The FREMM is a class of multi-purpose frigates designed by Naval Group and Fincantieri for the navies of France and Italy. The lead ship of the class, was commissioned in November 2012 by the French Navy. In France the class is known as the Aquitaine class, while in Italy they are known as the Bergamini class. Italy has ordered four anti-submarine variants. France has ordered six anti-submarine variants, two air-defence variants; the class is one of the five finalists for the U. S. Navy’s FFG program. Three original variants of the FREMM were proposed. A total of 27 FREMM were to be constructed - 17 for France and 10 for Italy - with additional aims to seek exports, however budget cuts and changing requirements has seen this number drop for France, while the order for Italy remained invaried; the land-attack variant was subsequently cancelled. A third anti-air warfare variant of FREMM was proposed by DCNS in response to French requirements for a new air-defence frigate, the new variant became known as FREDA.
This new French requirement was due to the third and fourth Horizon-class frigates being cancelled after the first two cost €1.35B each, but this decision left French Navy still in-need of replacements for its ageing Cassard-class air-defence frigates. As of 2009, the FREDA design features a more powerful version of the Herakles passive electronically scanned array radar and 32 cells of SYLVER A50 in place of the 16 cells of A43 and 16 cells of A70; the SYLVER A50 would allow it to fire the 120 kilometres -range Aster 30 missile. At Euronaval 2012 DCNS showed a new concept called FREMM-ER for the FREDA requirement, again based on the FREMM, but mentioning the ballistic missile defence mission as well as anti-air. FREMM-ER has a modified superstructure replacing Héraklès with the new Thales Sea Fire 500 radar, whose four fixed plates resemble those of the US Navy's AN/SPY-1; however unlike the Héraklès and the SPY-1, the Sea Fire 500 has active electronically scanned array antennas. Original plans were for 17 FREMM to replace the nine D'Estienne d'Orves-class avisos and nine anti-submarine frigates of the Tourville and Georges Leygues classes.
In November 2005 France announced a contract of €3.5 billion for development and the first eight hulls, with options for nine more costing €2.95 billion split over two tranches. Following the cancellation of the third and fourth of the Horizon-class frigates in 2005 on budget grounds, requirements for an air-defence derivative of the FREMM called FREDA were placed – with DCNS coming up with several proposals. Expectations were that the last two ships of the 17 FREMM planned would be built to FREDA specifications; the 11 ships would cost €670 million each in FY2014, or €860m including development costs. The 2013 White Paper on Defence and National Security committed France to 15 front-line frigates, interpreted as 2 Horizons, 5 La Fayettes and a reduction in the FREMM fleet down to 8 ships; the 2014/2019 defence plan restated a target of 11 frigates. In 2014, the French Navy's Chief of Staff, Adm. Bernard Rogel, confirmed that 11 FREMM frigates had been ordered but in 2015 the order was cut to 8 in order to allow the purchase of five FTI Mid-Size frigates from 2023.
The FTI will replace the La Fayette-class class, which will be fitted with a sonar as an interim measure. Planning assumptions for the Italian Navy are 10 FREMM-IT at a cost of €5.9 billion. FREMM-IT will replace the Lupo-class frigates in service with the Italian Navy. In the 2013 Italian budget, the Italian government laid out the necessary financing for two more GP variants and the contract was awarded in September 2013. On 15 April 2015, the Italian Parliament confirmed the deal between OCCAR and Orizzonte Sistemi Navali Spa to begin building units 9 and 10, for 764 million Euros; as of 16 April 2015, the Italian government has approved funding for all ten FREMM-IT to be delivered to the Italian Navy. FREMM-IT 9 & 10 will have undisclosed enhanced capabilities. All 10 Italian FREMM-ITs have extended AAW capabilities, with SAAM-ESD CMS, Aster 30 and Aster 15 missiles for extended area defence. SAAM-ESD CMS use Leonardo MFRA, a 3D active radar, an evolved version of the Leonardo EMPAR PESA radar.
