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Fabien Barthez

Fabien Alain Barthez is a French former footballer and racing driver who played as a goalkeeper. At club level, he played football in both France and England with Toulouse, Marseille, AS Monaco, Manchester United, Nantes. At international level, he represented the France national team, with whom he won the 1998 FIFA World Cup, UEFA Euro 2000, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup, representing his nation at a total of three editions of both the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship. Nicknamed Le Divin Chauve, due to his trademark shaved head, Barthez is France's most capped player in the FIFA World Cup, with 17 appearances at the finals and shares the record for the most World Cup finals clean sheets with Peter Shilton, with ten. In club football, he won the UEFA Champions League with Olympique Marseille in 1993 as well as several Ligue 1 and Premier League titles. After retiring from football in 2007, Barthez began a career in motorsport in 2008. Born in Lavelanet, Barthez made his first division debut for Toulouse on 21 September 1991, against Nancy.

He joined Marseille in 1992, won both the French championship and the Champions League at the end of his first season in Marseille, keeping a clean sheet in a 1–0 victory over A. C. Milan in final of the latter competition; the 1993 victory made him the youngest goalkeeper to win a Champions League title until Iker Casillas did so in 2000. Marseille, would be stripped of their domestic title, though not of the Champions League crown, due to their involvement in a domestic match fixing scandal, a year would suffer a forced relegation to the second division due to a related financial bankruptcy, he stayed with the club in Division 2 for the 1994–95 season despite many offers from elite French clubs, helping Marseille to the title and to earn promotion to the first division. In 1995, Barthez joined AS Monaco and won Ligue 1 titles in 1997 and 2000, he played in Jean Tigana's talented Monaco side which famously put his future club Manchester United out of the Champions League in 1998 on away goals after a 1–1 draw at Old Trafford.

As a result of Barthez's success in the World Cup and the Euros, he caught the attention of Manchester United manager Sir Alex Ferguson, searching for a star goalkeeper to replace the departed Peter Schmeichel, as Ferguson did not think that the previous season's goalkeeper, Mark Bosnich, was a long-term replacement. Barthez joined United for £7.8 million in 2000. He was reunited with national teammate Laurent Blanc, who joined United in 2001; the Barthez–Blanc head-kissing ritual was performed at the start of Champions League matches. Well known for being eccentric, Barthez started out well for Manchester United, his first season was a triumph as he answered all the questions about how he would handle rainy Manchester compared to sunny Monaco. Barthez became a crowd favourite; the fans loved his eccentric behaviour, his taunting dribbles and step-overs past opposing strikers, most his remarkable reaction saves. It was critical saves that kept United from defeat or dropping valuable points, helping United to the 2000–01 FA Premier League title, their third in a row.

A memorable incident happened when Manchester United faced Leeds United in March 2001. After dropping a cross from Robbie Keane, Barthez deliberately kicked out with his foot at Ian Harte, who fell to the ground on the edge of six yard box, the referee awarded a penalty to Leeds. Harte stepped up but Barthez made a low, one-handed save to his right; the only blemish in his first season was his failed attempt at "psyching out" West Ham United's Paolo Di Canio in the FA Cup Fourth Round. Di Canio continued and scored the only goal of the game, said it was "better to score and see whether the goalkeeper is right or wrong"; the 2001–02 season was split into two parts for him. The first half was a nightmare; the Frenchman seemed to be taking some unnecessary risks outside his penalty area, his antics began to have consequences that allowed unneeded goals for opposing teams. He was at fault for two goals in a 3–2 home defeat by Deportivo de La Coruña in October 2001. Ferguson said, but another couple of late errors against Arsenal in a 3–1 defeat at Highbury the following month put much pressure on Barthez, with two goals gifted to Thierry Henry, one of which came from a mis-hit clearance.

Barthez was at the centre of further controversy when, after being on a yellow card following an argument with Matthew Upson, he was caught by television cameras raising his middle fingers behind his back towards the Arsenal supporters, taunting him for his errors towards the end of the match. There was much speculation as to what was the source of Barthez's decline, critics such as the BBC's Phil McNulty urged him to be dropped. Sir Alex Ferguson, had faith in his goalkeeper and stuck by him. In the second half of the season, Barthez repaired his reputation with consistent, solid performances and the spectacular saves that he was famous for, his turn in fortunes was shown in a 2–2 draw with Derby County at Pride Park. Derby forward Malcolm Christie looked to have sealed his hat-trick, but referee Steve Dunn controversially disallowed the goal, ruling that Christie kicked the ball out of Barthez's hands. He

