The Pound is the currency of the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic Ocean. The symbol is the pound sign, £, or alternatively FK£, to distinguish it from other pound-denominated currencies; the ISO 4217 currency code is FKP. The Falkland Islands pound has always been pegged to the pound sterling at par and banknotes of both currencies are used interchangeably on the islands; the pound was introduced following the reassertion of sovereignty in the Falklands Islands by the British in 1833. The British currency circulated, with the pound subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. Specific issues of banknotes have been made for the Falkland Islands since 1899. In 1971, the pound was subdivided into 100 pence. Coins have been minted for the Falklands since 1974. During the Argentine occupation of the islands during the Falklands War in 1982, the Argentine peso was used instead of the pound. For a more general history of currency in the South Atlantic region, see Pound sterling in the South Atlantic and the Antarctic.
In 1974, 1⁄2, 1, 2, 5 and 10 pence coins were introduced. 50 pence coins were introduced in 1980, followed by 20 pence in 1982, 1 pound in 1987 and a circulating 2 pounds in 2004. The halfpenny coin was demonetised shortly after. Smaller versions of the 5p, 10p and 50p, corresponding to the current UK issues, were issued in 1998, replacing the larger versions; the introduction of the circulation £2 coin in 2004 was six years after the same coin was issued in the UK. In 2020, the Falklands Islands will issue a new 12-sided bi-metallic £1 coin, matching both the composition and size of its UK counterpart, while announcing the withdrawal of the round £1 coin in January 2023, with the assistance of the Royal Mint. All the coins have the same size as the corresponding British coins. Between 1899 and 1901, the government introduced 10 shillings, 1 and 5 pounds; the 5 shilling notes were issued until 1916. Following decimalisation in 1971, the 10-shilling note of the preceding issue became the new 50-pence note, though it retained its old design.
10 pound notes were introduced in 1975, followed by 20 pounds in 1984 and 50 pounds in 1990. Banknotes in circulation are: 5 pounds 10 pounds 20 pounds 50 pounds Falkland Islands' banknotes feature the same images, differing only in their respective denominations and corresponding colours. On the front side, all notes contain a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, the Falklands' coat of arms, a small map of the islands, images of two of the islands' main animals: penguins and sea lions. On the back, notes feature pictures of Christ Church Cathedral in Stanley and Government House, the official residence of the Governor of the Falkland Islands. Banknotes are printed by De la Rue plc on behalf of the Falkland Island Commissioners of Currency. In 2010 an order was placed for the printing of 200,000 £10 banknotes and for 200,000 £20 banknotes which would represent a supply of banknotes that would last for 15 to 20 years. Economy of the Falkland Islands
Club Atlético Irapuato is a professional football club, based in Irapuato, Mexico. They are playing in the Serie A in the Liga Premier. Irapuato has played in the Promotion League of Mexico (formerly Primera División A or Ascenso MX. From 2000 to 2004, the team rose to prominence in the Liga MX reaching the playoffs. Irapuato has spent over 26 years in the Primera División, never quite excelling to challenge for the title; the team was relegated from the Primera División in 2004 but not because of their on-field performance, but because of financial irregularities. In 2013, the team took a turn for the worse being relegated to Liga Premier, the Third Division of Mexico for a year; the team returned to Ascenso MX in May 2014 when Ballenas Galeana, decided to move to Irapuato, change their name to Club Irapuato, once again giving Irapuato a football team. But that team was relegated too after a couple of mediocre seasons to Liga Premier, were they play to this day; the club dates back to 1910 in the city of Irapuato where a club was founded under the name Club Mutualista Irapuatense by Pedro Garnu and by Diego Mosqueda, an important person in the sports development in the city, would go on to establish the club's rival Club León in the 1920s.
In its first years many clubs were formed in order to create a futbol league in Guanajuato Deportivo Irapuato, Club Marte, ISCO and Club León inaugurated the league in 1925. The first tournament was won by Club Marte because the tournament was not finished due to problems between Irapuato and ISCO. In 1928 the club played it against Deportivo Internacional; the club came out with a 1 -- 0 victory. This club wore a white shirt with black socks; the club that plays today under the name Club Deportivo Irapuato was founded in 1948 where it had trouble staying in the league. In the late 1940s there were various clubs that represented the city of Irapuato and it was until 1948 when they decide to merge in order to become more competitive and so they did and join the Second division in 1949; the men in charge of the merge were Oscar Bonfiglio and Jesús Vaca Gaona both had participated in the 1928 Olympic games in Amsterdam. The club would once again change its name this time to Club Deportivo Irapuato A.
C which many people believe to be the date when the club was established. The club was one of the first clubs to inaugurate the Segunda División de México in the 1949–50 tournament where after 3 seasons the club won its first promotion; the club made its Primera División debut in the league on 22 August 1954 against Zacatepec who they beat 4–5. In the second round the club played at home in the Estadio Revolución stadium against Puebla FC who they defeated 4-0; the club revived its rivalry which had stopped in the late 1930s against Club Leon, that game ended in a 1–1 draw. The club's best tournament was the 1963–64 Mexican Primera División season where the club finished 4th with 32 points. In the 1971-72 season the club found itself playing in group 2 with clubs Monterrey, Puebla, Pachuca, Pumas and Torreón. At the end of the tournament the club finished last and had to play a relegation series against the other last place teams; the series was played against Torreón, Atlético Español, Veracruz.