Since the 7th FREMM-IT, there will be updates, such as new conformal IFF antenna and much more stealth response. Since the 9th FREMM-IT, SCLAR-H replaced with Leonardo ODLS-20. In 2017 the Italian FREMM refit started with the installation on each of 2 SITEP MS-424 acoustic guns. On 10 July 2017 it was reported that the US Congress is pushing foreign designs such as the Fincantieri FREMM for the FFG Guided-Missile Frigate Program. According t
Blues Farm is an album by bassist Ron Carter recorded at Rudy Van Gelder's Studio in New Jersey in 1973 and released on the CTI label. Allmusic reviewer Nathan Bush states "Blues Farm's excursions are somewhat reserved. Both the compositions and performances avoid strong emotions in favor of pleasing palettes of color and texture". All compositions by Ron Carter except as indicated "Blues Farm" - 7:59 "A Small Ballad" - 5:38 "Django" - 5:30 "A Hymn for Him" - 8:11 "Two-Beat Johnson" - 2:49 "R2, M1" - 6:08Recorded at Van Gelder Studio in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey on January 10, 1973 Ron Carter - bass, conductor Hubert Laws - flute Richard Tee - electric piano, piano Bob James - piano Gene Bertoncini, Sam Brown - guitar Billy Cobham - drums Ralph MacDonald - percussion
Oyster Yachts is a British brand of luxury cruising sailing yachts established in 1973. The company is based in Southampton but with foundation and ongoing strong links to Wroxham and Ipswich. Oyster Yachts is famed for developing the original Deck Saloon sailing yacht concept in 1980, now a proven design used across 35 Oyster models and more than 750 luxury sailing yachts.] In 1973 Richard Matthews founded Oyster Marine and commissioned the 32 ft prototype sailing yacht Unidentified Flying Object, designed by British Naval Architects Holman and Pye. She proved to be a success, with Unidentified Flying Object winning the Royal Yacht Squadron's de Mass Cup at Cowes in 1974 alongside many other races; the design was developed into the UFO 34, this became the first yacht to be produced by Oyster Marine. In 1978 Oyster Marine introduced a 46 ft cruiser-racer designed by Kim Holman & Donald Pye, pioneering the Deck Saloon feature that has since become the company's trademark. Oyster continued to increase the size of its vessels, launching a 53 ft design by Rob Humphreys in 1997 followed by a 62 ft Robert Humphreys' design in 2002.
Today, Oyster Yachts builds sailboats ranging from 56 ft to 125 ft, all designed by Robert Humphreys and the Oyster Design Team. In 2008 the company was sold to private equity house Balmoral Capital in 2008 for around £70m who sold it in 2012 to Dutch private equity firm HTP Investments BV for around £15m. On 5 February 2018, Oyster Marine, the boat-building arm of the Oyster group went into administration after a crisis in July 2015 when there was a catastrophic failure of the internal hull structure of a new Oyster 825 "Polina Star III" and the yacht sank. Despite significant positive efforts to recall and repair the 4 other yachts built the same way, confidence was dented for a couple of years and incoming orders fell by 1/3rd for the next 24 months. Following the successful launch of several new models the company closed the end of 2017 with a record orderbook of £83m but with some cash flow issues; the Dutch shareholders made a sudden decision in January 2018 to withdraw their support and the directors had no alternative but to appoint Administrators.
KPMG was appointed as administrator to Oyster Marine Holdings on 7 February 2018, tried to find a new buyer for the business. On 20 March 2018, gaming software entrepreneur Richard Hadida was announced as the new owner. Hadida has embarked on a mission to get the business back on its feet and to re-employ as many of the 420 previous employees of Oyster Yachts as possible; the Oyster Board consists of CEO Richard Hadida and CFO Becky Bridgen together with Non-Executives Ashley Highfield, Eddie Jordan, Ivan Ritossa and Rob Humphreys. Under Hadida’s ownership the company re-started manufacturing in its Wroxham yard on 15 May 2018, beginning to fulfil the contracts that Oyster held before it entered administration; this included the re-hiring 50 of Oyster’s former shipwrights. Oyster has always been a British brand. During the company’s beginnings, when a lot of its boat building was subcontracted out, production was always awarded to other British yards; the most notable of these were Landamores in Hoverton who were responsible for the majority of Oyster produced.