Ludza River

The Ludza is a 156 kilometres long river in Ludza, Kārsava municipalities of Latvia and in Krasnogorodsky and Pytalovsky Districts of Pskov Oblast of Russia. It is a right tributary of the Utroya; the source of the Ludza is Lake Lielais Ludzas near the town of Latvia. The river flows east, turns north and a part of it forms the international border between Latvia and Russia. Further north, it turns northeast and departs to the Russian side, forming the border between Krasnogorosdky and Pytalovsky Districts of Pskov Oblast. In Russia, the Ludza is known as the Lzha. Further north, the Lzha turns north and joins the Utroya close to the village of Khudyaki

Fokker 50

The Fokker 50 is a turboprop-powered airliner, designed as a refinement of and successor to the successful Fokker F27 Friendship. The Fokker 60 is a stretched freighter version of the Fokker 50. Both aircraft were supported by Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker; the Fokker 50 was developed during the early 1980s following a decline in the sales of the company's earlier F27 Friendship. It was decided that the new airliner would be a derivative of its predecessor, sharing much of its airframe and design features, while incorporating new advances and several improvements, such as the adoption of Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127B turboprop engines, in order to produce a successor that had a 30 per cent reduction in fuel consumption over the F27; the Fokker 50 performed its maiden flight on 28 December 1985, entered revenue service during 1987. The Fokker 60 has been operated by the Royal Netherlands Air Force, ex-RNLAF aircraft are in service with the Peruvian Naval Aviation and the Republic of China's Air Force.

By the early 1980s, the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker, who had identified that sales of the Fokker F27 Friendship, a turboprop-powered airliner, in continual production since 1958, were beginning to decline. Accordingly, the company decided to conduct a series of design studies for follow-up products to the key elements of their existing product line, these being the centered around the F27 and the Fokker F28 Fellowship jet airliner. In November 1983, Fokker decided to commence simultaneous work on two development projects to develop a pair of new airliners - these being the Fokker 100, to succeed the F28, the Fokker 50, the successor to the F27; the Fokker 50 programme suffered some delays, leading to the first aircraft being delivered more than a year following the final F27 delivery. The Fokker 50 was an amalgamation of various refinements and improvements, made to the design of the F27 Friendship; as a result of these modifications, such as the adoption of Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127B turboprop engines, Fokker was able to progressively reduce the F27's fuel consumption by 30 per cent.

Various different propeller designs were adopted over timespan of the aircraft's production, while an increasing proportion of composite materials were used in the airframe, adjustments to the wing design, a higher degree of cockpit automation were areas of major advances of the Fokker 50 over its predecessor. Fokker partnered with several companies to manufacture portions of the Fokker 50. A pair of prototypes, derived from F27 airframes, were produced. In 1987, certification of the Fokker 50 by the Dutch aviation authority RLD was completed, the first production aircraft was subsequently delivered to German airline DLT Luftverkehrsgesellschaft mbH. DLT and Ansett Airlines of Australia served as the airliner's launch customers. During 1994, Fokker had been incurring sizable losses on its operations, which led to cuts in the output of the Fokker 50 and threatened its long term viability. During early 1995, the firm embarked upon a major restructuring programme, including efforts to renegotiate prices with its suppliers, in what was viewed by aerospace publication Flight International as a last-ditch effort to save the company in its current form.

By July 1995, Fokker was in negotiations with the Dutch government over the terms for a potential bailout of the company as losses continued to mount. Fokker's owner, Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, had agreed to provide a rescue deal for the company, but this was contingent upon Dutch government participation. In March 1996, production of the Fokker 50 was terminated as a consequence of Fokker itself having been forced into a state of bankruptcy; the financial difficulties suffered by the firm had been in part caused by the massive cost overruns, incurred on both the Fokker 50 and Fokker 100, as well as due to intense competition within the regional airliner sector that Fokker had designed and marketed these aircraft towards, which had not been helped by delays to the program in the face of multiple modern competitors in the form of the Saab 340, ATR 42 and Bombardier Dash 8. Despite repeated increases cost-efficiency of production realised within the final 12 months of production, these did not prove enough to save the company.

During 1997, as a result of the company having entered into liquidation, the final Fokker 50 aircraft was delivered that year. By the end of the program, a total of 213 Fokker 50s had been completed; as early as May 1996, proposals for the partial or complete restart of production of the type were mooted, amongst these being interest from Indian aerospace firm Hindustan Aeronautics Limited in establishing a Fokker 50 assembly line in India, however these did not come about. In 1996, Fokker Services was established. By August 2006, a total of 171 Fokker 50 aircraft remained within airline service; some 27 other airlines including Air Astana operated smaller numbers of the type. Between March 2013 and September 2014, a pair of F

Xaverian Brothers

The Xaverian Brothers or Congregation of St. Francis Xavier are a Roman Catholic religious institute founded by Theodore James Ryken in Bruges, Belgium, in 1839 and named after Saint Francis Xavier; the institute is dedicated to education. Theodore James Ryken was born in 1797 in the small village of Elshout, North Brabant, the Netherlands, to ardently Catholic middle class parents. Orphaned at a young age, Ryken was raised by his uncle. Ryken was trained as a shoemaker, he felt a calling by God which drew him to work first as a catechist, followed by helping manage an orphanage, by caring for cholera patients in the Netherlands. At age 34, Ryken went to North America, where he served as a catechist among the missionaries to the Native Americans. During his three-year tour, he conceived the idea of starting a congregation of brothers to work alongside the missionary priests. On returning to Europe, he set about planning to found such a society in Belgium, a country known for its for missionary zeal.

