The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the population at the time. As a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread, during the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, and in the process established large overseas empires. Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, France, the independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific, after the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain, the British Empire expanded to include India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. In Britain, political attitudes favoured free trade and laissez-faire policies, during the 19th Century, Britains population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the Conservative Party under Benjamin Disraeli launched a period of imperialist expansion in Egypt, South Africa, Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britains economic lead, subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied heavily upon its empire. The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain, although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent immediately after World War I, Britain was no longer the worlds pre-eminent industrial or military power.
In the Second World War, Britains colonies in Southeast Asia were occupied by Imperial Japan, despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britains most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire, fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when England and Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was ever heard of his ships again
Paarl is a city with 191,013 inhabitants in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It is the third oldest town and European settlement in the Republic of South Africa, due to the growth of the Mbekweni township, it is now a de facto urban unit with Wellington. It is situated about 60 kilometres northeast of Cape Town in the Western Cape Province and is renowned for its scenic beauty and deep viticulture. Paarl is the seat of the Drakenstein Local Municipality, although not part of the Cape Town metropolitan area, Paarl is unusual in South Africa in that the name of the place is pronounced differently in English and Afrikaans. An unusual feature of the name of the town is that Afrikaners customarily attach the definite article to it, people say in die Paarl, Mandela spent three years in prison here living in a private house within the walls. Today, a statue of Mandela stands outside the prison. Paarl hosted a match from the ICC Cricket World Cup 2003, the headquarters of Ceres Fruit Juices are located in the city, although its namesake, Ceres valley and source of much of the fruit, is around one hours drive to the northeast.
The district is well known for its Pearl Mountain or Paarl Rock. This huge granite rock is formed by three rounded outcrops that make up Paarl Mountain and has compared in majesty to Uluru in Australia. The area that is now known as Paarl was first inhabited by the Khoikhoi, the Peninsular Khoikhoi people and the Cochoqua people lived in this area divided by the Berg River Valley. The Cochaqua were cattle herding people and among the richest of the Khoi tribes and they had between 16, 000-18,000 members and originally called Paarl Mountain, Tortoise Mountain. The Dutch East India Company under the leadership of Jan van Riebeeck established meat trading relationships with the Khoikhoi people on the Table Bay coastline, gabemma was the Fiscal for the settlement on the shores of Table Bay. The diamonds disappeared from the name and it became simply as Pearl Rock or Pearl Mountain. In 1687, Governor Simon van der Stel gave title to the first colonial farms in the area to free burghers, the following year, the French Huguenots arrived in the Western Cape and began to settle on farms in the area.
The fertile soil and the Mediterranean-like climate of this region provided perfect conditions for farming, the settlers planted orchards, vegetable gardens and above all, vineyards. Thus began Paarls long and continuing history as a major wine, the Khoi peoples were defeated in local war and were further decimated by European diseases. The population scattered inland toward the Orange River or became laborers on settler farms, in the 2001 census Paarls population was recorded as being 82,713 people in 20,138 households, in a land area of 32.2 square kilometres. 67. 8% of the inhabitants described themselves as Coloured,21. 2% as White,10. 5% as Black African,85. 5% spoke Afrikaans as their first language,8. 5% spoke Xhosa, and 5. 2% spoke English
It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information system onto a 3D globe. It was originally available with three different licenses, but has since reduced to just two, Google Earth and Google Earth Pro, which is now free and is intended for commercial use. The third original option, Google Earth Plus, has been discontinued. The product, re-released as Google Earth in 2005, is available for use on computers running Windows 2000 and above, Mac OS X10.3.9 and above, Linux kernel,2.6 or later. Google Earth is available as a plugin which was released on May 28,2008. It was available for mobile viewers on the iPhone OS on October 28,2008, as a free download from the App Store. In addition to releasing an updated Keyhole based client, Google added the imagery from the Earth database to their web-based mapping software, as of October 2011, Google Earth has been downloaded more than a billion times. Google Earth displays satellite images of varying resolution of the Earths surface, Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters.
Most areas in Google Earth are only shown in 2D aerial imagery, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASAs Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This means one can view almost the entire earth in three dimensions, since November 2006, the 3D views of many mountains, including Mount Everest, have been improved by the use of supplementary DEM data to fill the gaps in SRTM coverage. Google Earth allows users to search for addresses for some countries, enter coordinates, some people use the applications to add their own data, making them available through various sources, such as the Bulletin Board Systems or blogs mentioned in the link section below. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is a Web Map Service client, Google Earth supports managing three-dimensional Geospatial data through Keyhole Markup Language. In December 2006, Google Earth added a new layer called Geographic Web that includes integration with Wikipedia, in Wikipedia, entries are scraped for coordinates via the Coord templates.
