The Fantastic Four are a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The group debuted in Fantastic Four #1, which helped to usher in a new level of realism in the medium; the Fantastic Four was the first superhero team created by artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby and editor/co-plotter Stan Lee, who developed a collaborative approach to creating comics with this title that they would use from on. The four individuals traditionally associated with the Fantastic Four, who gained superpowers after exposure to cosmic rays during a scientific mission to outer space, are Mister Fantastic, a scientific genius and the leader of the group, who can stretch his body into incredible lengths and shapes. Since their original 1961 introduction, the Fantastic Four have been portrayed as a somewhat dysfunctional, yet loving, family. Breaking convention with other comic book archetypes of the time, they would squabble and hold grudges both deep and petty and eschewed anonymity or secret identities in favor of celebrity status.
The team is well known for its recurring encounters with characters such as the villainous monarch Doctor Doom, the planet-devouring Galactus, the Kree Empire's ruthless and tyrannical enforcer Ronan the Accuser, ruler of the Negative Zone, the sea-dwelling prince Namor, the spacefaring Silver Surfer, the Skrull warrior Kl'rt. The Fantastic Four have been adapted into other media, including four animated series and four live-action films. Apocryphal legend has it that in 1961, longtime magazine and comic book publisher Martin Goodman was playing golf with either Jack Liebowitz or Irwin Donenfeld of rival company DC Comics known as National Periodical Publications, that the top executive bragged about DC's success with the new superhero team the Justice League of America. While film producer and comics historian Michael Uslan has debunked the particulars of that story, Goodman, a publishing trend-follower, aware of the JLA's strong sales, did direct his comics editor, Stan Lee, to create a comic-book series about a team of superheroes.
According to Lee, writing in 1974, "Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes....'If the Justice League is selling', spoke he,'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?'"Lee, who had served as editor-in-chief and art director of Marvel Comics and its predecessor companies, Timely Comics and Atlas Comics, for two decades, found that the medium had become creatively restrictive. Determined "to carve a real career for myself in the nowhere world of comic books", Lee concluded that, "For just this once, I would do the type of story I myself would enjoy reading.... And the characters would be the kind of characters I could relate to: they'd be flesh and blood, they'd have their faults and foibles, they'd be fallible and feisty, — most important of all — inside their colorful, costumed booties they'd still have feet of clay."Lee said he created a synopsis for the first Fantastic Four story that he gave to penciller Jack Kirby, who drew the entire story.
Kirby turned in his penciled art pages to Lee, who captions. This approach to creating comics, which became known as the "Marvel Method", worked so well for Lee and Kirby that they used it from on. Kirby recalled events somewhat differently. Challenged with Lee's version of events in a 1990 interview, Kirby responded: "I would say that's an outright lie", although the interviewer, Gary Groth, notes that this statement needs to be viewed with caution. Kirby claims he came up with the idea for the Fantastic Four in Marvel's offices, that Lee had added the dialogue after the story had been pencilled. Kirby sought to establish, more credibly and on numerous occasions, that the visual elements of the strip were his conceptions, he pointed to a team he had created for rival publisher DC Comics in the 1950s, the Challengers of the Unknown. "f you notice the uniforms, they're the same... I always give them a skintight uniform with a belt... the Challengers and the FF have a minimum of decoration. And of course, the Thing's skin is a kind of decoration, breaking up the monotony of the blue uniform."
The chest insignia of a "4" within a circle, was designed by Lee. The characters wear no uniforms in the first two issues. Given the conflicting statements, outside commentators have found it hard to identify with precise detail who created the Fantastic Four. Although Stan Lee's typed synopsis for the Fantastic Four exists, Earl Wells, writing in The Comics Journal, points out that its existence does not assert its place in the creation: "e have no way of knowing of whether Lee wrote the synopsis after a discussion with Kirby in which Kirby supplied most of the ideas". Comics historian R. C. Harvey believes that the Fantastic Four was a furtherance of the work Kirby had been doing and so "more Kirby's creations than Lee's", but Harvey notes that the Marvel Method of collaboratio
Pousargues's mongoose known as the African tropical savannah mongoose, is a mongoose native to Central Africa. It is listed as data deficient on the IUCN Red List as little is known about its distribution and ecology. Up to the late 20th century, it was known from only around 30 zoological specimens in natural history museum collections; the Pousargues's mongoose is brown with face. Its tail is bushy, its front feet have strong claws, its body length is between 33 cm with a 16 -- 23 cm long tail. In 1893, Eugène de Pousargues first described the Pousargues's mongoose on the basis of zoological specimens collected in 1892 near the Kémo River; the type locality corresponds to the former French garrison founded by the Dybowski Mission close to the settlement of Fort de Possel. It is named in honor of Jean Dybowski, it was subordinated to the genus Crossarchus. It is the only species in the genus Dologale. A genetic study focused on Carnivora highlighted the Pousargues's mongoose to be the sister-species of the genus Helogale.
