Siege of Eindhoven (1583)
After three months of siege, and the failed attempts by the States-General to assist Bonnivets forces, the defenders surrendered to the Spaniards on April 23. With the capture of Eindhoven, the Spanish forces made advances in the region. On September 29,1580, Duke of Anjou, supported by William of Orange, based on the terms of the treaty, Anjou assumed the title of Protector of the Liberty of the Netherlands and became sovereign of the United Provinces. On February 10,1582, after a courtship of Queen Elisabeth I in England, Anjou arrived to the Netherlands. On January 17,1583, the French forces led by Francis of Anjou tried to conquer the city of Antwerp by surprise, the inhabitants, still traumatised by the Spanish plunder seven years earlier, were determined to prevent another occupation by foreign troops by all means possible. Anjou was decisively defeated by the people of Antwerp, losing as many as 2,000 men, on February 7, the Spanish forces reached the gates of Eindhoven and laid siege to the fortress city.
The States-General urged the Duke of Anjou to assemble his army and march towards Eindhoven, Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein from his base at Geertruidenberg, sent 4 squadrons of cavalry and 5 companies of infantry to reinforce Bonnivets forces. Although Biron was not very keen to accept, but the French statesman Pomponne de Bellièvre persuaded him to accept the charge. At the same time, Dutch troops stationed in Gelderland were ordered to advance through Utrecht towards Eindhoven and Scottish companies based in northern Flanders had orders to advance on Eindhoven, but these troops refused to move without their pay. Finally, on April 23, the States garrison was forced to surrender, with the conquest of Eindhoven, Parmas forces made great advances in the region, and gained the allegiance of the majority of the towns of northern Brabant. The Spanish victory increased the crisis between the Duke of Anjou and the States-General, Anjou laid the blame for the fall of Eindhoven to the States, while the States were fed up with his ambitions, and the inefficiency and slowness of his troops.
However, the Prince of Orange, strong supporter of the alliance, Biron moved his army to the north of Roosendaal, between Breda and Bergen op Zoom, where he intended lay siege to Wouw. On June 17, and after the capture of Diest by the Spaniards on May 27, the position of Anjou became impossible to hold with the States, and he eventually left the Netherlands in late June. His departure discredited William of Orange, his main supporter, the pace of the Spanish advance continued, and Dunkirk was the new target of the Prince of Parma. French Fury French Wars of Religion Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours List of Stadtholders of the Low Countries List of Governors of the Spanish Netherlands Black, spain, 1469–1714, A Society Of Conflict. The Origins and Development of the Dutch Revolt, the Founding of the Dutch Republic, War and Politics in Holland 1572–1588. ISBN 978-0-19-920911-8 García Hernán, Enrique. /Maffi, guerra y Sociedad en la Monarquía Hispánica. The Dutch Republic, Its Rise and Fall 1477–1806, the Duke of Anjou and the Politique Struggle During the Wars of Religion
Siege of Zierikzee
The Siege of Zierikzee was a siege in the Eighty Years War between October 1575 – and July 1576. The Spanish couldnt storm Zierikzee, and therefore tried to cut off all supplies to the city, until February 1576, despite heavy fire, small Dutch vessels were able to reach and supply the city. The defenders did several sorties which inflicted casualties and damage on the Spanish, but by March, the Spanish had sealed all access to the city. The Dutch under Admiral Lodewijk van Boisot and William the Silent did 3 attempts to break the siege, on April 11 a major sea battle was fought, but ended indecisively. A second attack on May 27 failed because the Spanish had been warned, after a third failed attempt, the Dutch withdrew on June 13. Hunger now forced the defenders to start negotiations, which were concluded on July 29, the garrison was allowed to leave the city, but Zierikzee had to pay 100,000 gulden. The city was occupied by the Spanish, but on July 12 a mutiny broke out under the Spanish troops, which didnt receive their long overdue and promised pay.
They extorted money and goods from the population and abandoned Zierikzee on November 3 and they headed to Brabant, and Modragón had no option, but to follow his troops. VAN OPSTAND TOT OORLOG The Spanish Fury
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, the capital of Antwerp province in the region of Flanders. With a population of 510,610, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium and its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, which is second behind Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the Westerschelde estuary, the Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally. Antwerp has long been an important city in the Low Countries, the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century. The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics, according to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river. He exacted a toll from passing boatmen, and for those who refused, he severed one of their hands, eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giants own hand and flung it into the river.
Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, a longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a period between 600 and 750, followed a different track. This must have coincided roughly with the current ringway south of the city, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named Antverpia, but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, and so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, aan t werp is possible. This warp is a hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide. Another word for werp is pol hence polders, historical Antwerp allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards, the earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century.
In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named, having been settled by the Germanic Franks, the name was reputed to have been derived from anda and werpum. The Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century, at the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto I, in the 11th century Godfrey of Bouillon was for some years known as the marquis of Antwerp. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michaels Abbey at Caloes
Siege of Haarlem
The siege of Haarlem was an episode of the Eighty Years War. From 11 December 1572 to 13 July 1573 an army of Philip II of Spain laid bloody siege to the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands, after the naval battle of Haarlemmermeer and the defeat of a land relief force, the starving city surrendered and the garrison was massacred. The resistance nonetheless was taken as an example by the Orangists at the sieges of Alkmaar. The city of Haarlem initially held a view in the religious war that was going on in the Netherlands. It managed to escape from the Reformed iconoclasm in 1566 that affected other cities in the Netherlands, when the city of Brielle was conquered by the Geuzen revolutionary army on 1 April, Haarlem did not initially support the Geuzen. The ruler of Spain was not pleased, and sent an army north under command of Don Fadrique, on 17 November 1572 all citizens of the city of Zutphen were murdered by the Spanish army, and on 1 December the city of Naarden suffered the same fate. The city administration of Haarlem sent a deputation of 4 people to Amsterdam to attempt to negotiate with Don Fadrique, the cities defenses were commanded by city-governor Wigbolt Ripperda, a commander put in charge by William the Silent, the Prince of Orange.
He strongly disapproved of negotiating with the Spanish army, called the city guard together, the citys administration was replaced with pro-Orange citizens. When the deputation came back from Amsterdam, they were convicted as traitors, the Sint-Bavokerk was cleared of Roman Catholic symbols the same day. On 11 December 1572 the Spanish army laid siege to Haarlem, the city was not very strong, militarily speaking. Although the city was surrounded by walls, they were not in good shape. The area around the city could not be inundated, and offered the enemy many places to set up camp, the existence of the Haarlemmermeer nearby made it difficult for the enemy to cut off the transportation of food into the city completely. In the Middle Ages it was unusual to fight in the winter, during the first two months of the siege, the situation was in balance. The Spanish army dug two tunnels to reach the city walls and collapse them, the defenders made tunnels to blow up the Spanish tunnels. The situation became worse for Haarlem on 29 March 1573, the Amsterdam army, faithful to the Spanish king, occupied the Haarlemmermeer and effectively blocked Haarlem from the outside world.
The hunger in the city grew, and the situation became so tense that on 27 May many prisoners were taken from the prison, on 19 December no less than 625 shots were fired at the defensive wall between the Janspoort to the Catherijnebridge. This forced the defenders to put up a new wall. Two city gates, the Kruispoort and the Janspoort collapsed from the fighting, kenau Simonsdochter Hasselaer, a very strong woman, helped defending the city
Siege of Mons (1572)
In the spring of 1572, after the capture of Valenciennes by a Protestant force under Louis of Nassau, the Dutch commander continued with his offensive and took Mons by surprise on 24 May. On 23 May Louis of Nassau arrived at Mons with 1,000 infantry and 500 cavalry, Louis took control of the city, and a few days later, was reinforced by about 4,500 infantry and cavalry under the command of the Count of Montgomery. On 23 June Fadriques forces arrived at Mons and laid siege to the city, Louis sent a message to Genlis, urging that he should join to the army of his brother, William of Orange, but Genlis ignored the message, and advanced against the Spaniards. On 19 July Genlis and his forces encamped near Mons, in a circular plane, Don Fadrique, aware his arrival, advanced towards him with 4,000 infantry,1,500 cavalry, and 3,000 armed villagers for the occasion. Genlis sent a detachment to reconnoitre, but after seeing the advance of the Spanish forces, Don Frederic de Toledo is coming upon us, they cried.
