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In theatre, a farce is a comedy that aims at entertaining the audience through situations that are exaggerated and thus improbable. Farce is characterized by physical humor, the use of deliberate absurdity or nonsense, broadly stylized performances, it is often set in one particular location, where all events occur. Farces have been written for the film; the term farce is derived from the French word for "stuffing", in reference to improvisations applied by actors to medieval religious dramas. Forms of this drama were performed as comical interludes during the 15th and 16th centuries; the oldest surviving farce may be Le Garçon et l'aveugle from after 1266, although the earliest farces that can be dated come from between 1450 and 1550. The best known farce is La Farce de maître Pathelin from c. 1460. Satyr play Phlyax play Menander's Dyskolos Atellan Farce Plautus' Aulularia Querolus Xu Zhuodai, "The Fiction Material Wholesaler" Zhang Tianyi, "The Bulwark" Zhang Tianyi, "The Pidgin Warrior" Zhang Tianyi, "Mr. Hua Wei" Yang Jiang, "Forging the Truth" Devils on the Doorstep God of Cookery Kung Fu Hustle The Boy and the Blind Man, 13th century, oldest written French farce.

La Farce de maître Pierre Pathelin The Liar Molière: Tartuffe Molière: The Miser Labiche: La Cagnotte and other plays. Alfred Hennequin and Alfred Delacour: Le Procès Veauradieux Georges Feydeau: Le Dindon Octave Mirbeau: Farces et moralités. Georges Feydeau: A Flea in Her Ear Marc Camoletti: Boeing Boeing and Pyjama pour Six Jean Poiret: La Cage aux Folles Carl Laufs and Wilhelm Jacoby: Pension Schöller Franz Arnold and Ernst Bach: Wochenende im Paradies Miles Tredinnick with Ursula Lyn and Adolf Opel:... Und Morgen Fliegen Wir Nach Miami Farces are popular in Marathi and Gujarati language theatre. A few such examples: Zopi Gelela Jaga Zala Dinuchya Sasubai Radhabai Pala Pala Kon Pudhe Pale To Gholaat Ghol Idhar Udhar Dekh Bhai Dekh Khichdi Instant Khichdi Sarabhai vs Sarabhai Kareena Kareena F. I. R. Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah Sajan Re Jhoot Mat Bolo Golmaal Hai Bhai Sab Golmaal Hai Comedy Nights with Kapil "The Kapil Sharma Show" Dario Fo: Morte accidentale di un anarchico known as Accidental Death of an Anarchist was first played on December 5, 1970 in Varese, Italy.

Japan has a centuries-old tradition of farce plays called kyōgen. These plays are performed as comic relief during the serious Noh plays. Following stage shows of Umer Shareef are popular: Bakra Qistoon Pay Buddha Ghar Pe Hai Yes Sir Eid, No Sir Eid Akbari Asghari Aunn Zara Azar Ki Ayegi Baraat Aleksander Fredro: Zemsta, 1834 Gabriela Zapolska: The Morality of Mrs. Dulska, 1906 Sławomir Mrożek: Tango, 1964. IMDb list of film and television farces

Office of the Prime Minister and Privy Council

The Office of the Prime Minister and Privy Council building known as the Langevin Block, is an office building facing Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Canada. As the home of the Privy Council Office and Office of the Prime Minister, it is the working headquarters of the executive branch of the Canadian government; the term Langevin Block was used as a metonym for the Prime Minister's Office and the Privy Council Office. The building was named after Father of Confederation and cabinet minister Hector-Louis Langevin. Following objections by Indigenous people of the use of Hector Langevin's name, due to Langevin's role in establishing the residential school system associated with the abuse of Indigenous children and attempts to forcibly assimilate them, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced the renaming of the building on June 21, 2017; the building is a National Historic Site of Canada. While the offices of senior Privy Council Office officials remain in the Langevin Block, its use is now limited to the Prime Minister's Office, in addition to his or her office in the Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings.