There is a community-layer from the project Wikipedia-World, More coordinates are used, different types are in the display and different languages are supported than the built-in Wikipedia layer. Google announced on May 30,2007 that it is acquiring Panoramio, in March 2010, Google removed the Geographic Web layer. The Panoramio layer became part of the layers and the Wikipedia layer was placed in the More layer. In Google Earth v4.2 a flight simulator was included as a hidden feature, starting with v4.3 it is no longer hidden. The flight simulator could be accessed by holding down the keys Ctrl, initially the F-16 Fighting Falcon and the Cirrus SR-22 were the only aircraft available, and they could be used with only a few airports
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving in which the scuba diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater. They may include additional cylinders for decompression gas or emergency breathing gas, closed-circuit or semi-closed circuit rebreather scuba systems allow recycling of exhaled gases. The volume of gas used is reduced compared to that of open circuit, scuba divers engaged in armed forces covert operations may be referred to as frogmen, combat divers or attack swimmers. A scuba diver primarily moves underwater by using fins attached to the feet, scuba divers are trained in the procedures and skills appropriate to their level of certification by instructors affiliated to the diver certification organisations which issue these certifications. A minimum level of fitness and health is required by most training organisations, the closed-circuit rebreathers were first developed for escape and rescue purposes, and were modified for military use, due to their stealth advantages, as they produce very few bubbles.
The first commercially successful closed-circuit scuba was designed and built by English diving engineer, Henry Fleuss in 1878, while working for Siebe Gorman in London. Sir Robert Davis, head of Siebe Gorman, improved the oxygen rebreather in 1910 with his invention of the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus, rebreathers have been increasingly used by civilians for recreation, especially since the end of the Cold War. This reduced the risk of attack by Communist Bloc forces. After that, the armed forces had less reason to requisition civilian rebreather patents. The single hose two stage scuba regulators trace their origins to Australia, where Ted Eldred developed the first example of type of regulator. This was developed because patents protected the Aqualungs twin hose design, the single hose regulator separates the demand valve from the cylinder, giving the diver air at the ambient pressure at the mouth, rather than ambient pressure at the cylinder valve. The term SCUBA originally referred to United States combat frogmens oxygen rebreathers, SCUBA was originally an acronym, but is now generally used as a common noun or adjective, scuba.
It has become acceptable to refer to equipment or scuba apparatus—examples of the linguistic RAS syndrome. Scuba diving may be performed for a number of reasons, both personal and professional, recreational diving is done purely for enjoyment and has a number of technical disciplines to increase interest underwater, such as cave diving, wreck diving, ice diving and deep diving. Divers may be employed professionally to perform tasks underwater, some of these tasks are suitable for scuba. There are divers who work, full or part-time, in the diving community as instructors, assistant instructors, divemasters. Other specialist areas of diving include military diving, with a long history of military frogmen in various roles. Their roles include direct combat, infiltration behind enemy lines, placing mines or using a manned torpedo, in some cases diver rescue teams may be part of a fire department, paramedical service or lifeguard unit, and may be classed as public service diving
Strand, Western Cape
Strand is a seaside resort situated on the eastern edge of False Bay and at the foot of the Hottentots Holland Mountains. Its geographical position is between Macassar and Gordons Bay, and is about 50 km southeast of Cape Town, Strand is in the Western Cape province of South Africa, and has a population of approximately 50,000. Strands main attraction is the beach,5 km of sandy beach off False Bay. Strand is often referred to as The Strand, which is the old name of the town, the main beach in the Strand, Melkbaai Beach, is known as one of the best and safest bathing areas in the country. Facilities on or nearby this beach include Waterworld with a tube and mini-golf. Water sports may be conducted from various points along the beachfront, the Pipe is a part of the beach marked off for surfers and is known for its big, surfable waves. Strand has an Olympic-sized indoor pool which is heated and is open all year round. The coast between the Lourens River mouth and up to Rooi Els is popular with fishermen and rock anglers.
Surfing is a water sport in Strand, despite the possibility of sharks. These spots are much easier and safer to surf than other offshore surf spots on the Atlantic Ocean side of the Cape Peninsula. The town has a business district attracting customers from the surrounding basin, the CBD offers banks, numerous shopping malls and supermarkets. The Friedman & Cohen is the largest single shop in the CBD and serves as an attraction for residents. The major shopping malls in the include the Dorpsmeent Centre. The latter is not in the CBD, but outside the town, Strands central business district is entirely surrounded by Strand North and Strand South. Strand has its own area, Gants Centre. More recently, Gants Centre has increasingly been accommodating non-industrial businesses, including the local newspaper and these industrial companies are in turn gradually relocating to the areas surrounding the former dynamite sites outside the town, towards Somerset West. In winter there is a low inversion layer covering the town and this is rarely seen, because of the prevalent winds that keep Strands skies clean.
