A patent is a form of intellectual property. A patent gives its owner the right to exclude others from making, using and importing an invention for a limited period of time twenty years; the patent rights are granted in exchange for an enabling public disclosure of the invention. In most countries patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder needs to sue someone infringing the patent in order to enforce his or her rights. In some industries patents are an essential form of competitive advantage; the procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, the extent of the exclusive rights vary between countries according to national laws and international agreements. However, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims; these claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty and non-obviousness. Under the World Trade Organization's TRIPS Agreement, patents should be available in WTO member states for any invention, in all fields of technology, provided they are new, involve an inventive step, are capable of industrial application.
There are variations on what is patentable subject matter from country to country among WTO member states. TRIPS provides that the term of protection available should be a minimum of twenty years; the word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means "to lay open". It is a shortened version of the term letters patent, an open document or instrument issued by a monarch or government granting exclusive rights to a person, predating the modern patent system. Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright. In modern usage, the term patent refers to the right granted to anyone who invents something new and non-obvious; some other types of intellectual property rights are called patents in some jurisdictions: industrial design rights are called design patents in the US, plant breeders' rights are sometimes called plant patents, utility models and Gebrauchsmuster are sometimes called petty patents or innovation patents.
The additional qualification utility patent is sometimes used to distinguish the primary meaning from these other types of patents. Particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents and software patents. Although there is some evidence that some form of patent rights was recognized in Ancient Greece in the Greek city of Sybaris, the first statutory patent system is regarded to be the Venetian Patent Statute of 1474. Patents were systematically granted in Venice as of 1474, where they issued a decree by which new and inventive devices had to be communicated to the Republic in order to obtain legal protection against potential infringers; the period of protection was 10 years.. As Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes; this led to the diffusion of patent systems to other countries. The English patent system evolved from its early medieval origins into the first modern patent system that recognised intellectual property in order to stimulate invention.
By the 16th century, the English Crown would habitually abuse the granting of letters patent for monopolies. After public outcry, King James I of England was forced to revoke all existing monopolies and declare that they were only to be used for "projects of new invention"; this was incorporated into the Statute of Monopolies in which Parliament restricted the Crown's power explicitly so that the King could only issue letters patent to the inventors or introducers of original inventions for a fixed number of years. The Statute became the foundation for developments in patent law in England and elsewhere. Important developments in patent law emerged during the 18th century through a slow process of judicial interpretation of the law. During the reign of Queen Anne, patent applications were required to supply a complete specification of the principles of operation of the invention for public access. Legal battles around the 1796 patent taken out by James Watt for his steam engine, established the principles that patents could be issued for improvements of an existing machine and that ideas or principles without specific practical application could legally be patented.
Influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, the granting of patents began to be viewed as a form of intellectual property right, rather than the obtaining of economic privilege. The English legal system became the foundation for patent law in countries with a common law heritage, including the United States, New Zealand and Australia. In the Thirteen Colonies, inventors could obtain patents through petition to a given colony's legislature. In 1641, Samuel Winslow was granted the first patent in North America by the Massachusetts General Court for a new process for making salt; the modern French patent system was created during the Revolution in 1791. Patents were granted without examination. Patent costs were high. Importation patents protected new devices coming from foreign countries; the patent law was revised in 1844 - patent cost was lowered and importation patents were abolished. The first Patent Act of the U. S. Congress was passed on April 10, 1790, titled "An Act to promote the progress of
A hammer mill is a mill whose purpose is to shred or crush aggregate material into smaller pieces by the repeated blows of little hammers. These machines have many sorts of applications in many industries, including: Ethanol plants A farm machine, which mills grain into coarse flour to be fed to livestock Fluff pulp defiberizing Fruit juice production Grinding used shipping pallets for mulch Milling grain Sawmills, size reduction of trim scrap and planer shavings into boiler fuel or mulch Shredding paper Shredding scrap automobiles Shredding yard and garden waste for composting Crushing large rocks In waste management The basic principle is straightforward. A hammer mill is a steel drum containing a vertical or horizontal rotating shaft or drum on which hammers are mounted; the hammers fixed to the central rotor. The rotor is spun at a high speed inside the drum; the material is impacted by the hammer bars and is thereby shredded and expelled through screens in the drum of a selected size. The hammermill can be used as a secondary, or tertiary crusher.