The Spanish cavalry of Philip of Noircarmes, without delay, charged against the French army, followed by infantry, the attack caused panic among the French Huguenots, and then, the Spanish infantry shattered the French army. The Spanish victory was complete, and the army of Genlis was entirely routed, about 2,000 French soldiers were killed or wounded, and 700 captured, including 70 nobles and officers. The leader of the French army, Adrien de Hangest, was captured, the Captain Francisco de Bobadilla was honored with carrying the news of the victory to the King Philip II, for the proven value during the battle. Meantime, the Prince of Orange with his new army continued to advance towards Mons, on 23 July, after the capture of Roermond, his troops mutinied. On 27 August, with guarantees of payment of some cities in Holland, crossed the Meuse, advancing over Diest, Termonde and Nivelles. On 11 August Gaspard de Coligny, with the approval of the King Charles IX, had written to the Prince, the result was St.
Bartholomews Day massacre on 23 August. In early September, Don Fernando, Duke of Alba, arrived at Mons with reinforcements, on 10 September arrived near Mons, and Alba, knowing the Oranges arrival, positioned his troops for a possible attack. After the failed attack, the Prince retreated to the village of Harmignies, in this raid 600 rebels were killed, for only 60 Spaniards. Hundred of horses were captured, and a part of the tents. During the action, William of Orange himself was in profound slumber, and was saved by the barking of his Spaniel dog, with a heavy heart, William wrote to his brother Louis of his forlorn condition and inability to relieve Mons. The Prince retreated with his army to Nivelles and Mechelen, marching to the Rhine, thereafter he made his way almost alone to Holland, the only province which still remained true to him. After the defeat of the army of French Huguenots under Adrien de Hangest, even the French Huguenots under his command mutinied as a consequence for the support of the King of France to the massacre of St.
Bartholomew. On 19 September Louis of Nassau surrendered Mons to the Duke of Alba, Louis of Nassau would be received by the Duke of Alba, the Duke of Medinaceli and Don Fadrique
Battle of Heiligerlee (1568)
Not to be confused with the earlier Battle of Heiligerlee The Battle of Heiligerlee was fought between Dutch rebels and the Spanish army of Friesland. This was the first Dutch victory during the Eighty Years War, the Groningen province of the Spanish Netherlands was invaded by an army consisting of 3,900 infantry led by Louis of Nassau and 200 cavalry led by Adolf of Nassau. Both were brothers of William I of Orange, the intention was to begin an armed uprising against the Spanish rulers of the Netherlands. The Stadtholder of Friesland and Duke of Aremberg, Johan de Ligne, had an army of 3,200 infantry and 20 cavalry, Aremberg initially avoided confrontation, awaiting reinforcements from the Count of Meghem. However, on 23 May, Adolfs cavalry lured him to an ambush at the monastery of Heiligerlee. Louis infantry, making up the bulk of the army, defeated the Spanish force which lost 1, 500–2,000 men, while the force lost 50. The invading force however, did not capture any cities and was defeated at the Battle of Jemmingen.
Laffin, Brasseys Dictionary of Battles, Barnes & Noble Inc.1995, Wolfgang, The history of Germany, from the earliest period to 1842, Vol.2, George Bell & sons,1908
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Battle of Steenbergen (1583)
The victory of the Spaniards ended the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours, and Francis, Duke of Anjou, left the Netherlands in late June. Meanwhile, the Prince of Parma, with the city of Eindhoven insured, continued his advance across North Brabant, the forces of Biron and Norreys suffered at least 3,200 casualties, and almost all the baggage, barrels of gunpowder,36 flags and 3 banners captured. On the Spanish side the casualties were 400 dead or wounded, the French Marshal himself, who tried to repel the attack of the Spaniards, he fell from his horse and broke his leg. A few days later, the lack of pay, and the differences between the French soldiers, and the Dutch and English Protestant troops, ended with hundreds of desertions among Birons troops. The result of the battle was an overwhelming Spanish victory, not only in terms of casualties in favour to the Spaniards, in terms of immediate strategic consequences. The position of Francis, Duke of Anjou, became impossible to hold with the States-General of the Netherlands, the defeat and the end of the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours was a severe blow to the Dutch Protestants and discredited William of Orange, his main supporter.