The town has primary and tertiary education facilities, as of 2007, there are 19 public and private schools
Angling is a method of fishing by means of an angle. The hook is attached to a fishing line and the line is often attached to a fishing rod. Fishing rods are fitted with a fishing reel that functions as a mechanism for storing and paying out the line. The hook itself can be dressed with lures or bait, a bite indicator such as a float, and a weight or sinker are sometimes used. Angling is the method of sport fishing, but commercial fisheries use angling methods such as longlining or trolling. Catch and release fishing is practiced by recreational fishermen. In many parts of the world, size limits apply to species, meaning fish below and/or above a certain size must, by law. The species of fish pursued by anglers vary with geography, among the many species of salt water fish that are caught for sport are swordfish, tuna, while in Europe cod and bass are popular targets. In North America the most popular water sport species include bass, walleye, yellow perch, salmon, bluegill. In Europe a large number of fish for species such as carp, tench, roach, European perch, catfish.
South Africa has a great fishing coast where anglers fish for species like cod, White Steenbras, some fish are sought for their value as food, others are pursued for their fighting abilities or for the difficulty of pursuit. The use of the hook in angling is descended, the word gorge, in this context, comes from the French word meaning throat. Gorges were used by ancient peoples to capture fish and animals like seal, walrus, a gorge was a long, thin piece of bone or stone attached by its midpoint to a thin line. The gorge would be baited so that it would rest parallel to the lay of the line. When the game would swallow the bait, a tug on the line would cause the gorge to orient itself at right angles to the line, some laws and regulations require hooks to be barbless. This rule is implemented to protect populations of certain species. A barbed hook could kill a fish if it were to penetrate the gills, which of the various techniques an angler may choose is dictated mainly by the target species and by its habitat.
Angling can be separated into two categories, using either artificial or natural baits
The Landsat program is the longest-running enterprise for acquisition of satellite imagery of Earth. On July 23,1972 the Earth Resources Technology Satellite was launched and this was eventually renamed to Landsat. The most recent, Landsat 8, was launched on February 11,2013, the instruments on the Landsat satellites have acquired millions of images. Landsat 7 data has eight spectral bands with spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 60 meters, Landsat images are usually divided into scenes for easy downloading. Each Landsat scene is about 115 miles long and 115 miles wide, Hughes Santa Barbara Research Center initiated and fabricated the first three Multispectral Scanners in 1969, the same year man landed on the moon. The first prototype MSS was completed nine months, in the fall of 1970. It was tested by scanning Half Dome at Yosemite National Park, the program was initially called the Earth Resources Technology Satellites Program, which was used from 1966 to 1975. In 1975, the name was changed to Landsat and this occurred in 1985 when the Earth Observation Satellite Company, a partnership of Hughes Aircraft and RCA, was selected by NOAA to operate the Landsat system with a ten-year contract.
EOSAT operated Landsat 4 and Landsat 5, had rights to market Landsat data. In 1989, this transition had not been completed when NOAAs funding for the Landsat program was due to run out. The head of the newly formed National Space Council, Vice President Dan Quayle, noted the situation and arranged emergency funding that allowed the program to continue with the data archives intact. Again in 1990 and 1991, Congress provided only half of the funding to NOAA. In 1992, various efforts were made to procure funding for follow on Landsats and continued operations, Landsat 6 was finally launched on October 5,1993, but was lost in a launch failure. Processing of Landsat 4 and 5 data was resumed by EOSAT in 1994, NASA finally launched Landsat 7 on April 15,1999. Timeline Landsat missions 1 through 5 carried the Landsat Multispectral Scanner and this construct ensured the secondary mirror would simply oscillate about the primary optic axis to maintain focus despite vibration inherent from the 360 mm beryllium scan mirror.
This engineering solution allowed the United States to develop LANDSAT at least five years ahead of the French SPOT and this was a direct result of the commercialization efforts begun under the Carter administration, though finally completed under the Reagan administration. This main plate was assembled on a frame, attached to the magnesium housing with helicoil fasteners. Key to the success of the multi spectral scanner was the scan monitor mounted on the underbelly of the magnesium housing, the beam struck the beryllium scan mirror seven times as it reflected seven times off the flat mirrors
Great white shark
The great white shark is notable for its size, with mature female individuals growing up to 6.1 m in length and 1,950 kg in weight. However most are smaller, males measuring 3.35 to 3.96 m, according to the same study, male great white sharks take 26 years to reach sexual maturity, while the females take 33 years to be ready to produce offspring. Great white sharks can accelerate to over 56 km/h for short bursts, the great white shark has no known natural predators other than the killer whale. The great white shark is arguably the worlds largest known extant macropredatory fish and it is known to prey upon a variety of other marine animals, including fish and seabirds. It is the known surviving species of its genus Carcharodon. The IUCN list the great white shark as a vulnerable species, the novel Jaws by Peter Benchley and the subsequent film by Steven Spielberg depicted the great white shark as a ferocious man eater. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus gave the white shark its first scientific name. Later, Sir Andrew Smith gave it Carcharodon as its name in 1833.
