Dawes County, Nebraska
Dawes County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 9,182, its county seat is Chadron. The county was formed in 1885. In the Nebraska license-plate system, Dawes County is represented by the prefix 69. Dawes County was a part of the unorganized area of northwestern Nebraska until February 19, 1877 when it became a part of Sioux County from which it was separated February 19, 1885 and was given its present name. Dawes County lies on the north border of Nebraska, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of South Dakota. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,401 square miles, of which 1,396 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. Since it lies in the western part of Nebraska, Dawes County residents observe Mountain Time; the eastern two-thirds of the state observes Central Time. Nebraska National Forest Pine Ridge National Recreation Area Oglala National Grassland Box Butte Reservoir State Recreation Area Chadron State Park Fort Robinson State Park As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 9,060 people, 3,512 households, 2,086 families in the county.
The population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 4,004 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.34% White, 0.81% Black or African American, 2.88% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.03% from other races, 1.58% from two or more races. 2.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 38.0% were of German, 9.9% English, 9.2% Irish and 7.4% American ancestry. There were 3,512 households out of which 26.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.50% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.60% were non-families. 31.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.87. The county population contained 21.20% under the age of 18, 23.40% from 18 to 24, 20.40% from 25 to 44, 20.30% from 45 to 64, 14.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 95.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,476, the median income for a family was $41,092. Males had a median income of $29,162 versus $17,404 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,353. About 9.80% of families and 18.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.40% of those under age 18 and 9.80% of those age 65 or over. Chadron Crawford Whitney Belmont Dawes County voters have been reliably Republican for decades. In no national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Dawes County, Nebraska Pinney, Patricia M.. Dawes County Nebraska: The First 100 Years. Dallas TX: Curtis Media Corp. ISBN 978-1-881070-35-1; the Louis Berger Group, Inc.. Dawes County Nebraska Historic Buildings Survey. Lincoln NE: Nebraska State Historical Society
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota
Oglala Lakota County, known as Shannon County until May 2015, is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. The population was 13,586 at the 2010 census. Oglala Lakota County does not have a functioning county seat; the county was created as a part of the Dakota Territory in 1875. Its largest community is Pine Ridge; the county is within the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and contains part of Badlands National Park. It is one of five South Dakota counties on an Indian reservation; the county is named after a band of the Lakota people. Many of the county's inhabitants are members of this sub-tribe; the county's per-capita income makes it the poorest county in the United States. It is the only dry county in South Dakota; the newspaper for Oglala Lakota County is The Lakota Country Times. The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred in Oglala Lakota County in 1890; the county was named for Peter C. Shannon, Chief Justice of the Dakota Territory Supreme Court; until 1982, Shannon County and Washabaugh County, South Dakota, were the last unorganized counties in the United States.
Although it was organized and received a home rule charter that year, the county, as noted above, contracts with Fall River County for its Auditor and Registrar of Deeds. On November 4, 2014, voters in the county voted by a margin of 2,161 to 526 to rename Shannon County to Oglala Lakota County; the name change was ratified by the state legislature on March 5, 2015. May 1, 2015 was proclaimed by the governor as the official day for renaming the county. Oglala Lakota County lies on the south side of South Dakota, its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of Nebraska. The Cheyenne River flows northeastward along the northwest boundary of Oglala Lakota County; the White River flows northeastward through the central part of the county. The county terrain is composed of arid rolling hills spotted with small mountain crests, oriented NE-SW; the terrain slopes to the northeast. The county has a total area of 2,097 square miles, of which 2,094 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water.
The county includes the headwaters of the Little White River. Badlands National Park As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 12,466 people, 2,785 households, 2,353 families residing in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 3,123 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 4.51% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 94.20% Native American, 0.02% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.42% of the population. There are 2,785 households out of which 51.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.40% were married couples living together, 36.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.50% were non-families. 13.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.00% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.36 and the average family size was 4.72. The county population contained 45.30% under the age of 18, 10.60% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 13.80% from 45 to 64, 4.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females there were 99.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,916, the median income for a family was $20,897. Males had a median income of $25,170 versus $22,594 for females; the per capita income for the county was $6,286. About 45.10% of families and 52.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 60.80% of those under age 18 and 36.00% of those age 65 or over. A 2017 study ranked the county's average life expectancy as the lowest of any county in the United States; the counties surrounding Oglala Lakota County are predominantly Republican, like most Native American counties, Oglala Lakota is Democratic, giving over 75 percent of the vote to every Democratic presidential nominee in every election back to 1984, making it one of the most Democratic counties in the United States. No Republican has carried the county in a presidential election since 1952.
Batesland Denby Red Shirt Rockyford Sharps Corner. The county is divided into two areas of unorganized territory: West Shannon. National Register of Historic Places listings in Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota Oglala Lakota County Government Site
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Niobrara County, Wyoming
Niobrara County is a county in the U. S. state of Wyoming. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2,484, making it the least populous county in Wyoming, its county seat is Lusk. Its eastern boundary abuts the west lines of the states of South Dakota. Niobrara County was created on February 1911, of area annexed from Converse County, its organization was established in 1913. The county was named for the Niobrara River. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,628 square miles, of which 2,626 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. In comparison to the state of Rhode Island, the county has more than twice the land area, with 1/500 of the population. U. S. Highway 18 U. S. Highway 20 U. S. Highway 85 Thunder Basin National Grassland As of the 2000 United States Census, of 2000, there were 2,407 people, 1,011 households, 679 families in the county; the population density was 1 person per square mile. There were 1,338 housing units at an average density of 0.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 98.05% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.50% from other races, 0.71% from two or more races. 1.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 35.1% were of German, 18.7% English, 11.2% Irish and 5.7% American ancestry. There were 1,011 households out of which 27.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 6.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.80% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.81. The county population contained 22.60% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 26.60% from 45 to 64, 18.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.80 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $29,701, the median income for a family was $33,714. Males had a median income of $25,909 versus $17,016 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,757. About 10.70% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.00% of those under age 18 and 15.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,484 people, 1,069 households, 659 families in the county; the population density was 0.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,338 housing units at an average density of 0.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.5% white, 0.8% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.5% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 41.5% were German, 19.0% were English, 17.7% were Irish, 6.6% were Swedish, 3.0% were American. Of the 1,069 households, 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.4% were non-families, 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.71. The median age was 46.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,813 and the median income for a family was $57,153. Males had a median income of $41,898 versus $30,323 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,885. About 6.3% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.9% of those under age 18 and 13.3% of those age 65 or over. Lusk Manville Van Tassell Lance Creek Keeline Riverview Like all of Wyoming, Niobrara County is overwhelmingly Republican. No Democratic Presidential candidate has won Niobrara County since Franklin D. Roosevelt beat Alf Landon in 1936 by thirty-eight votes, none since Lyndon Johnson in 1964 have passed thirty percent of the county’s vote; the Wyoming Department of Corrections Wyoming Women's Center is located in Lusk. The facility was operated by the Wyoming Board of Charities and Reform until that agency was dissolved as a result of a state constitutional amendment passed in November 1990.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Niobrara County, Wyoming
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820