Started in 1884 and completed in 1889, the block was the first federal government office building constructed outside the Parliament Hill precinct. It is built of sandstone obtained from a New Brunswick quarry owned by Charles Elijah Fish, it occupies a prominent place on Ottawa's Wellington Street, adjacent to the National War Memorial, Chateau Laurier, Government Conference Centre, Rideau Canal, National Arts Centre, High Commission of the United Kingdom in Ottawa, the Sparks Street Mall. Named the Southwest Departmental Building during construction, its name from completion until 2017 came from Sir Hector-Louis Langevin, the Public Works Minister in the Cabinet of Sir John A. Macdonald; the structure is distinctive in Ottawa for its Second Empire Style design because most government buildings from the period were built in the Gothic Revival style. It was designed by the Chief Dominion Architect Thomas Fuller, who designed the original Parliament Buildings. In 2000, it was named by the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium.<ref name="RAIC">Cook, Marcia.

"Cultural consequence". Ottawa Citizen. Canwest. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved October 11, 2009.</ref The building is connected by a bridge to an office building at 13 Metcalfe Street. In 2017, the Assembly of First Nations called for the building to be renamed, due to Hector Langevin's role in the creation of Canada's controversial Indian residential schools system. On June 21, 2017 the building was renamed the Office of the Prime Privy Council. List of designated heritage properties in Ottawa Exploring Ottawa: an architectural guide to the nation's capital. Harold Kalman and John Roaf. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983. Ottawa: a guide to heritage structures City of Ottawa, Local Architectural Conservation Advisory Committee. 2001 The Langevin Block from Yesterday to Today Langevin Block Canada's Historic Places

Tom Feister

Tom Feister is an American illustrator and comic book artist. Feister is a graduate of the Savannah College of Design, he began his career as an editorial illustrator while still in college. He has since gone on to pursue a career in the varied and related fields of comic book illustration, animation and toy design; some of Tom's clients have included Microsoft, Adult Swim, The Upper Deck Company, DC Direct, Cartoon Network, Marvel Comics, Devil's Due Publishing, Dark Horse Comics, DC Comics, Turner Studios, Primal Screen, WildStorm Publishing, Wild Hare Studios, among others. He is a founding member of the Atlanta-based Studio Revolver. Along with Dexter Vines, Feister founded Studio Revolver in Atlanta, Georgia in late 2003; the studio was a loose collection of comics artists and designers. During the years the studio was active they created art for Marvel, DC Comics, WildStorm Productions, Dark Horse, Dynamite Entertainment, a host of others. Alumni include Rod Ben, Mark Brooks, John Tyler Christopher, Stephanie Gladden, Georges Jeanty, Jason Pearson, Brian Reber, more.

In 2004 Feister began work on Wildstorm publishing's Ex Machina. Ex-Machina was recognized with multiple Eisner Award nominations and won the 2005 Eisner award for Best New Series. Harris and Feister were nominated for Best Art Team, his work has appeared in G. I. Joe, Iron Man, Avengers: the Initiative, Green Lantern/Sinestro Corps, Witchblade special. In 2013 Feister was hired on as Lead Character Designer for season 1 of The Awesomes, animated series airing on Hulu created by Seth Meyers and Mike Shoemaker. 2016 Feister drew Grand Passion for Dynamite Entertainment. The series was written by James Robinson; the Official Website of Tom Feister Studio Revolver deviantART Gallery

Frank Johnston (artist)

Francis Hans Johnston was a Canadian artist associated with the Group of Seven. Frank Johnston was born on June 1888 in Toronto. Like many other Group members, he joined Grip Engraving Co. as a commercial artist. He studied in Germany from 1904 to 1907. Although his official association with the Group of Seven was brief, his friendship with the artists dated back over a much longer period. In 1910, he left for the United States where he studied art in Philadelphia and worked in commercial design in New York. Although an original member of the Group, Johnston's association was brief, he did take part in the Group's first exhibition of 1920, but by 1921 he had left Toronto to become Principal at the Winnipeg School of Art. In the earlier years of their friendship, Johnston had joined MacDonald and Harris on their journeys to Algoma, his paintings from those years express a strong decorative interpretation of the landscape. In years, the artist's style became more realistic and revealed a strong fascination with the qualities of light.