The generic name was identified with Linnaeus specific name and the current scientific name, Carcharodon comes from the Greek words karcharos, which means sharp or jagged, and odous, which means tooth. The great white shark came into existence during the mid-Miocene epoch, the earliest known fossils of the great white shark are about 16 million years old. However, the phylogeny of the white is still in dispute. The original hypothesis for the great whites origins is that it shares an ancestor with a prehistoric shark. C. megalodon had teeth that were not too dissimilar with those of great white sharks. Although cartilaginous skeletons do not fossilize, C. megalodon is estimated to have considerably larger than the great white shark. However, a new hypothesis proposes that the C. megalodon, the great white is more closely related to an ancient mako shark, Isurus hastalis, than to the C. One of the densest known populations is found around Dyer Island, South Africa, the great white is an epipelagic fish, observed mostly in the presence of rich game, such as fur seals, sea lions, other sharks, and large bony fish species.
In the open ocean, it has recorded at depths as great as 1,200 m. These findings challenge the notion that the great white is a coastal species
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin and stabilizers. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht and it rapidly gained wide-scale use as a safer alternative to gun powder and nitroglycerin. Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel and was the first safely manageable explosive stronger than black powder, Nobel obtained patents for his invention in England on 7 May 1867, in Sweden on 19 October 1867. After its introduction, dynamite rapidly gained wide-scale use as an alternative to black powder. Nobel tightly controlled the patents, and unlicensed duplicating companies were shut down. However, a few American businessmen got around the patent by using a different formula. Nobel originally sold dynamite as Nobels Blasting Powder but decided to change the name to dynamite, from the Ancient Greek word δύναμις dýnamis, an industrialist and inventor, Alfred Nobels father, Immanuel Nobel, built bridges and buildings in Stockholm. His construction work inspired him to new methods of blasting rock.
Immanuels work with on inspired Alfred to make explosives safer. Today dynamite is used in the mining, construction. Dynamite is still the product of choice for trenching applications, Dynamite is occasionally used as an initiator or booster for AN and ANFO explosive charges. Nitroglycerin by itself is a strong explosive, but is extremely shock-sensitive, and degrades over time to even more unstable forms. Dynamite combines nitroglycerin with absorbents and stabilizers, rendering it safe to use, the original composition of dynamite consisted of three parts Explosive Oil, one part diatomaceous earth as the absorbent, and a small admixture of sodium carbonate antacid as the stabilizer. Diatomaceous earth is not usually used today as an absorbent medium and it has replaced by cheaper media like sawdust, wood pulp, flour. Other stabilizers like calcium carbonate or zinc oxide can be used in the place of sodium carbonate, sodium nitrate is added to the medium as an oxidizer that improves the dynamites brisance.
Dynamite is usually sold in the form of cardboard cylinders about 20 cm long and about 3.2 cm in diameter, a stick of dynamite thus produced contains roughly 1 MJ of energy. Other sizes exist, rated by either portion or by weight, Dynamite is usually rated by weight strength, usually from 20% to 60%. For example, 40% dynamite is composed of 40% nitroglycerin and 60% dope, the maximum shelf life of nitroglycerin-based dynamite is recommended as one year from the date of manufacture under good storage conditions
Kalk Bay is a fishing village on the coast of False Bay, South Africa and is now a suburb of greater Cape Town. It lies between the ocean and sharply rising mountainous heights that are buttressed by crags of grey Table Mountain Sandstone, a literal translation from the Dutch/Afrikaans name Kalkbaai is Lime Bay. This derives from the vast deposits of mussel shells found there, Lime kilns to roast mussel shells are still found along the west coast. The railway from the business district of Cape Town to Simons Town passes through Kalk Bay. The Foundation Stone for the harbour was laid in 1913, several famous caves are located in the mountains above the village. They are of importance to spaeleologists because they have formed in sandstone, large cave systems are not often found in this type of chemically unreactive rock. Kalk Bay is home to the tiny but locally famous surf spot named Kalk Bay Reef and this is renowned for heavy barrels and the associated shallow reef. It is best surfed on a big south-easterly swell or a north west wind, in smaller swells low tide makes for better barrels.
Southern right whales come here during whale watching seasons, and are seen playing or resting very close to surfers or piers. Kalk Bay was a municipality from 1895 to 1913, the town council assumed a coat of arms, designed by Frank Newnes, in July 1901. The upper half was divided vertically, depicting a boat and eight fleurs de lis. A small shield displaying an arum lily was placed in the centre and harbours in South Africa Kalk Bay travel guide from Wikivoyage