Small grain hammermills can be operated on household current. Large hammer mills used in automobile shredders may be driven by diesel or electric motors ranging from 2000 to over 5000 horsepower; the screenless hammer mill uses air flow to separate small particles from larger ones. It is designed to be more reliable, is claimed to be much cheaper and more energy efficient than regular hammermills; the design & structure of the hammermill is always determined by the end use. Invention, involved conversion of rotary water wheel energy to linear trip hammer energy, around Zhao dynasty period of 4th century in China. Types of Hammer Mill Crushers can include "up running" and "down running" hammer mills - "Up Running" - Uses perforated screens or grate bars to reduce soft or hard materials; the material to be reduced determines the rotor construction. "Down Running" - Most suitable for fibrous materials due to the high concentration of shearing action within the unit. Blade grinder Trip hammer, which may be housed in a mill known as a forge, but, occasionally described as a "hammermill"
A plough or plow is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil. Ploughs were traditionally drawn by working animals such as oxen and horses, but in modern times are drawn by tractors. A plough may be made of wood, iron, or steel frame with an attached blade or stick used to cut the soil and loosen it, it has been a basic instrument for most of recorded history, although despite archeological evidence for its use written references to the plough do not appear in the English language before c. 1100, after which point it is referenced frequently. The plough represents one of the major agricultural inventions in human history; the earliest ploughs were wheelless, the Romans used a wheelless plough called the aratrum, but Celtic peoples began using wheeled ploughs during the Roman era. The primary purpose of ploughing is to turn over the upper layer of the soil, bringing fresh nutrients to the surface, while burying weeds and the remains of previous crops and allowing them to break down.
As the plough is drawn through the soil it creates. In modern use, a ploughed field is left to dry out, is harrowed before planting. Ploughing and cultivating a soil homogenises and modifies the upper 12 to 25 centimetres of the soil to form a plough layer. In many soils, the majority of fine plant feeder roots can be found in the plough layer. Ploughs were human-powered, but the process became more efficient once animals were pressed into service; the first animal-powered ploughs were undoubtedly pulled by oxen, in many areas by horses and mules, although various other animals have been used for this purpose. In industrialised countries, the first mechanical means of pulling a plough were steam-powered, but these were superseded by internal-combustion-powered tractors. Modern competitions take place for ploughing enthusiasts like the National Ploughing Championships in Ireland. Use of the plough has decreased in some areas those threatened by soil damage and erosion, in favour of shallower ploughing and other less-invasive conservation tillage techniques.
In older English, as in other Germanic languages, the plough was traditionally known by other names, e.g. Old English sulh, Old High German medela, huohilī, Old Norse arðr, Gothic hōha, all referring to the ard; the term plough, as used today, was not common until 1700. The modern word plough comes from Old Norse plógr, therefore Germanic, but it appears late, is thought to be a loanword from one of the north Italic languages. Words with the same root appeared with related meanings: in Raetic plaumorati "wheeled heavy plough", in Latin plaustrum "farm cart", plōstrum, plōstellum "cart", plōxenum, plōximum "cart box"; the word must have referred to the wheeled heavy plough, common in Roman northwestern Europe by the a.d. 5th century. Orel tentatively attaches plough to a PIE stem *blōkó-, which gave Armenian peɫem "to dig" and Welsh bwlch "crack", though the word may not be of Indo-European origin; the diagram shows the basic parts of the modern plough: beam hitch vertical regulator coulter chisel share mouldboardOther parts not shown or labelled include the frog, landside, shin and stilts.