His landscape paintings became full of images reflected on water. In 1927, Johnston changed his name to the more exotic title of `Franz' Johnston, he painted over 250 paintings in his entire career. Johnston had much in common with these artists. Like them, in the years before World War I he used his spare time to pursue landscape painting, through sketching trips around Toronto and farther north to Bon Echo near Algonquin Park and to Hearst, north of Lake Superior—a source of inspiration for him. An eager participant in Group activities, Johnston went on all the Algoma trips except the last. Johnston did not use the techniques of Harris and MacDonald but, employing tempera rather than oil paint, he searched out the pattern and texture of his subject. Johnston exhibited with The Group of Seven only once, in their first show at the Art Gallery of Toronto in May 1920. Johnston's rate of production was such that in the 1919 Algoma show he contributed sixty works - more than any other artist. A few months he extended his independence more, having a large one-man show of 200 paintings at the T.

Eaton Company Galleries. In the fall of 1921, Johnston left Toronto to accept the position as principal of the Winnipeg School of Art. There he held the largest show seen in that city, he had been moving away from the Group movement, now the break was complete. In 1924, he announced his official resignation, claiming that he had no disagreement with the group, only that he wanted to go his own way with regards to exhibitions; when Johnston left The Group, he turned more to working for department store art galleries, concerning himself with decorative effects, which he sought out. Johnston's style became realistic throughout his life, evincing a particular fascination for the qualities of light reflected from snow; this theme recurred in works, in large narrative paintings of the 1930s and 1940s as well as more intimate examinations of a river valley, the bright blue of the water bending between snow-laden banks. His subjects range from the pastoral countryside of the Wyebridge area, northern Quebec, the Northwest Territories.

He had begun in the 1920s to hold regular solo exhibitions and his paintings found a great following among the public. Unlike many Canadian artists, Johnston was able to achieve considerable financial success in his own lifetime, he taught at the Ontario College of Art during the 1920s. In 1927, he changed his name to Franz Johnston, he was made a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. He died in Toronto in 1949 and buried with his fellow artists at McMichael Canadian Art Collection in Kleinburg, Ontario. Boulet, The Canadian Earth, M. Bernard Loates, Cerebrus Publishing, ISBN 0920016103 Works by Frank Johnston at Faded Page A brief history of the Canadian Group of Seven Frank Johnston at Find a Grave CBC Digital Archives - The Group of Seven: Painters in the Wilderness Ontario Plaques - Franz Johnston

Kern and Sutter massacres

The Kern and Sutter massacres refer to a series of massacres on March 23, 1847 in which men led by Captain Edward M. Kern and rancher John Sutter killed twenty California Indians. In 1839 John Sutter, a Swiss immigrant of German origin, settled in Alta California and began building a fortified settlement on a land grant of 48,827 acres at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River, he had been given the land by the Mexican government under the stipulation that it would help to keep Americans from occupying the territory. In order to build his fort and develop a large ranching/farming network in the area, Sutter relied on Indian labor. Observers accused him of using "kidnapping, food privation, slavery" in order to force Indians to work for him, stated that Sutter held the Indians under inhumane conditions. If Indians refused to work for him, Sutter responded with violence. Theodor Cordua, a German immigrant who leased land from Sutter, wrote: When Sutter established himself in 1839 in the Sacramento Valley, new misfortune came upon these peaceful natives of the country.

Their services were demanded immediately. Those who did not want to work were considered as enemies. With other tribes the field was taken against the hostile Indian. Declaration of war was not made; the villages were attacked before daybreak when everybody was still asleep. Neither old nor young was spared by the enemy, the Sacramento River was colored red by the blood of the innocent Indians, for these villages were situated at the banks of the rivers. During a campaign one section of the attackers fell upon the village by way of land. All the Indians of the attacked village fled to find protection on the other bank of the river, but there they were awaited by the other half of the enemy and thus the unhappy people were shot and killed with rifles from both sides of the river. An Indian escaped such an attack, those who were not murdered were captured. All children from six to fifteen years of age were taken by the greedy white people; the village was burned down and the few Indians who had escaped with their lives were left to their fate.