When Ryken returned to the US in 1837, Bishop Rosati of St. Louis, Missouri persuaded him that the children of Catholic immigrants were in more need of instruction than Native Americans; the bishop encouraged him to found a congregation of laymen to teach all classes of youth. Six other bishops sanctioned his plan to bring religious teachers to the United States. Ryken went to Rome to receive the blessing of Pope Gregory XVI for his mission, he at Bishop Boussen's request, served a year's novitiate with the Redemptorist Fathers. He modeled the religious garb of members of his institute after that of the Redemptorists; the spirit of the Xaverian Brothers, on the other hand, can be traced to the influence of Rev. Isidore Van de Kerckhove, the Jesuit confessor and counselor of Ryken. Although many religious institutes were being founded at the time as part of a Catholic revival that succeeded the fall of Napoleon I, Ryken had a different vision, he wanted to found a missionary institute rather than a congregation that would address the needs of a specific region.

On June 15, 1839, Ryken 42 years old, settled in a rented house on Ezelstraat in the centuries-old city of Bruges, Belgium. For five days he waited for the arrival of the two companions who had promised to join him in his undertaking: a weaver and a tailor, his companions proved to be less dedicated and resilient than he and he needed a year to recruit better suited candidates. He and his colleagues soon opened two primary schools in Bruges, some of the Xavieran Brothers were sent to a normal school at Sint-Truiden for professional teacher training. By 1841, the community had grown beyond the space available in the little house on Ezelstraat. A boys' sodality was opened at Het Walletje, followed shortly by a primary school in the same place; the brothers' first grammar school was opened at Bruges in 1844 and in the following year a second school was established. The Xaverian Brothers began to attract candidates from Germany, the Netherlands, England and France. In 1848, a colony of brothers went to England to open schools in parishes in Manchester.

They opened Clapham College and the boarding schools of Mayfield College and its associated preparatory boarding school at Foxhunt Manor, in Sussex. Mayfield College closed in 1999 because of the lack of entrants to the order. For the rest of his superiorship, Ryken would be burdened by the loan he took in order to purchase Het Walletje. In addition, he was not a good administrator, his institute had a crisis at the Mother House in Bruges. Ryken was asked to tender his resignation by Bishop of Bruges. Ryken willingly turned over his office to a younger man, spent the last eleven years of his life as a simple member of the institute he had established. Before his death on November 26, 1871 at age 74, Ryken attended the first general chapter of his institute in Bruges in 1869. By this time the institute had cleared its debt and the number of brothers had increased from 58 in 1860 to 133, they had nine well-established communities working among the poor in Belgium and the United States. In 1853 Louisville Bishop Martin Spalding invited the Xaverian brothers to open a school in his diocese, in 1854 the first colony of brothers moved to the United States.

The Brothers took charge of several parochial schools in 1864 and opened St. Xavier High School, Kentucky. In 1864, Spalding Archbishop of Baltimore, asked the Xaverians to open schools there, they did so. Baltimore was made the center of Xaverian activities in the United States, in 1876 a novitiate was opened there at the site of Mount Saint Joseph College, where it still stands. By 1900, the Xaverian Brothers had opened schools in New York, Massachusetts, West Virginia, Pennsylvania. A small Rosary-making club formed by Xaverian Brother Sylvan Mattingly in Louisville, Kentucky in 1949 grew to be the largest Catholic Rosary making group in the United States. Inspired by the message of Our Lady of Fatima, Mattingly formed "Our Lady of Fatima Rosary Making Club" in the basement of St. Xavier High School. Although Mattingly died in 1951, the organization grew to be Our Lady's Rosary Makers, which has 17,000 active members in the United States and has distributed hundreds of millions of free rosaries worldwide.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Xaveria

