Fairfax High School (Los Angeles)
Fairfax High School is a Los Angeles Unified School District high school located in Los Angeles, near the border of West Hollywood in the Fairfax District. The school is located on a 24.2-acre campus at the intersection of Fairfax Avenue and trendy Melrose Avenue. Several sections of Los Angeles, including the Fairfax District, Park La Brea, portions of Hancock Park, Larchmont, the city of West Hollywood are served by Fairfax; some areas are jointly zoned to Hollywood High School. In fall 2007, some neighborhoods zoned to Hamilton High School were rezoned to Fairfax High School. Bancroft Middle School, Emerson Middle School, Le Conte Middle School, John Burroughs Middle School feed into Fairfax. In 2009 some territory from the Los Angeles High School attendance boundary was transferred to Fairfax High School. Fairfax High School was founded in 1924 under the direction of Principal Rae G. Van Cleve, for whom the athletic field is named; the original Spanish Colonial Revival main building did not meet earthquake safety standards, most of the original campus facilities were demolished in 1966.
However, the historic D. S. Swan Auditorium and iconic Rotunda were spared by preservationists and retrofitted; the theater was renovated in 2014. Greenway Court built in 1939 as a social hall by the students at Fairfax as a class project, was spared and was moved to its current location on Fairfax Avenue, where it was converted into a theater in 1999 by the Greenway Arts Alliance and renamed the Greenway Court Theater. Fairfax High School has been known since the 1930s as a breeding ground for future major figures in the entertainment industry. In previous eras, the school had a reputation for academic excellence and it had a majority Jewish student body. Former NFL official Jim Tunney served as the school's principal from 1964 to 1970. Under his watch, most of the current campus facilities, except for those mentioned above, were built between 1966 and 1968, including the gymnasium; when the 1971 San Fernando earthquake struck with a moment magnitude of 6.5–6.7, nearby Los Angeles High School was damaged and closed for repairs.
Students from Los Angeles High attended Fairfax High on "double sessions," with Fairfax students using the campus from 7 am – 12 noon, LA High students from 12:30 pm – 5 pm. Fairfax was the foreign language magnet school in the 1960s and 1970s, offering Hebrew, German and Latin, among other languages; the Fairfax Magnet Center for Visual Arts opened in 1981 and remains the only visual arts magnet in the Los Angeles Unified School District. In 1984, Dr. Virginia Uribe, an LAUSD teacher and counselor for 42 years, founded LAUSD’s Project 10 program, the first dropout prevention program for lesbian, gay and transgender students in the United States. By the 1980s, the proliferation of magnet schools caused an exodus of many White students and several of the school's best teachers. By that time the test scores declined and many school clubs and activities ceased operations. Organized by a group of local theater artists, the first Melrose Trading Post was held in 1996 in the school's parking lot. Regarded as most successful on-going fund-raising activity in the LAUSD, the flea market evolved into the Greenway Arts Alliance, the Friends of Fairfax and the Institute for the Arts at Fairfax High School, all which are of immense benefit to the school and students.
In Fall 2008, Fairfax High School was reconfigured from a comprehensive high school into a complex of five new small learning communities and the existing Fairfax Magnet Center for Visual Arts. As of the 2015–2016 school year, there were 2,108 students enrolled in Fairfax High School; the racial/ethnic composition was as follows: According to US News and World Report, 92% of Fairfax's student body is "of color," with 79% of the student body coming from economically disadvantaged households, determined by student eligibility for California's Reduced-price meal program. In the 1950s, Fairfax High School was known for having a large Jewish student body, as a Jewish community surrounded the school, it became known as a "Jewish" high school, some non-Jewish parents withdrew their children from Fairfax as they felt discomfort with the Jewish character of the school. In 1953, Fairfax High introduced Modern Hebrew classes taught by the principal of the Beverly-Fairfax Jewish Community Center, Ronnie Tofield.
