The Hollywood Stars were a Minor League Baseball team that played in the Pacific Coast League during the early- and mid-20th century. They were the arch-rivals of the Los Angeles Angels; the first incarnation of the Hollywood Stars began its existence in 1903 as the Sacramento Solons, a charter member of the Pacific Coast League. The team moved to Washington in 1904, where it won the pennant as the Tacoma Tigers. During the 1905 season, the team returned to Sacramento to finish out the season, moved to Fresno in 1906 to finish last as the Fresno Raisin Eaters left the PCL altogether; the Sacramento Solons rejoined the PCL in 1909 moved to San Francisco during the 1914 season, finishing out the season as the San Francisco Missions. The team was sold to Utah businessman Bill "Hardpan" Lane and moved to Salt Lake City for the 1915 season, they played as the Salt Lake City Bees for the next 11 seasons until Lane moved the team to Los Angeles for the 1926 season. They were known as the Hollywood Bees, but soon changed their name to the Hollywood Stars.
The original Stars, though representing Hollywood played their home games as tenants of the Los Angeles Angels at Wrigley Field in South Los Angeles. Though the Stars won pennants in 1929 and 1930, they never developed much of a fan base, playing their home games miles from the glamorous Hollywood district, they were a team to watch when the Angels were on the road. Attendance had been quite good during their inaugural year in 1926, but tapered off after that, exacerbated by the Great Depression. When, after the 1935 season, the Angels doubled the Stars' rent, Lane announced the Stars would move to San Diego for the 1936 season, to become the San Diego Padres. Los Angeles became a one-team city once more for the 1937 seasons; the second incarnation of the Hollywood Stars joined the Pacific Coast League in 1909 as the Vernon Tigers. As the Tigers, the team won two PCL pennants before moving to San Francisco for the 1926 season; the transplanted Tigers, now known as the Mission Reds or just "the Missions", foundered in San Francisco, failing to establish a rivalry with the existing San Francisco Seals.
In 1938, Missions owner Herbert Fleishaker moved his team back to Los Angeles, took the name of the departed Hollywood Stars. After one season the team was sold. In early December 1938 the team was purchased by attorney Victor Ford Collins and Robert H. Cobb, owner of the Brown Derby restaurants, they formed the Hollywood Baseball association and enlisted the financial support and enthusiasm of many stars and community leaders. Celebrities who were stockholders and part-owners of the team included Lloyd Bacon, Gary Cooper, William Powell, Barbara Stanwyck, Robert Taylor, George Raft, Charles Rogers, Raoul Walsh, Roscoe Karns, William LeBaron, Gene Autry, George Burns and Gracie Allen, Bing Crosby, Cecil B. DeMille, William Frawley, Gail Patrick and Harry Warner. "No one was permitted to invest any big money", wrote the Los Angeles Times, which described the Hollywood Stars as "a civic thing … plainly and a Chamber of Commerce activity on the part of a group of people who want their little corner of the world to be better than all other corners."The club was promoted as "the Hollywood Stars baseball team, owned by the Hollywood stars".
Moreover, the team played in the Hollywood area. In January 1939 it was announced that plans were under way to create a $200,000 ballpark seating 12,500 by May 1939. Gilmore Field was opened in the Fairfax District adjacent to Hollywood. Nicknamed the Twinks by the press, the new Hollywood Stars caught on and became a popular team, winning three pennants before 1958, they had successful affiliations with the Brooklyn Dodgers and Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball. In 1955, actress Jayne Mansfield was named Miss Hollywood Star; the Stars became genuine rivals of the Angels, it was not uncommon for fights between the teams to break out during Angels-Stars games. In fact, on August 2, 1953, a brawl between the two teams lasted 30 minutes, broken up only when 50 riot police were sent to Gilmore Field by Chief of Police William Parker, at home watching the game on television when the fight started; the Columbia Broadcasting System, owner of Gilmore Field, announced plans to raze the facility to build a new headquarters—CBS Television City, as it became known—in 1952.