On modern ploughs and some older ploughs, the mouldboard is separate from the share and runner, so these parts can be replaced without replacing the mouldboard. Abrasion destroys all parts of a plough that come into contact with the soil; when agriculture was first developed, soil was turned using simple hand-held digging sticks and hoes. These were used in fertile areas, such as the banks of the Nile where the annual flood rejuvenates the soil, to create drills to plant seeds in. Digging sticks and mattocks were not invented in any one place, hoe-cultivation must have been common everywhere agriculture was practiced. Hoe-farming is the traditional tillage method in tropical or sub-tropical regions, which are characterised by stony soils, steep slope gradients, predominant root crops, coarse grains grown at wide distances apart. While hoe-agriculture is best suited to these regions, it is used in some fashion everywhere. Instead of hoeing, some cultures use pigs to grub the earth; some ancient hoes, like the Egyptian mr, were pointed and strong enough to clear rocky soil and make seed drills, why they are called hand-ards.
However, the domestication of oxen in Mesopotamia and the Indus valley civilization as early as the 6th millennium BC, provided mankind with the draft power necessary to develop the larger, animal-drawn true ard. The earliest evidence of a ploughed field in the world was found at the Indus Valley Civilization site of Kalibangan. Archeological finds in Prague, Czech Republic, push oldest known ploughed field further, to 3500 - 3800 B. C. Institute of Archeology of CAS report A terracotta model of the early ards was found at Banawali, giving historians insight into the form of the tool; the ard remains easy to replace if it were to become easy to find materials to recreate. The earliest was the bow ard, which consists of a draft-pole pierced by a thinner vertical pointed stick called the head, with one end being the stilt and the other a share (cutting bl
A tractor is an engineering vehicle designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction. Most the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanize agricultural tasks tillage, but nowadays a great variety of tasks. Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor, the tractor may provide a source of power if the implement is mechanised; the word tractor was taken from Latin, being the agent noun of trahere "to pull". The first recorded use of the word meaning "an engine or vehicle for pulling wagons or ploughs" occurred in 1896, from the earlier term "traction engine". There are many types of tractors, but the main types are rubber wheeled tractors. In the UK, the Republic of Ireland, India, Argentina, Serbia, the Netherlands, Germany, the word "tractor" means "farm tractor", the use of the word "tractor" to mean other types of vehicles is familiar to the vehicle trade, but unfamiliar to much of the general public.
In Canada and the US, the word may refer to the road tractor portion of a tractor trailer truck, but usually refers to the piece of farm equipment. The first powered farm implements in the early 19th century were portable engines – steam engines on wheels that could be used to drive mechanical farm machinery by way of a flexible belt. Richard Trevithick designed the first'semi-portable' stationary steam engine for agricultural use, known as a "barn engine" in 1812, it was used to drive a corn threshing machine; the portable engine was invented in 1839 by William Tuxford of Boston, Lincolnshire who started manufacture of an engine built around a locomotive-style boiler with horizontal smoke tubes. A large flywheel was mounted on the crankshaft, a stout leather belt was used to transfer the drive to the equipment being driven. In the 1850s, John Fowler used a Clayton & Shuttleworth portable engine to drive apparatus in the first public demonstrations of the application of cable haulage to cultivation.
In parallel with the early portable engine development, many engineers attempted to make them self-propelled – the fore-runners of the traction engine. In most cases this was achieved by fitting a sprocket on the end of the crankshaft, running a chain from this to a larger sprocket on the rear axle; these experiments met with mixed success. The first proper traction engine, in the form recognisable today, was developed in 1859 when British engineer Thomas Aveling modified a Clayton & Shuttleworth portable engine, which had to be hauled from job to job by horses, into a self-propelled one; the alteration was made by fitting a long driving chain between the rear axle. The first half of the 1860s was a period of great experimentation but by the end of the decade the standard form of the traction engine had evolved and would change little over the next sixty years, it was adopted for agricultural use. The first tractors were steam-powered plowing engines, they were used in pairs, placed on either side of a field to haul a plow back and forth between them using a wire cable.