The racial composition became more multi-cultural following the integration efforts of 1968. As Fairfax principal William Layne told the Los Angeles Times in 1975, “Fairfax began changing in 1968; the boundaries were adjusted to include an area past Pico. It caused a trauma to what had been an academic school. There was strong reaction from the community as well; the senior citizens got upset. There was unrest at school, an increase in thefts, people being molested."Eventually, racial tensions subsided as the school worked toward an active integration plan led by Layne. The table below represents the number of enrolled students at Fairfax High School through 2003–2007. Source: Fairfax High School re-opened in Fall 2008 reconfigured into a complex consisting of the existing Fairfax Magnet Center for Visual Arts and five new small learning communities; the campus was divided into six areas of "contiguous space." Non-magnet students and staff were reorganized into five new schools-within-a-school. Subsequently, in 2010, two of the SLCs were replaced by a single SLC, bringing the total down to four SLCs and the Magnet.
These SLCs are: Fairfax is home to the Fai
Chabad known as Lubavitch and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish Hasidic movement. Chabad is one of the world's well-known Hasidic movements for its outreach activities, it is Jewish religious organizations in the world. Founded in 1775 by Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, the name "Chabad" is a Hebrew acronym for Chochmah, Binah, Da'at: "Wisdom and Knowledge", which represent the intellectual underpinnings of the movement; the name Lubavitch derives from the town in which the now-dominant line of leaders resided from 1813 to 1915. Other, non-Lubavitch scions of Chabad either merged into the Lubavitch line. In the 1930s, the sixth Rebbe of Chabad, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, moved the center of the Chabad movement from Russia to Poland. After the outbreak of World War II, he moved the center of the movement to the United States. In 1951, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson became the seventh Chabad Rebbe, he transformed the movement into one of the most widespread Jewish movements in the world today.
Under his leadership, Chabad established a large network of institutions that provide religious and humanitarian needs across the world. Chabad institutions provide outreach to unaffiliated Jews and humanitarian aid, as well as religious and educational activities. Unlike most ultra-Orthodox groups, which are self-segregating, Chabad operates in the wider world and caters to secularized Jews. Schneerson was believed by many of his followers to be the Messiah, his own position on the matter is debated among scholars; the Messianic issue caused an uproar in the Jewish Orthodox world, engendering much controversy and recrimination against Chabad. Schneerson's 1994 death shocked many followers; the movement did not appoint a new leader, is split between "moderates", who prefer not to discuss the Messianic question, "Messianics" who claim that he did not die and will reappear. The movement numbered some 17,000 households as of 2015, according to its own phonebooks, though the number of non- and-semi affiliates who attend its services is far larger: in 2005 the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs reported that up to one million Jews attend Chabad services at least once a year.
The Chabad movement was established in the town of Liozna, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1775, by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, a student of Rabbi Dovber ben Avraham, the "Maggid of Mezritch", the successor to Hasidism's founder, Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov. The movement was moved to Lyubavichi by the second Rebbe of Chabad, Rabbi Dovber Shneuri, in 1813; the movement was centered in Lyubavichi for a century until the fifth Rebbe, Rabbi Shalom Dovber left the village in 1915 and moved to the city of Rostov-on-Don. During the interwar period, following Bolshevik persecution, the Chabad-Lubavitch movement, under the Sixth Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak, was centered in Riga and in Warsaw; the outbreak of World War II led to the Sixth Rebbe to move to the United States. Since 1940, the movement's center has been in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn. While the movement spawned a number of offshoot groups throughout its history, the "Chabad-Lubavitch" branch is the only one still active, making it the movement's main surviving line.
Sarna has characterized Chabad as having enjoyed the fastest rate of growth of any Jewish religious movement in the period 1946-2015. In the early 1900s, Chabad-Lubavitch incorporated itself under Agudas Chasidei Chabad; the Chabad movement has been led by a succession of Hasidic rebbes. The main line of the movement, Chabad-Lubavitch, has had seven rebbes in total: Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, founded the Chabad movement in the town of Liozna, he moved the movement's center to the town of Liadi. Rabbi Shneur Zalman was the youngest disciple of Rabbi Dovber of Mezritch, the principal disciple and successor of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism; the Chabad movement began as a separate school of thought within the Hasidic movement, focusing of the spread of Hasidic mystical teachings using logical reasoning. Shneur Zalman's main work is the Tanya; the Tanya is the central book of Chabad thought and is studied daily by followers of the Chabad movement. Shneur Zalman's other works include a collection of writings on Hasidic thought, the Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a revised version of the code of Jewish law, both of which are studied by followers of Chabad.