Moreover, the Spanish progress was unstoppable, and the Prince of Parma moved to Dunkirk, on July 16, the bombardment began, and a few days later, the city surrendered to the Spaniards, along with Nieuwpoort on July 23. Meanwhile, a Spanish detachment captured Veurne and Menen, sir John Norreys and the Elizabethan Military World. The chivalric ethos and the development of military professionalism, spain, 1469-1714, A Society Of Conflict. The Origins and Development of the Dutch Revolt, the Founding of the Dutch Republic, War and Politics in Holland 1572–1588. The Duke of Anjou and the Politique Struggle During the Wars of Religion, ISBN 0-521-32232-4 Biografía de Don Hernando de Acosta
Relief of Goes
In August 1572, during the course of the Eighty Years War, the city of Goes, in the Spanish Netherlands, was besieged by Dutch forces with the support of English troops sent by Queen Elizabeth I. This was a menace to the safety of the city of Middelburg. The surprise arrival of the Tercios forced the withdrawal of the Anglo-Dutch troops from Goes, allowing the Spanish to maintain control of Middelburg, in 1567 the hostilities increased, leading to the Eighty Years War. In April 1572, the Sea Beggars, Dutch rebels opposed to Spain, took Brielle, the first city conquered during the war. On 26 August 1572, in command of 7,000 soldiers among which were 1,500 English under Thomas Morgan and Humphrey Gilbert, the Spanish garrison of Goes, much inferior in number, would not withstand the siege for long without reinforcements. The presence in the area of the fleet of the Sea Beggars under Ewout Pietersz Worst prevented it, the river Scheldt was divided into two branches flowing in different directions before it disembogued into the North Sea, the Oosterschelde flowed to the north, the Westerschelde to the west.
Between these two there were the islands of Walcheren and Zuid-Beveland, in the northern part of which laid Goes. The area between Brabant and Zuid-Beveland was largely a flat floodplain exposed to the tides of the North Sea and the river currents of the Scheldt, channels of which intersected the mudflats. When the tide went down the channels had between 1 and 1.5 meters of depth, and when it rose the depth in the main channel reached three meters. Plomaert’s plan was presented to Sancho Dávila and Cristóbal de Mondragón, for its execution Mondragón assembled a force of 3,000 Spanish and German pikemen of the Tercios at Woensdrecht. Shortly before dawn they reached the riverbank of Zuid-Beveland near Yerseke, at 20 km of Goes, at the end of 1572, Arnemuiden and Rammekens remained under Spanish control. The island of Schouwen, including Zierikzee, was held by the Dutch forces until its recapture in 1576 by Luis de Requesens, English warfare, 1511–1642, Warfare and history. The Rise of the Dutch Republic, Entire 1566–74, history of Holland, from the beginning of the tenth to the end of the eighteenth century.
Madrid, Imp. de D. Leonardo Nuñez de Vargas. de Rustant, historia de don Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, primero del nombre, duque de Alva, Escrita, y extractada de los mas veridicos autores. Madrid, Spain, En la imprenta de don P. J. Alonso y Padilla
Battle of Empel
In Spain the battle is still remembered as it is believed that the army was saved due to intervention of Mary of the Immaculate Conception. After the campaign of 1585, the Governor of Spanish Netherlands and commander of the Spanish troops Alexander Farnese, the troops of Karl von Mansfeld occupied the area around s-Hertogenbosch. But all farmers had left the island, taking their livestock with them, to make the situation of the hungry Spanish troops even worse, Dutch commander Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein arrived with a strong land force and 100 ships. The Dutch leader offered a surrender to the Spaniards but the response was resolute. Ya hablaremos de capitulación después de muertos. », Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein breached the dikes of Bommelwaard, forcing the Spanish back over the Rhine to Empel. There they were unable to reach s-Hertogenbosch, because the terrain was flooded and guarded by the fleet of Hohenlohe, the island was attacked as well by artillery fire coming from a fort, at the other side of the river.