In Britain Mann's and Garrett developed steam tractors for direct ploughing, but the heavy, wet soil of England meant that these designs were less economical than a team of horses. In the United States, where soil conditions permitted, steam tractors were used to direct-haul plows. Steam-powered agricultural engines remained in use well into the 20th century until reliable internal combustion engines had been developed. In 1892, John Froelich invented and built the first gasoline/petrol-powered tractor in Clayton County, Iowa, US. A Van Duzen single-cylinder gasoline engine was mounted on a Robinson engine chassis, which could be controlled and propelled by Froelich's gear box. After receiving a patent, Froelich started up the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company and invested all of his assets. However, the venture was unsuccessful, by 1895 all was lost and he went out of business. Richard Hornsby & Sons are credited with producing and selling the first oil-engined tractor in Britain invented by Herbert Akroyd Stuart.
The Hornsby-Akroyd Patent Safety Oil Traction Engine was made in 1896 with a 20 hp engine. In 1897, it was bought by Mr. Locke-King, this is the first recorded sale of a tractor in Britain. In that year, the tractor won a Silver Medal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England; that tractor would be returned to the factory and fitted with a caterpillar track. The first commercially successful light-weight petrol-powered general purpose tractor was built by Dan Albone, a British inventor in 1901, he filed for a patent on 15 February 1902 for his tractor design and formed Ivel Agricultural Motors Limited. The other directors were Charles Jarrott, John Hewitt and Lord Willoughby, he called his machine the Ivel Agricultural Motor. The Ivel Agricultural Motor was light and compact, it had one front wheel, with solid rubber tyre, two large rear wheels like a modern tractor. The engine used water cooling, by evaporation, it had one reverse gear. A pulley wheel on the left hand side allowed it to be used as a stationary engine, driving a wide range of agricultural machinery.
The 1903 sale price was £300. His tractor won a medal at the Royal Agricultural Show, in 1903 and 1904. About 500 were built, many were exported all over the world; the original engine was made by Co. of Coventry. After 1906, French Aster engines were used; the first successful American tractor was built by Charles H. Parr, they d
A hand truck known as a two wheeler, stack truck, box cart, sack barrow, dolly, sack truck, or bag barrow, is an L-shaped box-moving handcart with handles at one end, wheels at the base, with a small ledge to set objects on, flat against the floor when the hand-truck is upright. The objects to be moved are tilted forward, the ledge is inserted underneath them, the objects allowed to tilt back and rest on the ledge; the truck and object are tilted backward until the weight is balanced over the large wheels, making otherwise bulky and heavy objects easier to move. It is a first-class lever. Sack trucks were used in the 18th century to move large sacks of spices on docks by young boys, from the age of 11, who were unable to lift the large sacks by hand. By using this method they were able to work as well as grown men in moving items around; such trucks were amended for use in many different industries, such as brewing, where hops were moved in sacks. Some hand trucks are equipped with stairclimber wheels, which, as the name implies, are designed to go up and down stairs.
Stairclimber wheels can sometimes be problematic when trying to turn on flat ground as four wheels in a fixed position will be in contact with the ground. Hand trucks are fabricated from many different types of materials, including steel tube, aluminum tube, aluminum extrusion and high impact plastics. Most commercial hand trucks used for beverage and food service deliveries are rugged and light, they are constructed from two extruded aluminum channel side rails and cast aluminum or magnesium parts. Some of the options that may be considered are the types of wheels, stair climber, handle type and size of wheels. Other things to be considered should be the load shape compared with the backrest shape, e.g. cylindrical loads should sit on curved backrests, the environmental conditions in which the hand truck will operate. For example, on loose or uneven ground oversize wheels are a great advantage. A rule of thumb is that the toe or nose of the truck should be at least one-third of the length of the load.