In October 1957, the Brooklyn Dodgers confirmed their long-rumored move to Los Angeles for the 1958 season, which forced the Stars and the Angels to relocate. The Angels, purchased by Dodgers owner Walter O'Malley prior to the 1957 season, became the Spokane Indians in 1958. Having no interest in operating the Twinks anywhere but in Los Angeles, the ownership group led by Frank J. Kanne, Jr. was compelled to sell the team, which it did, to a group based in Salt Lake City. The Stars, in a sense, "returned" to Salt Lake City in 1958. Pioneers in broadcasting, the Hollywood Stars televised a home game in 1939 as an experiment, became the first team to broadcast home games in the late 1940s. In the summer of 1951, Gail Patrick hosted Home Plate, a post-game interview show at Gilmore Field that followed KTTV broadcasts of the Hollywood Stars home games. Patrick was assisted by sportswriter Braven Dyer. Mark Scott, who became nationally known as the host of Home Run Derby, was the team's
A television studio called a television production studio, is an installation room in which video productions take place, either for the recording of live television to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production. The design of a studio is similar to, derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons; these rooms are connected via intercom, personnel will be divided among these workplaces. The studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded and viewed take place. A typical studio floor has the following characteristics and installations: decoration and/or sets professional video camera mounted on pedestals microphones and foldback speakers stage lighting rigs and the associated controlling equipment. Several video monitors for visual feedback from the production control room a small public address system for communication a glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is desired, but not always possibleWhile a production is in progress, people composing a television crew work on the studio floor.
The on-screen presenters themselves, any guests - the subjects of the television show. A floor manager, who has overall charge of the studio area stage management, who relays timing and other information from the television director. One or more camera operators who operate the cameras, though in some instances these can be operated from the PCR using remotely controlled robotic pan tilt zoom camera heads. Possibly a teleprompter operator if this is a live television news broadcast The production control room is the place in a television studio in which the composition of the outgoing program takes place; the production control room is also called a studio control room or a "gallery" – the latter name comes from the original placement of the director on an ornately carved bridge spanning the BBC's first studio at Alexandra Palace, once referred to as like a minstrels' gallery. Master control is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks.
Master control is distinct from a PCR in television studios where the activities such as switching from camera to camera are coordinated. A transmission control room is smaller in size and is a scaled-down version of centralcasting; the master control room houses equipment, too noisy or runs too hot for the production control room. It makes sure that coax cable and other wire lengths and installation requirements keep within manageable lengths, since most high-quality wiring runs only between devices in this room; this can include the actual circuitry and connections between The master control room in a US television station is the place where the on-air signal is controlled. It may include controls to playout television programs and television commercials, switch local or television network feeds, record satellite feeds and monitor the transmitter, or these items may be in an adjacent equipment rack room; the term "studio" refers to a place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from the PCR to MCR and out to the transmitter.
A television studio has other rooms with no technical requirements beyond broadcast reference monitors and studio monitors for audio. Among them are: one or more make-up and changing rooms a reception area for crew and visitors called the green room. Broadcast engineering Engineering technician Technical operator RF engineering A2 Electronic field production Electronic news-gathering Remote broadcast Outside broadcasting Television crew Television studies List of motion picture-related topics Film crew Production team Media related to Television studios at Wikimedia Commons
Barbara Stanwyck was an American actress and dancer. She was a film and television star, known during her 60-year career as a consummate and versatile professional with a strong, realistic screen presence, a favorite of directors including Cecil B. DeMille, Fritz Lang, Frank Capra. After a short, but notable, career as a stage actress in the late 1920s, she made 85 films in 38 years in Hollywood, before turning to television. Orphaned at the age of four, raised in foster homes, by 1944, Stanwyck had become the highest-paid woman in the United States, she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress four times – for Stella Dallas, Ball of Fire, Double Indemnity, Sorry, Wrong Number. For her television work, she won three Emmy Awards – for The Barbara Stanwyck Show, The Big Valley, The Thorn Birds, her performance in The Thorn Birds won her a Golden Globe. She received an Honorary Oscar at the 1982 Academy Award ceremony, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1986, she was the recipient of honorary lifetime awards from the American Film Institute, the Film Society of Lincoln Center, the Los Angeles Film Critics Association, the Screen Actors Guild.