Shneur Zalman's successors went by last names such as "Schneuri" and "Schneersohn", signifying their descent from the movement's founder. He is referred to as the Alter Rebbe or Admur Hazoken. Rabbi Dovber Schneuri, son of Rabbi Shneur Zalman, led the Chabad movement in the town of Lyubavichi, his leadership was disputed by Rabbi Aaron Halevi of Stroselye, Rabbi Dovber was recognized as his father's rightful successor, the movement's leader. Rabbi Dovber published a number of his writings on Hasidic thought expanding his father's work, he published some of his father's writings. Many of Rabbi Dovber's works have been subsequently republished by the Chabad movement, he is referred to as the Mitteler Rebbe, or Admur Ha'emtzoei. Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn, a grandson of Rabbi Shneur Zalman and son-in-law of Rabbi Dovber. Following his attempt to persuade the Chabad movement to accept his brother-in-law or un
3rd Street, Los Angeles
3rd Street in Los Angeles is a major east–west thoroughfare. The west end is in downtown Beverly Hills by Santa Monica Boulevard, the east is at Alameda Street in downtown Los Angeles, where it shares a one-way couplet with 4th Street. East of Alameda it becomes 4th Street, where it heads to East Los Angeles, where it turns back into 3rd Street upon crossing Indiana Street. 3rd Street becomes Pomona Boulevard in Monterey Park, where it turns into Potrero Grande Drive and turns into Rush Street in Rosemead and ends in El Monte.3rd Street passes along the south side of The Grove and "The Original" Farmers Market at Fairfax Avenue, near the headquarters of The Writers Guild of America, West. There are many other restaurants and antique stores on this specific strip of 3rd Street, less upscale and more relaxed than nearby Robertson Boulevard and Melrose Avenue.3rd Street is parallel to two other major thoroughfares, Wilshire Boulevard to the south and Beverly Boulevard to the north. It is four lanes wide east of Doheny Drive, it passes through the same communities as Wilshire Boulevard.
From east to west: Bradbury Building Million Dollar Theater St. Vincent Medical Center Marlborough School Yeshiva Aharon Yaakov-Ohr Eliyahu Park La Brea Farmers Market and The Grove Writers Guild of America, West Joan's on Third Beverly Center Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Little Bangladesh Los Angeles Board of Education Headquarters Evelyn Thurman Gratts Elementary School, 3rd Street and Lucas Avenue Miguel Contreras Learning Complex, 3rd Street and Lucas Avenue Metro Local bus lines 16, 17 and 316 serve west 3rd Street. Montebello Transit line 40 serves east 3rd Street; the Metro Gold Line runs on 3rd Street between Atlantic Boulevard. Collapse of 3rd Street Tunnel construction in 1900 West Third Street Business Association
The Grove at Farmers Market
The Grove is a retail and entertainment complex in Los Angeles, located on parts of the historical Farmers Market. The complex fills space occupied by an orchard and nursery, which were the last remains of a dairy farm owned by A. F. Gilmore in the latter part of the 19th century; the developers began demolition of an antiques alley and other older buildings on Third Street behind CBS Television City, broke ground for the new mall in 1999. There was some controversy over increasing traffic in a busy Los Angeles neighborhood that offered several other shopping venues, including the Beverly Center; the Grove opened in 2002. The Warner Bros. tabloid television news program Extra was taped in the complex from 2010-2013 on the mall's lawn area. Since November 2015, it has served as a venue for the finales of Dancing with the Stars; the history behind the development of the A. F. Gilmore property that became The Grove was not without controversy. In 1984, A. F. Gilmore and neighboring CBS Television City hired Olympia & York California Equities Corp. to look into the possibility of creating a major business and entertainment complex that would have been twice as large as Universal City but would have required the demolition of all existing structures at both Farmers Market and CBS in the process.