My Life's Been a Country Song

My Life's Been a Country Song is the fourth studio album by American country music artist Chris Cagle. It was released in February 2008 on Capitol Records Nashville; the album's lead-off single was "What Kinda Gone", which peaked at No. 3 on the country music charts in April 2008, the second single, "No Love Songs", peaked at No. 53, while the third single, "Never Ever Gone", failed to chart. The album debuted at number eight on the U. S. Billboard 200 chart, it debuted at number one on Billboard's Top Country Albums chart. It is Cagle's final album for Capitol; the song "I Don't Wanna Live" was recorded by Josh Gracin on his 2008 album We Weren't Crazy as "I Don't Want to Live". "Keep Me From Loving You" was recorded by Clay Walker on his 2010 album, She Won't Be Lonely Long. Tom Bukovac – electric guitar Chris Cagle - lead vocals John Carroll – electric guitar Perry Coleman – background vocals Eric Darkenpercussion Kenny Greenberg – electric guitar Mike Johnsonlap steel guitar, pedal steel guitar Troy Lancaster – electric guitar B.

James Lowry – acoustic guitar Greg Morrowdrums, percussion Gordon Motepiano, Hammond B-3 organ Jimmie Lee Sloasbass guitar Harry Stinson – background vocals Russell Terrell – background vocals Neil Thrasher – background vocals Jonathan Yudkinfiddle, banjo

Mundhir ibn Sa'īd al-Ballūṭī

Abu al-Hakam Mundhir ibn Sa'īd ibn Abd Allah ibn Abd ar-Rahman al-Ballūṭī was a Muslim legal expert and judiciary official in Al-Andalus. In addition to his legal career, he was considered a prominent theologian, linguist and intellectual. Balluti's exact date of birth is disputed, with historians listing the year as both 886 and 887, he was born and raised in Los Pedroches in the mountainous region of Cordoba Province, northwest of Córdoba, Andalusia. Balluti's family, was from North Africa of Berber origins, he came from a religiously active family, his sister was notable as a Muslim woman who founded her own monastery known as a Ribat where she and other women could devote their lives to piety and religious scholarship. Balluti studied Islamic studies in the capital of Andalus traveling east both for the sake of his education and to perform the Muslim pilgrimage at Mecca, which he completed in 921, he studied in various regions under a number of different teachers before traveling to Cairo in order to study Arabic grammar and literature.

Gaining some renown as a linguist in his own right, he was known as a poet. Balluti died in his hometown of Cordoba in 15 November 966, he was 82 years old. Balluti served as the chief judge of Mérida, he served as the judge of the Umayyad Caliph of Cordoba Abd-ar-Rahman III from 949 until his death under the reign of Al-Hakam II. During the zenith of Byzantine-Andalusian relations, Emperor Constantine VII joined a succession of Christian rulers meeting with Muslim officials. During one of these meetings, Balluti delivered an oration upon the reception of a group of Byzantine envoys at Abd-arRahman III's palace, expressing his positive views of the caliph and the obligation of the people of Spain to obey their ruler. Balluti's speech is still preserved as an accurate description of the caliph's court and palace at the time. Although he did not adhere to the Maliki school of law favored by the Umayyad dynasty, Balluti was still the chief judge of Cordoba during his twilight years. In addition to his position on the judge's bench, Al-Hakam II appointed him as a professor.

Balluti's appointment despite his personal convictions was considered by Islamic scholar William Montgomery Watt to indicate that while the Umayyad remnants favored the Malikite school, they were not willing to grant it absolute monopoly. Although Balluti was willing to keep his juristic views to himself, he was not as soft-spoken regarding his views on morality; when Abd-ar-Rahman III attempted to cover the ceiling of his palace Medina Azahara in gold and silver, the extravagance was too excessive for Balluti to accept, prompting him to encourage the caliph to stop. Balluti was considered by Ibn Khaldun to be one of the six individuals from the Berber people who became well known throughout history for a strong knowledge of Islamic studies. Balluti was accused of holding to the doctrine of the Mu'tazilites, a sect within Islam which had become extinct at the time. Historian Maribel Fierro has argued that this is not possible due to Balluti's polemics regarding Christian-Muslim dialogue; when reviewing the conversion document of a former Christian, Balluti rejected the individual's Muslim testimony of faith due to the wording: "Muhammad is God's messenger, Jesus is God's messenger and His word."

The wording as an incomplete quote of a verse from the Qur'an. Balluti argued that if Jesus is God's word, but a mortal, created being God's word - meaning the Qur'an - would be created, rather than eternal. Thus, if the individual wanted to use the aforementioned verse in their testimony of faith, they would need to quote the verse in its entirety for the sake of context before Balluti would be willing to approve the conversion documents; the belief that the Qur'an was created rather than eternal was championed by the Mu'tazilites and opposed by textualists such as Ahmad bin Hanbal, thus negating the claim that Balluti could have been the former rather than the latter. Documents of Christian conversions to Islam in Spain were written in the same formula proposed by Balluti, indicating that his argument had gained official acceptance. Qadi Ulema