Stanwyck received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960, was ranked as the 11th greatest female star of classic American cinema by the American Film Institute. One of her directors, Jacques Tourneur, said of Stanwyck, "She only lives for two things, both of them are work." Barbara Stanwyck was born Ruby Catherine Stevens on July 16, 1907, in Brooklyn, New York, of English and Scottish descent. She was the fifth - and youngest - child of Catherine Ann and Byron E. Stevens, working-class parents, her father was a native of Lanesville and her mother was an immigrant from Sydney, Nova Scotia. When Ruby was four, her mother died of complications from a miscarriage after a drunken stranger accidentally knocked her off a moving streetcar. Two weeks after the funeral, her father, Byron Stevens joined a work crew digging the Panama Canal and was never seen again. Ruby and her older brother, Malcolm Byron Stevens, were raised by their eldest sister Laura Mildred, who died of a heart attack in 1931, aged 45.
When Mildred got a job as a showgirl and Byron were placed in a series of foster homes, from which young Ruby ran away. Ruby toured with Mildred during the summers of 1916 and 1917, practiced her sister's routines backstage. Watching the movies of Pearl White, whom Ruby idolized influenced her drive to be a performer. At the age of 14, she dropped out of school to take a job wrapping packages at a department store in Brooklyn. Ruby never attended high school, "although early biographical thumbnail sketches had her attending Brooklyn's famous Erasmus Hall High School."Soon afterward, she took a job filing cards at the Brooklyn telephone office for $14 a week, which allowed her to become financially independent. She disliked the job, she took a job cutting dress patterns for Vogue magazine, but because customers complained about her work, she was fired. Her next job was as a typist for the Jerome H. Remick Music Company, a job she enjoyed. However, her continuing ambition was to work in show business, her sister gave up trying to dissuade her.
In 1923, a few months before her 16th birthday, Ruby auditioned for a place in the chorus at the Strand Roof, a nightclub over the Strand Theatre in Times Square. A few months she obtained a job as a dancer in the 1922 and 1923 seasons of the Ziegfeld Follies, dancing at the New Amsterdam Theater. "I just wanted to survive and eat and have a nice coat", Stanwyck said. For the next several years, she worked as a chorus girl, performing from midnight to seven a.m. at nightclubs owned by Texas Guinan. She occasionally served as a dance instructor at a speakeasy for gays and lesbians owned by Guinan. One of her good friends during those years was pianist Oscar Levant, who described her as being "wary of sophisticates and phonies."Billy LaHiff, who owned a popular pub frequented by showpeople, introduced Ruby in 1926 to impresario Willard Mack. Mack was casting his play The Noose, LaHiff suggested that the part of the chorus girl be played by a real one. Mack agreed, after a successful audition gave the part to Ruby.
She co-starred with Wilfred Lucas. As staged, the play was not a success. In an effort to improve it, Mack decided to expand Ruby's part to include more pathos; the Noose re-opened on October 20, 1926, became one of the most successful plays of the season, running on Broadway for nine months and 197 performances. At the suggestion of either Mack or David Belasco, Ruby changed her name to Barbara Stanwyck by combining the first name of her character, Barbara Frietchie, with the last name of another actress in the play, Jane Stanwyck. Stanwyck became a Broadway star soon afterward, when she was cast in her first leading role in Burlesque, she received rave reviews, it was a huge hit. Film actor Pat O'Brien would say on a talk show in the 1960s, "The greatest Broadway show I saw was a play in the 1920s called'Burlesque'." In Arthur Hopkins' autobiography, To a Lonely Boy, he described how he came to cast Stanwyck: After some search for the girl, I interviewed a nightclub dancer who had just scored in a small emotional part in a play that did not run.
She seemed to have the quality. She at o
Surf's Up (album)
Surf's Up is the 17th studio album by American rock band the Beach Boys, released in 1971. It was met with a warm critical reception and reached number 29 on the US record charts, becoming their highest-charting LP of new music in the US since 1967’s Wild Honey. In the UK, Surf's Up peaked at number 15, continuing a string of top 40 records that had not abated since 1965. Both the album's title and cover artwork are an ironic, self-aware nod to the band's early surfing image, it was named after the closing track "Surf's Up", a song, written and recorded in 1966 for the group's unfinished album Smile. Surf's Up's creative direction was influenced by newly employed band manager Jack Rieley, who strove to reinvent the group's image and reintroduce them to the era's counterculture. Two singles were issued in the US: "Long Promised Road" and "Surf's Up". Only the former charted, peaking at number 89. In 2004, the album was voted 154 in a German edition of Rolling Stone's "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time" and ranked 61 on Pitchfork Media's "The Top 100 Albums Of The 1970s".