The Pousargues's mongoose ranges from northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Central African Republic to western Uganda. Mongooses sighted and recorded by a camera-trap in 2011 and 2012 in the Central African Republic were preliminarily identified as Pousargues's mongoose. In 2013, a group of Pousargues's mongooses was observed near Lake Albert in Uganda's Semliki Wildlife Reserve. In 2016, an individual was photographed in Garamba National Park. Field research for the collection of basic data on its ecology is indispensable for designing adequate conservation measures
Joseph E. "Joe" Stoy is a British computer scientist. He studied physics at Oxford University. Early in his career, in the 1970s, he worked on denotational semantics with Christopher Strachey in the Programming Research Group at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory, he was a Fellow of Oxford. He has spent time at MIT in the United States. In 2003, he co-founded Inc.. His book Denotational Semantics: The Scott-Strachey Approach to Programming Language Semantics is now a classic text. Stoy married Gabrielle Stoy, a mathematician and Fellow of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joseph E. Stoy at DBLP Bibliography Server Program Verification and Semantics: The Early Work
Facebook Technologies, LLC, doing business as Oculus, is an American technology company founded by Palmer Luckey, Brendan Iribe, Michael Antonov and Nate Mitchell in July 2012 in Irvine, now based in Menlo Park. It specializes in virtual reality software products. In April 2012, Luckey announced the Rift, a virtual reality headset designed for video gaming, launched a Kickstarter campaign in August to make virtual reality headsets available to developers; the campaign proved successful and raised $2.4 million, ten times the original goal of $250,000. Two pre-production models were released to developers; the consumer product was released on March 28, 2016 with an all-new design incorporating specialized VR displays, positional audio, infrared tracking system. In March 2014, Inc. CEO Mark Zuckerberg agreed to acquire Oculus for US$2.3 billion in stock. In 2015, Oculus acquired Surreal Vision, a British startup focused on 3D reconstruction and mixed reality, stating that it could be possible for Oculus to develop products with the concept of telepresence.
The company partnered with Samsung to develop the Samsung Gear VR in November 2015 for the Samsung Galaxy smartphones. Zuckerberg would like to have 1 billion virtual reality headsets in consumers' hands. In June 2019 Oculus announced it sold $5 million worth of content for the Oculus Quest in just 2 weeks; as a head-mounted display designer at the University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies, Palmer Luckey earned a reputation for having the largest personal collection of HMDs in the world, was a longtime moderator in Meant to be Seen's discussion forums. Through MTBS's forums, Palmer developed the idea of creating a new head-mounted display, both more effective than what was on the market and was inexpensive for gamers. To develop the new product, Luckey founded Oculus VR with Scaleform co-founders Brendan Iribe and Michael Antonov, Nate Mitchell and Andrew Scott Reisse. Coincidentally, John Carmack of id Software had been doing his own research on HMDs and happened upon Palmer's developments as a fellow MTBS member.
After sampling an early unit, Carmack favored Luckey's prototype and just before the 2012 Electronic Entertainment Expo, id Software announced that their future updated version of Doom 3, Doom 3 BFG Edition, would be compatible with head-mounted display units. During the convention, Carmack introduced a duct taped head-mounted display, based on Palmer's Oculus Rift prototype, which ran Carmack's own software; the unit featured a high speed IMU and a 5.6-inch LCD, visible via dual lenses that were positioned over the eyes to provide a 90 degree horizontal and 110 degree vertical stereoscopic 3D perspective. Carmack left id Software as he was hired as Oculus VR's Chief technology officer. Following the demonstration of the Oculus Rift prototype at E3 in June 2012, on August 1, 2012, the company announced a Kickstarter campaign to further develop the product. Oculus announced that the "dev kit" version of the Oculus Rift would be given as a reward to backers who pledged $300 or more on Kickstarter, with an expected shipping date set of December 2012.
There was a limited run of 100 unassembled Rift prototype kits for pledges over $275 that would ship a month earlier. Both versions were intended to include Doom 3 BFG Edition, but Rift support in the game was not ready, so to make up for it they included a choice of discount vouchers for either Steam or the Oculus store. Within four hours of the announcement, Oculus secured its intended amount of US$250,000, in less than 36 hours, the campaign had surpassed $1 million in funding ending with $2,437,429. On December 12, 2013, Marc Andreessen joined the company's board when his firm, Andreessen Horowitz, led the $75 million Series B venture funding. In total, Oculus VR has raised $91 million with $2.4 million raised via crowdfunding. Although Oculus had only released a development prototype of its headset, on March 25, 2014, Mark Zuckerberg announced that Facebook, Inc. would be acquiring Oculus for US$2 billion, pending regulatory approval. The deal includes $400 million in cash and 23.1 million common shares of Facebook, valued at $1.6 billion, as well as additional $300 million assuming Facebook reaches certain milestones.