Hand trucks are sometimes used as baggage carts by porters in train stations and skycaps at airports. A piano tilter is a type of hand truck for moving an upright piano without damaging it. Unlike a traditional dolly which pivots around a smaller wheel or point, the piano tilter has large curved sections to tilt an upright piano until it is lying flat on its back. Flatbed trolley
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
St. Johnsbury, Vermont
St. Johnsbury is the shire town of Caledonia County, United States; the population was 7,603 at the 2010 census. St. Johnsbury is located 10 miles northwest of the Connecticut River and 48 miles south of the Canada-U. S. border. St. Johnsbury is the largest town by population in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont and has long served as a commercial center for the region. In 2006, the town was named "Best Small Town" in National Geographic Adventure's "Where to live and play" feature; the more densely settled southern half of the town is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as a census-designated place, where over 81% of the population resides; the town was granted in 1760 as part of the New Hampshire Grants and named Bessborough. It was regranted by Vermont in 1786 as Dunmore, settled the same year. An early settler was Jonathan Arnold, a member of the Continental Congress and author of Rhode Island's act of secession from the United Kingdom in May 1776. Arnold left Rhode Island in 1787 and, with six other families, built homes at what is now the town center.
By 1790, the village had grown to 143 inhabitants, the first town meeting took place in Arnold's home that year, where the name St. Johnsbury was adopted. According to local lore, Vermont founder Ethan Allen himself proposed naming the town St. John in honor of his friend Jean de Crèvecœur, a French-born author and agriculturist and a friend of Benjamin Franklin. According to this account, de Crèvecœur suggested instead the unusual St. Johnsbury to differentiate it from Saint John, New Brunswick. In 1916, F. B. Sanborn of Concord, Massachusetts gave a talk to the Old Planters Society of Salem in Boston titled "Hector St. John, An Old Evasive Planter." This talk was published in The Massachusetts Magazine. In his talk, Sanborn provided details about the life of the friend of Ethan Allen, namely J. Hector St. John de Crèvecœur. In the mid-19th century, St. Johnsbury became a minor manufacturing center, with the main products being scales — the platform scale was invented there by Thaddeus Fairbanks in 1830 — and maple syrup and related products.
With the arrival of the railroad line from Boston to Montreal in the 1850s, St. Johnsbury grew and was named the shire town in 1856, replacing Danville; the oldest occupied residence in St. Johnsbury was built in 1798 and located on the corner of Summer and Central streets, attached to the J. J. Palmer house; the former St. Johnsbury Fairground was located where Interstates 91 and 93 converge, south of the town; the Third Vermont Regiment drilled there prior to joining the Union Army during the Civil War. The first air flight in Vermont occurred at the fair on April 19, 1910. In the 1940s the town contained three major industries, each the largest in the world. One was Fairbanks Scales, another was a maple sugar candy company, while a third made candlepins for bowling; the rest of the economy was rural. St. Johnsbury is located at elevation 212.4 m. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 36.8 square miles, of which 36.4 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 0.96%, is water.
Situated at the confluence of the Passumpsic and Sleepers rivers, the town lies at the heart of the Passumpsic River basin, one of the largest of the upper Connecticut River watershed. St. Johnsbury is on the site of the northernmost boundary of Lake Hitchcock, the post-glacial predecessor to the Connecticut River; the town includes the unincorporated villages of St. Johnsbury, East St. Johnsbury, Goss Hollow, St. Johnsbury Center; the town center, defined as a census-designated place, encompasses the villages of St. Johnsbury and St. Johnsbury Center and covers an area of 13.1 square miles, about 36% of the area of the town. The highest point in St. Johnsbury is an unnamed hill in the northwest part of town east of Libby Road; the twin summits of the hill each rise above 1,594 feet above sea level. On February 25, 1969, St. Johnsbury received 33 inches of snow, the greatest daily snowfall for any location in Vermont; as of the census of 2010, there were 7,604 people, 3,236 households, 1,917 families residing in the town.
The population density was 209 people per square mile. There were 3,482 housing units at an average density of 94.49/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 94.5% White, 0.8% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. 1.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,197 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.5% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.85. In the town, the population was spread out with 12.8% under the age of 18, 19.1% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $20,269, the median income for a family was $41,961. Males had a median income of $30,846 versus $22,131 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,807. 14.7% of the population and 12.0% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in pover