It is listed in the musical reference. In 1969, Brian Wilson opened. While working there, he met radio presenter Jack Rieley. Rieley spoke with Brian for a radio interview, with the subject turning to the unreleased song "Surf's Up", a track which had taken on mythical proportions in the underground press since the demise of the Smile album three years earlier. Brian hesitated on its release: "It's. Instead of putting it on a record, I would rather just leave it as a song, it rambles. It's too long to make it for me as a record, unless it were an album cut, which I guess it would have to be anyway. It's so far from a singles sound, it could never be a single."On August 8, 1970, Rieley offered a six-page memo ruminating on how to stimulate "increased record sales and popularity for The Beach Boys." In the fall of 1970, weeks after the underwhelming sales response to their latest album Sunflower, the Beach Boys hired Rieley as their manager. One of his initiatives was to encourage the band to record songs featuring more conscious lyrics.
He requested the completion of "Surf's Up" and arranged a guest appearance at a Grateful Dead concert at Bill Graham's Fillmore East in April 1971 to foreground the Beach Boys' transition into the counterculture. The project was provisionally entitled Landlocked. While on a drive to meet Warner Bros. Records executive Mo Ostin, Brian said to Rieley: "Well, OK, if you're going to force me, I'll... put'Surf's Up' on the album." Rieley asked, "Are you going to do it?" to which Brian repeated, "Well, if you're going to force me." Most of the album was recorded between January 1970 and July 1971. "Long Promised Road" and "Feel Flows" were Carl Wilson's first significant solo compositions. "Student Demonstration Time" and the environmental anthem "Don't Go Near the Water" found Mike Love and Al Jardine embracing the group's new conscious direction. Bruce Johnston's "Disney Girls" was praised by Brian for its harmonies and chords."A Day in the Life of a Tree" was Brian's sole new contribution written for Surf's Up.
The song was experimented upon for days with a harmonium, an antique pump organ, a smaller pipe organ. Van Dyke Parks and Jardine join Rieley to sing the song's coda. According to Jardine, Rieley sang the song when "no one would sing it because it was too depressing." "Til I Die" was a song Brian had been working on since mid-1970 but rejected by group members. He spent weeks arranging the song, using an electronic drum machine and crafting a harmony-driven and organ-laden background. Brian refused to work on "Surf's Up", now the eponymous track of the band's new album. In light of this, Carl overdubbed a new vocal in the song's first part, the original backing track dating from November 1966; the second movement was composed of a December 1966 solo piano demo recorded by Brian, augmented with vocal and Moog synthesizer overdubs. To the surprise and glee of his associates, Brian emerged near the end of the sessions to aid his brother and engineer Stephen Desper in the completion of the coda, contributing the song's missing, final lyric.
Dennis Wilson has no compositions on the album, according to their manager Jack Rieley in part to "prevent the disc from becoming an completely Wilson-brothers album." Dennis was interested in recording a solo album, of which "Lady" and "Sound of Free" were released as a single in the UK. His other songs from this era include "San Miguel", "4th of July", " Live Again". Surf's Up was released that August to more public anticipation than the Beach Boys had had for several years, it outperformed Sunflower commercially, reaching 29 in the US charts, becoming their best selling album in years. It was their first Top 40 album since Wild Honey, in the UK it peaked at 15. Like Sunflower, Surf's Up was released on EMI's Stateside label internationally; the album was met with a warm critical reception compounded by some FM radio exposure. Rolling Stone's reviewer wrote: "the Beach Boys stage a remarkable comeback... an LP that weds their choral harmonies to progressive pop and which shows youngest Wilson brother Carl stepping into the fore of the venerable outfit."
