary art, sound art may be interdisciplinary in nature, or be used in hybrid forms. Sound art can be considered as being an element of many areas such as acoustics, electronics, noise music, audio media, found or environmental sound, explorations of the human body, architecture, film or video and other aspects of the current discourse of contemporary art. In Western art, early examples include Luigi Russolo's Intonarumori or noise intoners, subsequent experiments by Dadaists, the Situationist International, in Fluxus happenings; because of the diversity of sound art, there is debate about whether sound art falls within the domains of visual art or experimental music categories, or both. Other artistic lineages from which sound art emerges are conceptual art, site-specific art, sound poetry, electro-acoustic music, spoken word, avant-garde poetry, experimental theatre; the earliest documented use of the term in the U.
S. is from a catalogue for a show called "Sound/Art" at The Sculpture Center in New York City, created by William Hellermann in 1983. The show was sponsored by "The SoundArt Foundation," which Hellerman founded in 1982; the artists featured in the show were: Vito Acconci, Connie Beckley and Mary Buchen, Nicolas Collins, Sari Dienes and Pauline Oliveros, Richard Dunlap, Terry Fox, William Hellermann, Jim Hobart, Richard Lerman, Les Levine, Joe Lewis, Tom Marioni, Jim Pomeroy, Alan Scarritt, Carolee Schneeman, Bonnie Sherk, Keith Sonnier, Norman Tuck, Hannah Wilke, Yom Gagatzi. The following is an excerpt from the catalogue essay by art historian Don Goddard: "It may be that sound art adheres to curator Hellermann's perception that "hearing is another form of seeing,' that sound has meaning only when its connection with an image is understood... The conjunction of sound and image insists on the engagement of the viewer, forcing participation in real space and concrete, responsive thought rather than illusionary space and thought."
Sound art always takes place in an acoustic context, which may influence interpretation as much as if not more than any associated imagery. Installations of sound art rely on the acoustics of the spaces and reproduction technologies employed as can be exemplified by current practitioners such as Chris Watson; the Klankenbos of Provinciaal Domein Dommelhof is the biggest sound art collection in public space in Europe. In the forest there are 15 sound installation pieces by artists such as Pierre Berthet, Paul Panhuysen, Geert Jan Hobbijn, Hans van Koolwijk, others. Yearly in Kortrijk there is the sound art festival Wilde Westen. In Brussels there are QO2 and Overtoon, two organisations that run artist-in-residence programs and organize events. Logos Foundation from Ghent is a sound art org run by Godfried-Willem Raes. In Zadar there is the Sea Organ which plays music by way of sea waves and tubes located underneath a set of large marble steps. From Amsterdam, but moved to Berlin is Staalplaat, a record label focused on sound art and experimental music.
Transmediale is a yearly festival focused on media art, covering many sound art performances and installations. The Dutch sound art tradition started more or less in the Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium where Dick Raaijmakers worked in the 60s. Paul Panhuysen and Remko Scha developed many early sound art pieces in the 70s and 80s and set up the Apollohuis in Eindhoven. STEIM. WORM, Extrapool are active organisations. Polderlicht was a sound art festival running from 2000–2015. Iii ) aka www. SoundArtist.ru – largest sound and new media arts community in post-ussr region PS-fest aka Podgotovlenniye Sredy – the sound art festival based in Moscow New Interfaces for Musical Expression List of sound artists List of topics related to Sound Art Acousmonium Acoustic ecology Work of art Audium Electronic music Fluxus Installation art Intermedia NIME Noise Music Performance art Radio art Sonification Sound effect Sound installation Sound poetry Sound sculpture Soundscape Video game music Visual music Sound map Hellerman and Don Goddard.
1983. Catalogue for "Sound/Art" at The Sculpture Center, New York City, May 1–30, 1983 and BACA/DCC Gallery June 1–30, 1983. Kahn, Douglas. 2001. Noise, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts. Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-61172-4. Licht, Alan. 2007. Sound Art: Beyond Music, Between Categories. New York: Rizzoli International Publications. ISBN 0-8478-2969-3. Attali, Jacques. 1985. Noise: The Political Economy of Music, translated by Brian Massumi, f
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well