This move was ridiculed by some backers who felt the acquisition was counter to the independent ideology of crowdfunding. Many Kickstarter backers and game industry figures, such as Minecraft developer Markus Persson, criticized the sale of Oculus to Facebook. On March 28, 2014, it was announced; as of January 2015, the Oculus headquarters has been moved from Irvine, California to Menlo Park, where Facebook's Headquarters is located. Oculus has stated. In 2014, Samsung partnered with Oculus to develop the Gear VR, after the success of the then-in-development Rift. During the course of 2014-15, two Innovator Editions were developed and sold; the device that the Innovator Editions used was the Note 4. On November 20, 2015, the consumer edition of the Gear VR was released to the public, sold out during the first shipments; the device supported the Samsung Galaxy Note 5, Samsung Galaxy S6, Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge, Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge+, the Samsung Galaxy S7, Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge. In May 2015, Oculus acquired British company Surreal Vision, a company based on 3D scene-mapping reconstruction and augmented reality.
State Route 660 is an east–west state highway in the east-central portion of Ohio. Existing within Guernsey County, the western terminus of State Route 660 is at State Route 313 just east of the hamlet of Claysville, its eastern terminus is at a signalized T-intersection with State Route 209 near Cambridge Municipal Airport, 1.25 miles south of the city limits of Cambridge, as well as State Route 209's interchange off of Interstate 70. State Route 660 was established in 1937 along the routing that it occupies. No significant changes have taken place to the highway since its inception, other than the fact that the route that State Route 660 met at its northern terminus was U. S. Route 21, which has since been re-designated as an extension of State Route 209; the entire route is in Guernsey County
Sheng ji is a family of point-based, trick-taking card games played in China and in Chinese immigrant communities. They have i.e. which cards are trump changes every round. As these games are played over a wide area with no standardization, rules vary from region to region; the game can be played with multiple decks of cards. With one deck, it may be called sìshí fēn; the article below describes the bashi fen variant, with players playing with two decks and in fixed partnerships. The game is played with four players in fixed partnerships, with players sitting across each other forming a team; each team has a rank that they are playing, henceforth referred to as their score. At the beginning of a match, everyone starts at a score of 2; the teams are divided into the "declarers" and the "opponents", which are determined in the process of the game and will change frequently. The purpose of the game is to raise one's own team to the score of above ace, while preventing the other team from doing so; when a team passes a score of ace, a match ends with their victory.
This may take several hours, so shorter games may end at a lower threshold, or begin with players' scores higher than two. If an longer game is desired, players can wrap back around to 2 after passing ace; the game is played with two jokers per deck, giving a total of four jokers. The jokers are separated into black; some card manufacturers will make jokers of the same color, which have to be marked as "red" and "black." The order of the cards depends on the dominant suit and rank, which are determined before every round. The typical order, from highest to lowest, is: Red jokers Black jokers Cards in both the dominant suit and rank Other cards in the dominant rank Other cards in the dominant suit, following the descending order ace through 2 Cards in other suits, following the descending order ace through 2where the first five are considered under the trump suit. For example, in a certain round, if the queen of spades is dominant the order of the cards is: Red jokers Black jokers Q♠ Queen of any other suit A♠, K♠, J♠, 10♠, 9♠, 8♠, 7♠, 6♠, 5♠, 4♠, 3♠, 2♠ Cards in other suits, following the order ace, jack, etc. down to 2.
Note that the other queens are no longer considered members of their respective suit, but part of the trump suit. If two or more ranked cards or combinations are played during a trick, the first one played wins. In the deck, all kings and 10s are worth 10 points each, while 5s are worth 5 points each, although the presence of the points do not affect the order of the cards. In two decks, there are a total of 200 points. All other cards do not contain points. For the opponents, the goal of each round is to obtain 80 points or more in one round to become declarers in the next round, while for the declarers, it would be preventing the opponents from obtaining 80 points, thus raising their team's rank; the cards are dealt out in Chinese fashion, where the players take turns drawing one card at a time in counter-clockwise order. The deal is initiated in one of two ways: One player shuffles the cards and lets any other player cut draws the first card. One player shuffles the cards turns over one of them.
He counts, starting from himself and going counter-clockwise, until he reaches the number equivalent to the card, where aces count as one, jacks as 11, queens as 12, kings as 13. If the card turned over is a joker, another card must be turned over; the player, reached draws the first card after the player to his left cuts. The dealer is a member of the declarers' team that starts every round, plays an important role in helping his team increase their rank in that round; the dealer is determined as such: In the first round, every team starts at rank of 2. For teams are not separated into declarers or opponents yet, players should reveal any 2 card from the cards he drew as as possible, his team will thus become the declarers. In subsequent rounds, if the declarers have defended their points in the previous round, they will remain as declarers, but the partner of the previous dealer will become the new dealer. If the opponents have caught 80 points, they will become the new declarers, with the player sitting on the right of the previous dealer becoming the new dealer.
The dominant rank is always equal to the score of the declarers in any particular round. Hence, when the declarers obtain a score of 5, the rank for that round is 5; the dominant suit, on the other hand, is determined during the drawing of cards where any player decides to reveal a card in the trump rank he has, the suit of the card becomes the trump suit. In cases where players do not agree to the dominant suit set, they may play doubles of another suit in the same rank to cancel the original declaration, making the new suit the dominant suit. E.g. The dominant rank is 9. Player North reveals a 9♥ to make hearts dominant, but Player East reveals a pair of 9♣, effecti