Richard Williams of Melody Maker said: "Suddenly the Beach Boys are back in fashionable favour, they've produced an album which backs up all that's been written and said about them." Time magazine described Surf's Up
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
John William Carson was an American television host, comedian and producer. He is best known as the host of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Carson received six Emmy Awards, the Television Academy's 1980 Governor's Award, a 1985 Peabody Award, he was inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame in 1987. Carson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1992 and received a Kennedy Center Honor in 1993. During World War II, Carson served in the Navy. After the war, Carson started a career in radio. Although his show was successful by the end of the 1960s, during the 1970s, Carson became an American icon and remained so after his retirement in 1992, he adopted a casual, conversational approach with extensive interaction with guests, an approach pioneered by Arthur Godfrey and previous Tonight Show hosts Steve Allen and Jack Paar. Former late-night host and friend David Letterman has cited Carson's influence. John William Carson was born on October 23, 1925, in Corning, Iowa, to Ruth Elizabeth Carson and Homer Lloyd "Kit" Carson, a power company manager.
He grew up in the nearby towns of Avoca and Red Oak in southwest Iowa before moving to Norfolk, Nebraska, at the age of eight. There, Carson began developing his talent for entertaining. At the age of 12, Carson found a book on magic at a friend's house and purchased a mail-order magician's kit. After the purchase of the kit, Carson practiced his entertainment skills on family members with card tricks, he was known for following his family members around saying, "Pick a card, any card." Carson's mother sewed him a cape, his first performance was staged in front of the local Kiwanis Club. He was paid $3 a show. Soon, many other performances at local picnics and country fairs followed. After graduating from high school, Carson had his first encounter with Hollywood, he hitchhiked to Hollywood, where he was arrested and fined $50 for impersonating a midshipman, a story regarded as apocryphal. "Johnny embarked on an adventure, one so laden with implications about his future, that some have wondered if the escapade might not be a legend."
Carson joined the United States Navy on June 8, 1943, received V-12 Navy College Training Program officer training at Columbia University and Millsaps College. Commissioned an ensign late in the war, Carson was assigned to the USS Pennsylvania in the Pacific. While in the Navy, Carson posted a 10–0 amateur boxing record, with most of his bouts fought on board the Pennsylvania, he was en route to the combat zone aboard a troop ship when the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ended the war. Carson served as a communications officer in charge of decoding encrypted messages, he said that the high point of his military career was performing a magic trick for United States Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal. In a conversation with Forrestal, the Secretary asked Carson if he planned to stay in the Navy after the war. In response, Carson told him he wanted to be a magician. Forrestal asked him to perform, Carson responded with a card trick. Carson made the discovery that he could entertain and amuse someone as cranky and sophisticated as Forrestal.
To take advantage of the educational opportunities from the Navy, Carson attended the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, where he joined Phi Gamma Delta fraternity and continued performing magic. He majored in journalism with the intention of becoming a comedy writer. Instead, he switched his major to speech and drama a few months because he wanted to become a radio performer. Carson's college thesis, titled "How to Write Comedian Jokes", was a compilation of taped skits and jokes from popular radio shows with Carson explaining the comedic technique in a voice-over, it allowed him to graduate in three years. Carson graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in radio and speech with a minor in physics in 1949. Carson began his broadcasting career in 1950 at WOW television in Omaha. Carson soon hosted. One of his routines involved interviewing pigeons on the roof of the local courthouse that would report on the political corruption they had seen. Carson supplemented his income by serving as master of ceremonies at local church dinners, attended by some of the same politicians and civic leaders whom he had lampooned on the radio.
The wife of one of the Omaha political figures Carson spoofed owned stock in a radio station in Los Angeles, in 1951 referred Carson to her brother, influential in the emerging television market in Southern California. Carson joined CBS-owned Los Angeles television station KNXT. In 1953, comic Red Skelton—a fan of Carson's "cult success" low-budget sketch comedy show, Carson's Cellar on KNXT—asked Carson to join his show as a writer. In 1954, Skelton accidentally knocked himself unconscious during rehearsal an hour before his live show began. Carson successfully filled in for him. In 1955, Jack Benny invited Carson to appear on one of his programs during the opening and closing segments. Carson imitated claimed that Benny had copied his gestures. Benny predicted. Carson hosted several shows besides Carson's Cellar, including the game show Earn Your Vacation and the CBS variety show The Johnny Carson Show, he was a guest panelist on the original To Tell the Truth starting in 1960 becoming a regular panelist from 1961 until 1962.
After the primetime The Johnny Carson Show failed, he moved to New York City to host ABC-TV's Who Do You Trust? known as Do You Trust Your Wife