1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Louisville and Nashville Railroad
The Louisville and Nashville Railroad called the L&N, was a Class I railroad that operated freight and passenger services in the southeast United States. Chartered by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1850, the road grew into one of the great success stories of American business. Operating under one name continuously for 132 years, it survived civil war and economic depression and several waves of social and technological change. Under Milton H. Smith, president of the company for thirty years, the L&N grew from a road with less than three hundred miles of track to a 6,000-mile system serving fourteen states; as one of the premier Southern railroads, the L&N extended its reach far beyond its namesake cities, stretching to St. Louis, Memphis and New Orleans; the railroad was economically strong throughout its lifetime, operating both freight and passenger trains in a manner that earned it the nickname, "The Old Reliable." Growth of the railroad continued until its purchase and the tumultuous rail consolidations of the 1980s which led to continual successors.
By the end of 1970, L&N operated 6,063 miles of road on 10,051 miles of track, not including the Carrollton Railroad. In 1971 the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, successor to the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, purchased the remainder of the L&N shares it did not own, the company became a subsidiary. By 1982 the railroad industry was consolidating and the Seaboard Coast Line absorbed the Louisville & Nashville Railroad entirely. In 1986, the Seaboard System merged with the C&O and B&O and the new combined system was known as the Chessie System. Soon after the combined company became CSX Transportation, which now owns and operates all of the former Louisville and Nashville lines, its first line extended south of Louisville, it took until 1859 to span the 180-odd miles to its second namesake city of Nashville. There were about 250 miles of track in the system by the outbreak of the Civil War, its strategic location, spanning the Union/Confederate lines, made it of great interest to both governments.
During the Civil War, different parts of the network were pressed into service by both armies at various times, considerable damage from wear and sabotage occurred.. However, the company benefited from being based in the Union state of Kentucky, the fact that Nashville fell to Union forces within the first year of the war and remained in their hands for its duration, it profited from Northern haulage contracts for troops and supplies, paid in sound Federal greenbacks, as opposed to the depreciating Confederate dollars. After the war, other railroads in the South were devastated to the point of collapse, the general economic depression meant that labor and materials to repair its roads could be had cheaply. Buoyed by these fortunate circumstances, the firm began an expansion that never stopped. Within 30 years the network reached from Missouri to Louisiana and Florida. By 1884, the firm had such importance that it was included in the Dow Jones Transportation Average, the first American stock market index.
It was such a large customer of the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, the country's second largest locomotive maker, that in 1879 the firm presented L&N with a free locomotive as a thank-you bonus. Since all locomotives of the time were steam-powered, many railroads had favored coal as their engines' fuel source after wood-burning models were found unsatisfactory; the L&N guaranteed not only its own fuel sources but a steady revenue stream by pushing its lines into the difficult but coal-rich terrain of eastern Kentucky, well into northern Alabama. There the small town of Birmingham had been founded amidst undeveloped deposits of coal, iron ore and limestone, the basic ingredients of steel production; the arrival of L&N transport and investment capital helped create a great industrial city and the South's first postwar urban success story. The railroad's access to good coal enabled it to claim for a few years starting in 1940 the nation's longest unrefuelled run, about 490 miles from Louisville to Montgomery, Alabama.
In the Gilded Age of the late 19th century there were no such things as anti-trust or fair-competition laws and little financial regulation. Business was a keen and mean affair, the L&N was a formidable competitor, it would exclude upstarts like the Tennessee Central Railway Company from critical infrastructure like urban stations. Where that wasn't possible, as with the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway, it used its financial muscle—in 1880 it acquired a controlling interest in its chief competitor. A public outcry convinced the L&N directors, they discreetly continued the NC&StL as a separate subsidiary, but now working with, instead of in competition with, the L&N. Ironically, in 1902 financial speculations by financier J. P. Morgan delivered control of the L&N to its rival Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, but that company made no attempt to control L&N operations, for many decades there were no consequences of this change; the World Wars brought heavy demand to the L&N. Its widespread and robust network coped well with the demands of war transport and production, the resulting profits harked back to the boost it had received from the Civil War.