That plan was not well received by the City of Los Angeles or by its neighbors and the plan was shelved. Two years A. F. Gilmore and CBS hired Urban Investment & Development Co. of Chicago to create another development plan. In 1989, A. F. Gilmore announced that it was going to build a US$300 million mall adjacent to the existing Farmers Market and that the new project would be managed by JMB/Urban Development of Chicago; the proposed mall was going to be anchored by May Company California, J. W. Robinson's along with over 100 other stores; the project was scaled down to 2 anchors. During the next decade, A. F. Gilmore announced in 1998 a further scaled down plan with Caruso Affiliated as the new development partner for a new proposal that became The Grove at Farmers Market, a $100-million project on 25 acres. Nordstrom signed on in 2001 to build a 122,000 sq ft store. By early 2001, toy retailer FAO Schwarz sign on for 25,000 sq ft. along with Banana Republic, Barnes & Noble, J. Crew, Maggiano's Italian restaurant and a 14-screen movie complex to be the initial stores in the new project.
After many delays, the retail center opened in March 2002. FAO Schwarz was one of the first retail casualties at the Grove when FAO Schwarz's parent company had to declare bankruptcy the following year; the Grove was able to replace the store with American Girl Place, which opened in April 2006. Abercrombie & Fitch closed their flagship store in 2013, it was replaced with a Nike flagship store, which opened in 2015. In 2013, Banana Republic moved into a new space at the mall, the old space was replaced with the first Topshop/Topman store in Los Angeles. In the original plan, the 14-screen movie complex was going to be built by Pacific Theatres to be its first Arc Light multiplex. At the last minute, Pacific Theatres pulled out of the project and opted to build the multiplex in Hollywood, ArcLight Hollywood, instead. Caruso decided to fund the construction of the multiplex out of the company's own pockets. After 10 months of successful operations, Caruso decided to sell the multiplex outright. Pacific gave the highest bid at US$30 million.
The 575,000-square-foot outdoor marketplace is located in Los Angeles' Fairfax District. Initial architectural design was performed in-house by David Williams of Caruso Affiliated Holdings and by KMD Architects of San Francisco. Caruso Affiliated claims to have modeled its architectural designs on indigenous Los Angeles buildings, influenced by classic historic districts, with shopping alleys, broad plazas, intimate courtyards; the design features a series of Art Deco-style false fronts, with boxy interiors similar to those found in other contemporary stores. The Grove features a large central park with an animated fountain designed by WET, its music-fountain show plays every hour, though the feature has a non-musical program in between shows. The water's choreography is reminiscent of the Fountains of Bellagio in Las Vegas—also designed by WET—but on a much smaller scale; the property has a statue, The Spirit of Los Angeles. Live shows are performed there—on the grassy area by the fountains. An internal transit system uses electric-powered trolley cars to link The Grove and the adjacent Farmers Market.
The Grove is anchored by Nordstrom and has flagship stores for British fashion chain Topshop/Topman, Barnes & Noble, Apple. Abercrombie & Fitch had its West Coast flagship at the mall, which closed in 2015, has since been replaced by Nike. Other stores in the center include Michael Kors, two-story Gap and J. Crew locations, Crate & Barrel, Nike, MAC Cosmetics, Anthropologie, Barneys New York, Kiehl's, American Girl Place; the Grove's many restaurants include chains like Maggiano's Little Italy and The Cheesecake Factory as well as smaller, local restaurants like Wood Ranch BBQ and Grill, 189 by Dominique Ansel, The Whisper Lounge, La Piazza. The Original Farmers Market, located adjacent to The Grove and owned by the A. F. Gilmore Company, features numerous non-chain restaurants that have existed there for sometimes decades; the main entertainment venue is a 14-screen movie theater complex owned by Pacific Theatres. In mid-November, the Grove Christmas Tree is displayed, lit every evening, beginning with the annual tree lighting ceremony.
The tree remains. Up to 100 feet or more, it is one o
Television City, alternatively CBS Television City, is an American television studio complex located in the Fairfax District of Los Angeles at 7800 Beverly Boulevard, at the corner of Fairfax Avenue. The studio along with Culver Studios is owned by Hackman Capital Partners. Designed by architect William Pereira, it is one of two CBS television studios in southern California — the other is CBS Studio Center, located in the Studio City section of the San Fernando Valley, which houses additional production facilities and the network's Los Angeles local television operations. Since 1961, it has served as the master control facility for CBS's west coast television network operations which were based at Columbia Square. Since its inauguration in 1952, numerous TV shows have been broadcast live or taped at Television City, including many shows not aired on CBS, it has been the production site of several films such as the 1996 feature That Thing You Do!, starring Tom Hanks and Liv Tyler. During the opening credits of many of the shows taped here, a voice-over announced the phrase "from Television City in Hollywood".