In 1846, the American James Clyman wrote that Sutter "keeps 600 to 800 Indians in a complete state of Slavery."Despite his promises to the Mexican government, Sutter was hospitable to American settlers entering the region, provided an impetus for many of them to settle there. The hundreds of thousands of acres which these men took from the Native Americans had been an important source of food and resources; as the White settlers were ranching two million head of livestock, shooting wild game in enormous numbers, replacing wilderness with wheat fields, available food for Indians in the region diminished. In response, some Indians took to raiding the cattle of White ranchers. In August 1846, an article in The Californian declared that in respect to California Indians, "The only effectual means of stopping inroads upon the property of the country, will be to attack them in their villages." On February 28, 1847, sixteen Mill Creek men petitioned US Army captain Edward M. Kern for assistance against local Indians so that they would not "be forced to abandon our farms and leave our property something worse."

Captain Kern marched up the valley with twenty men to "chastise" the Indians. There he met up with Sutter, who had assembled thirty men of his own from among the local White settlers. On March 23, 1847, Captain Kern and Sutter took these men into the upper Sacramento Valley. From there the led three separate attacks in which twenty Indians were killed, while Kern and Sutter did not lose a single man. None of the men faced any repercussions for their actions. Captain Kern claimed in a letter to Commander Joseph B. Hull that his attacks had convinced the Indians to stop taking cattle stock from the Americans. On April 22, 1850, the fledgling California state legislature passed the "Act for the Government and Protection of Indians," legalizing the kidnapping and forced servitude of Indians by White settlers. In 1851, the civilian governor of California declared, "That a war of extermination will continue to be waged... until the Indian race becomes extinct, must be expected." This expectation soon found its way into law.

An 1851 legislative measure not only gave settlers the right to organize lynch mobs to kill Indians, but allowed them to submit their expenses to the government. By 1852 the state had authorized over a million dollars in such claims. In 1856, a San Francisco Bulletin editorial stated, "Extermination is the quickest and cheapest remedy, effectually prevents all other difficulties when an outbreak occurs." In 1860 the legislature passed a law expanding the age and condition of Indians available for forced slavery. A Sacramento Daily Union article of the time accused high-pressure lobbyists interested in profiting off enslaved Indians of pushing the law through, gave examples of how wealthy individuals had abused the law to acquire Indian slaves from the reservations, stated, "The Act authorizes as complete a system of slavery, without any of the checks and wholesome restraints of slavery, as was devised."On April 27, 1863, five months after President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, California outlawed the enslavement of Native Americans.

However and forced labor continued under the name of "apprenticeship" and other euphemisms at least through 1874. Sacramento River massacre Sutter Buttes massacre Rancheria Tulea massacre Konkow Maidu slaver massacre List of Indian massacres "untitled article". California Star. 20 March 1847. "untitled article". California Star. 10 April 1847. "untitled article". The Californian. 22 August 1846. Carranco, Lynwood. Genocide and Vendetta, the

Les Charmettes

Les Charmettes is writer's house museum in a hamlet near the town of Chambéry in the Savoie region of France. It is famed as a favourite retreat of the philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In 1728, a young Jean-Jacques Rousseau fled a watch-matching apprenticeship in nearby Geneva and took refuge with Françoise-Louise de Warens, or Madame de Warens, who became his mistress and mentor, they first resided in the city of Annecy before moving on to Chambéry. Madame de Warens - whom Rousseau affectionately referred to as maman - was 13 years Rousseau's senior. From the summer of 1736, Rousseau and maman moved into a country house called Les Charmettes in the neighborhood of Chambéry. Located in the hollow of a wooded valley, Les Charmettes figures prominently in Rousseau's Confessions. According to him, his short sojourn at Les Charmettes constituted "the short period of my life's happiness" and was instrumental in the development of his love of nature and the simple country life. During the revolutionary and subsequent Romantic periods, Les Charmettes became a symbol of Rousseau's revolutionary thought as well as a shrine attracting such literary and political celebrities as George Sand and Alphonse de Lamartine.

In 1905 Les Charmettes was classified an historical monument by the French government. The house and its grounds are now a museum open to the public. Museum Home Page