Only a couple of models in the company’s history have been built outside the UK. These are the 2013 Oyster 54, produced in New Zealand by McDell Marine and the 100 ft and 125 ft yachts designed by Ed Dubois built at RMK Marine in Turkey. Oyster have moved from being a marketing company which it was for the majority of it history, to taking assembley inhouse in 2000s and in 2019 it took the final step in this process taking hull moulding inhouse in a partnership with; the company has twice been awarded the Queen’s Award for Enterprise. In 2012 the Oyster 625 was named the Luxury Cruiser of the Year at the boot Düsseldorf, while the Oyster 100-01 was given the Judge's Commendation for yachts under 40 m at the World Superyacht Awards in Istanbul. In 2016, the Oyster 675 was voted Sailing Today’s Best Luxury Cruiser, with the Oyster 565 the same award in 2017. In 2018, the Oyster 745 was named Cruising World’s Boat of the Year. Oyster Yachts was featured in the American documentary series Building the Brand in 2011, which looked at the production processes behind iconic brands.
Other companies featured include Gibson Guitars and Rolls Royce. The Oyster World Rally refers to the 2-3 year worldwide sailing expeditions that Oyster Yachts organises for its owners. All owners of the company’s yachts are invited to sail the world together, following a route pre-planned and organised by Oyster and with support from the Oyster After Sales team; the rally was organised to celebrate 35 years of Oyster Yachts in 2013, but with the success of the first event the company decided to make the World Rally a regular feature in the Oyster social calendar. The first rally ran from 2013-14, with one underway from 2017-19 and one planned for 2021-23. Oyster is the only yachting brand running its own global circumnavigation. Oyster puts on regular regattas and other events for their owners, owner’s friends and family, crew; these events are run by the Oyster Yacht team and this include two regattas per year - one in the Caribbean at Easter and one in the Mediterranean in September/October - as well as parties and dinners for owners during the London and Annapolis boat shows and other sailing events.
Current and previous Oyster yacht models are listed below, with current models in bold: The majority of Oyster boats hav
Khadija Abeba is the President of the Supreme Court of Djibouti and is the country's highest ranking female official. Abeba was appointed as President of the Supreme Court of Djibouti in 1996. In the event of President Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed's illness or death, Abeba would become head of state. Human rights in Djibouti is a major concern of Abeba's and she has organised workshops with the Djiboutian League for Human Rights to explore solutions to issues facing the country. Khadija Abeba became the first female judge in 1977, in 1996 became the first woman in Djibouti to be President of the Court of Appeal, she was followed into the Djiboutian judicial system by judges Chantal Clément, Fozia Hassan Bahdon and Naïba Djama. Abeba is known as a progressive legislator in Djibouti. Whilst women have the right to vote in Djibouti their political representation is still limited. In 2003 Hawa Ahmed Youssouf was appointed to role of Secretary of State for the Promotion of Women and Family and Social Affairs
Route 99 is a state highway in Connecticut running for 10.64 miles from Route 9 in Cromwell, through the town of Rocky Hill, ending in Wethersfield at the Hartford city line. The road continues into Hartford as a local road, it follows the former alignment of Route 9 from prior to that route's upgrade to a freeway. Route 99 begins as the northbound Exit 18 ramp of Route 9 in Cromwell. At the end of the off ramp, the road continues north as Main Street.. Main Street is a two-lane road that goes north through Cromwell up to Rocky Hill for about 5.6 miles. At the junction with Elm Street, the road becomes a four-lane road known as the Silas Deane Highway; the Silas Deane Highway continues through Rocky Hill up to the town of Wethersfield. It serves as the main thoroughfare of these two towns providing access to several shopping centers. Route 99 has interchanges with Interstate 91 in Rocky Hill and the Wilbur Cross Highway in Wethersfield. At the Hartford city line, Route 99 ends but the road continues into downtown Hartford as Wethersfield Avenue.