The first match was played against Veracruz who defeated them 3–1 the first leg, the second leg ended in a 0-0 draw. The last game was played against Torreón in the Estadio Jalisco where Irapuato lost 1–0 and were relegated for the first time in 18 years to the second division. Back in the Segunda División the club became a top club reaching the final in its first year back against Petroleros de Ciudad Madero; the first game was played in Irapuato which they won 1–0. It seemed the club would clinch its promotion having the second match at home but Ciudad Madero came out with a 2–0 victory and so earning its promotion. In the 1974-75 season, the club had its second opportunity when they once again reached the final this time playing against Tecos; the club would lose that final match 1–0. It took place in the Estadio Azteca in Mexico City; the club would get a third opportunity to earn a promotion in 1978. This time a series was played; the first match ended in a 1–0 victory for Zacatepec. The second match ended in a 4–1 victory for Zacatepec and so the club would lose its third promotion series in 6 years.
In the 1980s the club had a streak of qualifying to the quarterfinals but not been able to reach the final. After four years the club reached the final in the 1984-85 tournament under the management of Diego Malta Solano against Pachuca; the first match was played in Irapuato. In the return match Irapuato came out with a win and earn the promotion after 13 years. Notable players from that club were Anselmo Romero, Rafael Lira, Jesús Montes, Eugenio Constantino and Teodoro Orozco. In the 1990-91 season Irapuato got relegated to the second division for the second time. In 1994 Irapuato joined the newly formed Primera Division A and got the opportunity to return to the Primera División. In the Invierno 99 season Irapuato faced Zacatepec in the Final, they beat them 3-1 in the first leg with goals from Cristián Ariel Morales, Martín Rodríguez in the second leg things got complicated when Zacatepec tied the game but Morales and Rodriguez scored and th
Miguel Ángel J. Márquez Ruiz, is a distinguished Mexican veterinarian with over 50 years of professional practice, who has received international recognition for his contributions to veterinary medicine, he teaches at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico and has carried out intensive work through the years in the areas of clinical pathology, virology and avian epidemiology. Graduated at the Veterinary Medicine School. National Autonomous University of Mexico. Mexico City. 1960–1964 Specialization Degree in Poultry Viral Diseases at the University of Liverpool, England in 1968 Master of Veterinary Sciences at l' École de Medicine Vétérinaire d'Alfort. Paris, France. 1972–1974 Diplomate in Business Administration. Panamerican Institute for High Business Direction. Mexico. 1992 Diplomate of the American College of Poultry Veterinarians. Baltimore, Maryland. 1998 PhD in History and its Sources. Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, University of Leon, Spain. CUM LAUDE.
2006 Member of the American Association of Avian Pathologists in 1969 Founding Member in 1970 and twice Chairman of the Mexican Association of Poultry Veterinarians/ANECA in 1975 & 1981 Founder and President of the Mexican Society for the History of Veterinary Medicine. Mexico. 1987–2001 Member of the Mexican Society for the History and Philosophy of the Medicine in 1993 Academic Numerary Member of the Mexican Academy of Veterinary Medicine in 1997 Member of the Societé Française d'Histoire de la Medecine et des Sciences Veterinaires. Paris, 2005 Correspondent Academic Member of Academy of Veterinary Sciences of Catalonia. Barcelona, 2008 Correspondent Academic Member of Royal Academy of Veterinary Sciences of Spain. Madrid, 2009 National Award "Goat of Picasso" given by the Mexican Association of Caprine Practitioners. Mexico, 1992 National Award "ANECA" given by the Mexican Association of Poultry Specialists. Cancun, 1996 Appointed "Veterinarian of the Year" by the Veterinary Medicine College of Jalisco.
Guadalajara, 2006 Medal to the "Academical Merit". Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. UNAM. Mexico, 2008 Medal to the "University Merit". National University of Mexico. UNAM. Mexico, 2009 Member of the "Hall of Fame of the Latin American Poultry Industry". Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2011 "Centaur Cheiron Award", given by the World Association for the History of Veterinary Medicine. University of Utrecht; the Netherlands, 2012 More than 400 publications in avian medicine and in the history of medicine and technology. Albeytería and Albéytares in the New Spain during the XVI Century published by the University of Leon, Spain in 1996 Epizootics and Epidemics; the interchange of pathogens between the Old and New World published by the University of Leon, Spain in 2006 History of the National Association of Poultry Producers of Mexico. Veracruz, 2008 History of the Mexican Association of Veterinarians Specialized on Swine. Mazatlan, 2013 Newcastle Disease. Argentina, 2013 More than 500 lectures given in more than 40 countries.
The interchange of pathogens between the Old and New World, the cases of rabies and canine distemper. Libro Historia de la Unión Nacional de Avicultores de México El Salón de la Fama de la Avicultura Latinoamericana Real Academia de Ciencias Veterinarias