The complex houses a total of eight separate studios. The facility infrequently conducts backstage tours led by a CBS page. CBS planned to move most of its entertainment operations to the Los Angeles area in 1950; as they needed additional space beyond its Columbia Square complex on Sunset Boulevard, CBS purchased the property at Fairfax Avenue and Beverly Boulevard that year. Hiring architect William Pereira, the company reported spend $7 million on the studio. Television City opened on November 16, 1952, it was built on the site of Gilmore Stadium. Before the stadium, it was an oil field. Studio 43 was equipped with RCA TK-40A color cameras in 1954, with cables allowing any of the original four studios to use those cameras. In 1956, Studio 41 was equipped with RCA TK-41s. However, CBS color broadcasts decreased in frequency until the following decade, when the 1964 production of Rodgers and Hammerstein's Cinderella was recorded. CBS programs were, in general, in black-and-white until Norelco PC-60s were installed starting in 1964.
Studio 33 is the current home of the long-running CBS game show The Price Is Right and the HBO late-night series Real Time with Bill Maher. This soundstage was the home of The Carol Burnett Show for its entire 1967–1978 run, The Red Skelton Show prior to that, as well as the notable game shows Match Game, The $25,000/$100,000 Pyramid, Hollywood Squares, Wheel of Fortune, the 1986–1989 revival of Card Sharks, the 1988–1995 run of Family Feud. On April 9, 1998, on the 5000th episode of The Price Is Right, CBS named Studio 33 as the Bob Barker Studio in honor of the show's longtime host and executive producer; when it became standard for sitcoms to tape in front of a studio audience in the 1970s, many shows were recorded on soundstages at Television City, such as All in the Family and Good Times. The ABC sitcoms Three's Company and Welcome Back, Kotter were taped at Television City. CBS Television City is home to CBS' visual effects studio, CBS Digital, the CBS Records music label. "Television City" is a registered trademark of CBS for its TV production facilities.
In September 2017, CBS investigated selling the property due to a development boom in the Fairfax District. As a result of this possibility, the city of Los Angeles is taking steps to declare the facility a historic and cultural monument. CBS Corp. sold Television City to Los Angeles real estate investment company Hackman Capital Partners for $750 million in a deal finalized in mid-December 2018. The deal gives the buyer the right to use the Television City name. Programs produced at Television City, including The Price Is Right, The Young and the Restless and The Late Late Show with James Corden will continue to be based at Television City, as will the headquarters of the CBS international unit; the stark modern architecture at Television City consists of black and white planes meeting at razor-sharp corners, with accents of dazzling red, the work of Pereira & Luckman of Los Angeles. The studio facility was built to handle the larger production needs for the network, most of which took place at the rather cramped Columbia Square.
The building's black and white color scheme was used to identify areas where it was designed to be expanded. Black walls and glass walls indicated "temporary" structure that could be removed during expansion, while white areas were "permanent"; the building held four soundstages, but a renovation in the late 1980s added two new soundstages to the east of the original building, plus additional office/storage space and technical facilities. Another renovation further added two more studios in what had been rehearsal halls in the original building; the original plans for Television City called for 24 soundstages, before CBS executives deciding to settle with just the initial four. Below is a partial list of programs that have broadcast live at Television City. Official website
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau; this includes people who indicate their race on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U. S. population, while people who are Asian alone, those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%. Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups prohibiting all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were referred to as Oriental and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of'Asian' included West Asian ethnic groups Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American; the term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is shortened to Asian in common usage. The most used definition of Asian American is the U. S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent; this is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds; this differs from the U. S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race.
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; the definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts.
Immigration status, citizenship and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U. S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of'Asian American' frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, why... the possible definitions of'Asian-Pacific American' are many and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctn
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America, respectively. More it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Honduran, Panamanian, Bolivian, Spanish American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups, non-Spanish speaking Latino groups in the United States are defined as "Latino" by some U. S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.
People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan or Colombian origin; the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states. A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry; the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both Native American ancestry. Others are predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well; the difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest; the 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.
The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States"; this is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino; this definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use Latino interchangeably. A definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American sta