In the postwar period, the line shifted to diesel power, the new streamlined engines pulled some of the most elegant passenger trains of the last great age of passenger rail, such as the Dixi
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1880 United States Census
The United States Census of 1880 conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880 was the tenth United States Census. It was the first time; the Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker. This was the first census. Five schedules were authorized by the 1880 Census Act, four of which were filled out by the enumerators: Schedule 1, similar to that used for the previous census, with a few exceptions. Schedule 2, which used the same inquiries as in 1870, added inquiries to record marital status, birthplace of parents, length of residence in the United States or territory, name of place where the disease was contracted, if other than place of death. Schedule 3, which expanded inquiries concerning various crops, included questions on farm tenure, weeks of hired labor, annual cost for fence building and repair, fertilizer purchases, the number of livestock. Schedule 5, which expanded to include information on the greatest number of hands employed at any time during the year, the number of hours in the ordinary work day from May to November and November to May, the average daily wages paid to skilled mechanics and laborers, months of full-and part-time operation, machinery used.
Schedule 4 was the responsibility of special agents, rather than the enumerators. The majority of the data came from correspondence with officials of institutions providing care and treatment of certain members of the population. Experts and special agents were employed to collect data on valuation and indebtedness. Special agents were charged with collecting data on specific industries throughout the country, included the manufactures of iron and steel. Full documentation for the 1880 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, which contains microdata; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices. Microdata from the 1880 population census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
Aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. The 1880 census determined the resident population of the United States to be 50,189,209, an increase of 30.2 percent over the 38,555,983 persons enumerated during the 1870 Census. The mean center of United States population for 1880 was in Kentucky; the results from the census were used to determine the apportionment for the 48th, 49th, 50th, 51st, 52nd sessions of the United States Congress. The processing of the 1880 census data took so long that the Census Bureau contracted Herman Hollerith to design and build a tabulating machine to be used for the next census; the 1880 census led to the discovery of the Alabama paradox. Demographic history of the United States 1880 Census of Population and Housing Reports 1881 U. S Census Report Contains 1880 Census results
2000 United States Census
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census. This was the twenty-second federal census and was at the time the largest civilly administered peacetime effort in the United States. 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 2000 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 2000 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series; this was the first census in which a state – California – recorded a population of over 30 million, as well as the first in which two states – California and Texas – recorded a population of more than 20 million. Microdata from the 2000 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.
Identifiable information will be available in 2072. The U. S. resident population includes the total number of people in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The Bureau enumerated the residents of the U. S. territory of Puerto Rico. In an introduction to a more detailed population profile, the Census Bureau highlighted the following facts about U. S. population dynamics: 75% of respondents said they were White or Caucasian and no other race. S. population, up from 9% in 1990. The 2000 Census was the first time. Between 1990 and 2000, the population aged 45 to 54 grew by 49% and those aged 85 and older grew 38%. S. households had access to computers. Regionally, the South and West experienced the bulk of the nation's population increase, 14,790,890 and 10,411,850, respectively; this meant that the mean center of U. S. population moved to Missouri. The Northeast grew by 2,785,149; the results of the census are used to determine how many congressional districts each state is apportioned. Congress defines the formula, in accordance with Title 2 of the U.
S. Code, to reapportion among the states the 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives; the apportionment population consists of the resident population of the fifty states, plus the overseas military and federal civilian employees and their dependents living with them who could be allocated to a state. Each member of the House represents a population of about 647,000; the populations of the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico are excluded from the apportionment population because they do not have voting seats in the U. S. House of Representatives. Since the first census in 1790, the decennial count has been the basis for the United States representative form of government. Article I, Section II specifies that "The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative." In 1790, each member of the House represented about 34,000 residents. Since the House more than quadrupled in size, in 1911 the number of representatives was fixed at 435.
Today, each member represents about 20 times as many constituents. In the years leading up to the 2000 census, there was substantial controversy over whether the Bureau should adjust census figures based on a follow-up survey, called the post-enumeration survey, of a sample of blocks; the controversy was technical, but partly political, since based on data from the 1990 census both parties believed that adjustment would have the effect, after redistricting, of increasing Democratic representation in legislative bodies, but would give Utah an additional Republican, representative to Congress. Following the census, discrepancies between the adjusted census figures and demographic estimates of population change could not be resolved in time to meet legal deadlines for the provision of redistricting data, the Census Bureau therefore recommended that the unadjusted results be used for this purpose; this recommendation was followed by the Secretary of Commerce. After the census was tabulated, Utah challenged the results in two different ways.