The entire length of Route 99 is known as the George Washington Memorial Highway. The alignment of Route 99 was designated as part of New England Interstate Route 10 in the 1920s; the Silas Deane Highway was built in 1930 and New England Route 10 was shifted west to use the new highway. In the 1932 state highway renumbering, the alignment was re-designated as Route 9; when Route 9 was upgraded to an expressway between I-91 and I-95 in 1969, the old surface alignment became Route 99. Conn. Rt. 99 Photo
Carpodetus serratus is an evergreen tree with small ovate or round, mottled leaves with a toothy margin, young twigs grow zig-zag, fragrant white flowers in 5 cm panicles and black chewy berries. It is an endemic of New Zealand, its vernacular names used in New Zealand are marbleleaf and bucket-of-water-tree. It is found in broadleaf forest in both North and Stewart Islands, it flowers between November and March, fruits are ripe from January to February. Marbleleaf is small tree of up to 10 m in height, it develops a slender trunk of up to 30 cm in diameter, covered by rough and corky bark, has a mottled grey-white coloring and is knobbly due to boring by insects. Juvenile branches have an obvious zig-zag orientation. There are visible lenticels; the leafstems are about 1 cm. The leafblades are thin to leathery, broad-elliptic widest near the base, or round, 4-6 × 2–3 cm when grown, dark green near the larger veins and yellowish green removed from the veins, they have a rounded, sometimes somewhat unequal foot, a serrately toothed margin and a pointed or blunt tip.
The stems of the leaves and flowers are covered in felty hairs. The inflorescences are panicles of 5 cm in diameter and consist of up to fifteen or more flowers at the leaf axil or at the end of branches. Individual flowers are 5–6 mm pentamerous but occasionally trimerous; the calyx lobes are 1 mm long, narrowly triangular. The petals are white, triangular, 3-4 × 2–3 mm. Stamens are alternating with the petals and have short filaments; the anthers are connected to the filaments at their base, open in lengthwise slids towards the inside, through which the yellow pollen is shed in tetrads. The stigma is bud-shaped, with a dark bluish purple top; the pistil is shed after the anthers. The fruit is a somewhat fleshy round berry of 4–6 mm that turns black when it ripens, the lower half is cupped by the remains of calyx; the berry contains many seeds in three to five compartments, each seed 1–2 mm long with a netted outer skin. Carpodetus and its type species C. serratus were first described by father and son Forster in 1773 and placed in the Saxifragaceae.
In 1934 it was assigned to the newly created Escalloniaceae by Hutchinson in his major revision of the dicotylodon families. In the APG III system, Carpodetus has been referred to the Rousseaceae. Carpodetus is derived from the Greek words καρπός'fruit' and detus, a reference that the seeds are bound together in clusters in the berry; the species epithet serratus means shaped like a saw, from serra. The Māori name putaputawētā refers to the fact weta shelter in old burrows of puriri caterpillars; the fact that freshly cut wood contains so much sap that it is difficult to burn gave rise to the name bucket-of-water-tree. This tree is locally common in Nothofagus-forest, it frequently occurs in secondary forest, forest margins and along streams. The caterpillars of the puriri moth feed on the cambium thus creating characteristic diamond-shaped feeding scars; the entrance of the burrow is hidden by a web spun by the caterpillar. Trees may be weakened by a high density of caterpillars if the trunks are still thin.
The workers of Prolasius advenus feed on the sap trickling from the wounds in the tree caused by the caterpillars. Marbleleaf adapts well to garden use and is cultivated in New Zealand, it remains a compact, rounded shrub for several years before developing its adult tree-like form. Marbleleaf may be trimmed to keep it bushy. Well grown plants will flower heavily; as far as can be ascertained there are no commercially distributed Carpodetus serratus cultivars