The situation for the Spanish looked desperate, a Spanish soldier who was digging a trench around the church commented this is more likely to be my grave than a trench. As he dug, he found a painting representing Mary of the Immaculate Conception, bobadilla interpreted the discovery as a sign from God, and had the painting put on the Spanish flag for worship. That night, an unusual and completely intensely cold wind that chilled the waters of the River Meuse broke, the Dutch ships had to be withdrawn to prevent them being stuck in the ice. This made it possible for the remaining Spanish troops to escape to the safety of s-Hertogenbosch, admiral Hohenlohe-Neuenstein went on to say, It seems that God is Spanish to work for me so great miracle. That same day, Mary of the Immaculate Conception was proclaimed patroness of the Spanish Tercios of Flanders, article on the site of the Army Museum of The Netherlands
Capture of Brielle
The Capture of Brielle by the Watergeuzen, on 1 April 1572 marked a turning point in the uprising of the Low Countries against Spain in the Eighty Years War. The Watergeuzen were led by William van der Marck, Lord of Lumey, after they were expelled from England by Elizabeth I, they needed a place to shelter their 25 ships. As they sailed towards Brielle, they were surprised to find out that the Spanish garrison had left in order to deal with trouble in Utrecht, on the evening of April 1, the 600 men sacked the undefended port. As they were preparing to leave, one of the men there was no reason they should leave where they were. 1 april is the Dutch name for April Fools Day, the Capture of Brielle is still celebrated by its inhabitants each year on the first of April. The kalknacht origins lie in the actions of locals who painted chalk on the doors of those citizens, by doing this they targeted those houses for the Geuzen to find all people who could resist the capture. The Capture of Brielle and its aftermath forms a part of the plot in Cecelia Hollands novel The Sea Beggars - though the depiction in the book in many ways departs from the historical facts
Battle of Noordhorn
In 1580, the Dutch stadtholder of Friesland, George van Lalaing, Count of Rennenberg, had shifted its allegiance from the Dutch to the Spanish side. This opened a new front at the door of the Dutch Republic. That year the Dutch, under the leadership of John Norreys, in July 1581, Rennenberg died and was replaced by the Spaniard Francisco Verdugo, whose arrival in Friesland with reinforcements changed the situation. On 30 September Verdugo forced Norreys to give battle using a strategy of attrition, the battle was fought on a rough, marshy ground very favourable to the Spanish army. The English left was cut off from the rest of the States army, during the pursuit of the States troops Verdugo was nearly captured, but left unharmed in the end. Both Norreys and Count William Louis were wounded, and their army suffered a death toll, losing many flags. Verdugo could not capitalize on his victory because of a mutiny the following day by his German regiments, the military situation in Friesland, had reached a turning point, and in 1582 the Spanish made great advances, even taking Steenwijk on 17 November 1582.
In July 1581 after being defeated by John Norreys and Diederik Sonoy at Kollum, Lalaing fell ill, parma sent one of his most accomplished officers, the Spaniard Francisco Verdugo, to take the place of the deceased stadtholder. Passing through Bredevoort and Coevorden and his regiment reached Groningen, with the loyal troops, meanwhile, he took two Dutch forts, one at the mouth of the Emden and another near Groningen. Verdugos arrival quickly altered the situation in Friesland, which had been favourable to the Dutch. Norreys, appointed Master of the Camp by the Dutch States-General, harassed the Spanish army during the winter of 1580–1581, forcing Rennenberg to lift the siege, the most effective force of the Dutch army in Friesland was Norreys English regiment. In June 1581, the States-General appointed Norreys General of all the States troops beyond the Meuse and he was expected to besiege the Spanish forts around Groningen, but he lacked the artillery to do so, having been given only four small guns.
Moreover, Norreys Dutch and Walloon soldiers were unhappy with being under the command of a foreigner. In early September, after a raid on his camp, Verdugo was sure of Norreys intentions of giving battle. Shortly thereafter, determined to fight, Norreys Anglo-Dutch army was deployed over the dike of Niezijl, Verdugo himself drove two stakes into the ground to mark the point that his cavalry was to charge upon the English vanguard. 200 arquebusiers were detached in a house nearby, the left consisted of two cavalry companies plus a battalion formed by the second half of Verdugos foot regiment. Verdugo deployed a forlorn hope of 200 musketeers and arquebusiers into a ditch covering the way,300 steps ahead of his three foot battalions. There existed a certain hostility between Norreys and Morgan, as Prince William of Orange favored Norreys despite Morgans longer experience in the Netherlands, having served since 1572