Paul William "Bear" Bryant was an American college football player and coach. He was best known as the head coach of the University of Alabama football team. During his 25-year tenure as Alabama's head coach, he amassed six national championships and thirteen conference championships. Upon his retirement in 1982, he held the record for most wins as head coach in collegiate football history with 323 wins; the Paul W. Bryant Museum, Paul W. Bryant Hall, Paul W. Bryant Drive, Bryant–Denny Stadium are all named in his honor at the University of Alabama, he was known for his trademark black and white houndstooth fedora, deep voice, casually leaning up against the goal post during pre-game warmups, holding his rolled-up game plan while on the sidelines. Before arriving at Alabama, Bryant was head football coach at the University of Maryland, the University of Kentucky, Texas A&M University. Paul Bryant was the 11th of 12 children who were born to Wilson Monroe and Ida Kilgore Bryant in Moro Bottom, Cleveland County, Arkansas.
His nickname stemmed from his having agreed to wrestle a captive bear during a carnival promotion when he was 13 years old. His mother wanted him to be a minister, but Bryant told her "Coaching is a lot like preaching", he attended Fordyce High School, where 6 ft 1 in tall Bryant, who as an adult would stand 6 ft 4 in, began playing on the school's football team as an eighth grader. During his senior season, the team, with Bryant playing offensive line and defensive end, won the 1930 Arkansas state football championship. Bryant accepted a scholarship to play for the University of Alabama in 1931. Since he elected to leave high school before completing his diploma, Bryant had to enroll in a Tuscaloosa high school to finish his education during the fall semester while he practiced with the college team. Bryant played end for the Crimson Tide and was a participant on the school's 1934 national championship team. Bryant was the self-described "other end" during his playing years with the team, playing opposite the big star, Don Hutson, who became a star in the National Football League and a Pro Football Hall of Famer.
Bryant himself was second team All-Southeastern Conference in 1934, was third team all conference in both 1933 and 1935. Bryant played with a broken leg in a 1935 game against Tennessee. Bryant pledged the Sigma Nu social fraternity, as a senior, he married Mary Harmon, which he kept a secret since Alabama did not allow active players to be married. Bryant was selected in the fourth round by the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1936 NFL Draft, but never played professional football. After graduating from the University of Alabama in 1936, Bryant took a coaching job under A. B. Hollingsworth at Union University in Jackson, but he left that position when offered an assistant coaching position under Frank Thomas at the University of Alabama. Over the next four years, the team compiled a 29–5–3 record. In 1940, he left Alabama to become an assistant at Vanderbilt University under Henry Russell Sanders. During their 1940 season, Bryant served as head coach of the Commodores for their 7–7 tie against Kentucky as Sanders was recovering from an appendectomy.
After the 1941 season, Bryant was offered the head coaching job at the University of Arkansas. However, Pearl Harbor was bombed soon thereafter, Bryant declined the position to join the United States Navy. In 1942 he served as an assistant coach with the Georgia Pre-Flight Skycrackers. Bryant served off North Africa, seeing no combat action. However, his ship, the converted liner USAT Uruguay, was rammed by an oil tanker near Bermuda and ordered to be abandoned. Bryant disobeyed the order. Allen Barra claims, he was granted an honorable discharge to train recruits and coach the North Carolina Navy Pre-Flight football team. One of the players he coached for the Navy was the future Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Otto Graham. While in the navy, Bryant attained the rank of lieutenant commander. In 1945, 32-year-old Bryant met Washington Redskins owner George Marshall at a cocktail party hosted by the Chicago Tribune, mentioned that he had turned down offers to be an assistant coach at Alabama and Georgia Tech because he was intent on becoming a head coach.
Marshall put him in contact with Harry Clifton "Curley" Byrd, the president and former football coach of the University of Maryland. After meeting with Byrd the next day, Bryant received the job as head coach of the Maryland Terrapins. In his only season at Maryland, Bryant led the team to a 6–2–1 record; however and Byrd came into conflict. In the most prominent incident, while Bryant was on vacation, Byrd reinstated a player, suspended by Bryant for a violation of team rules. After the 1945 season, Bryant left Maryland to take over as head coach at the University of Kentucky. Bryant coached at Kentucky for eight seasons. Under Bryant, Kentucky made its first bowl appearance in 1947 and won its first Southeastern Conference title in 1950; the 1950 Kentucky Wildcats football team finished with a school best 11–1 record and concluded the season with a victory over Bud Wilkinson's top-ranked Oklahoma Sooners in the Sugar Bowl. The final AP poll was released before bowl games in that era, so Kentucky ended the regular season ranked #7.
But several other contemporaneous polls, as well as the Sagarin Ratings System applied retrospectively, declared Bryant's 1950 Wildcats to be the national champions, but neither the NCAA nor College Football Data Warehouse recognizes this claim. Bryant led Kentucky to appearances in the Great Lakes Bowl, Orange Bowl, Cotton Bowl Classic. Kentucky'