Fargo, North Dakota

Fargo is a city in and the county seat of Cass County, North Dakota, United States. The most populous city in the state, it accounts for nearly 17% of the state population. According to the 2018 United States Census estimates, its population was 124,844, making it the 222nd-most populous city in the United States. Fargo, along with its twin city of Moorhead, Minnesota, as well as the adjacent cities of West Fargo, North Dakota and Dilworth, form the core of the Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in 2018 contained a population of 245,471. Founded in 1871 on the Red River of the North floodplain, Fargo is a cultural, health care and industrial center for eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota; the city is home to North Dakota State University. Part of Sioux territory, the area, present-day Fargo was an early stopping point for steamboats traversing the Red River during the 1870s and 1880s; the city was named "Centralia," but was renamed "Fargo" after Northern Pacific Railway director and Wells Fargo Express Company founder William Fargo.

The area started to flourish after the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the city became known as the "Gateway to the West." During the 1880s, Fargo became the "divorce capital" of the Midwest because of lenient divorce laws. A major fire struck the city on June 7, 1893, destroying 31 blocks of downtown Fargo, but the city was rebuilt with new buildings made of brick, new streets, a water system. More than 246 new buildings were built within one year. There were several rumors concerning the cause of the fire; the North Dakota Agricultural College was founded in 1890 as North Dakota's land-grant university, becoming first accredited by the North Central Association in 1915. In 1960, NDAC became known as North Dakota State University. Early in the century, the automobile industry flourished, in 1905, Fargo became home to the Pence Automobile Company. On Labor Day in 1910, Theodore Roosevelt visited Fargo to lay the cornerstone of the college's new library. To a crowd of 30,000, Roosevelt spoke about his first visit to Fargo 27 years earlier, credited his experience homesteading in North Dakota for his eventual rise to the presidency.

Fargo-Moorhead boomed after World War II, the city grew despite a violent tornado in 1957 that destroyed a large part of the north end of the city. Ted Fujita, famous for his Fujita tornado scale, analyzed pictures of the Fargo tornado, which helped him develop his ideas for "wall cloud" and "tail cloud." These were the first major scientific descriptive terms associated with tornadoes. The construction of two interstates revolutionized travel in the region and pushed growth of Fargo to the south and west of the city limits. In 1972, the West Acres Shopping Center, the largest shopping mall in North Dakota, was constructed near the intersection of the two Interstates; this mall became a catalyst for retail growth in the area. Fargo has continued to expand but steadily. Since the mid-1980s, the bulk of new residential growth has occurred in the south and southwest areas of the city due to geographic constraints on the north side; the city's major retail districts on the southwest side have seen rapid development.

Downtown Fargo has been gentrified due in part to investments by the city and private developers in the Renaissance Zone. Most older neighborhoods, such as Horace Mann, have either avoided decline or been revitalized through housing rehabilitation promoted by planning agencies to strengthen the city's core. NDSU has grown into a major research university, forms a major component of the city's identity and economy. Most students live off-campus in the surrounding Roosevelt neighborhood; the university has established a presence downtown through both academic buildings and apartment housing. In addition, NDSU Bison Football has become a major sport following among many area residents. Since the late 1990s, the Fargo-Moorhead Metropolitan Statistical Area has had one of the lowest unemployment rates among MSAs in the United States. Coupled with Fargo's low crime rate and the decent supply of affordable housing in the community, this has prompted Money magazine to rank the city near the top of its annual list of America's most livable cities throughout the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Fargo is a core city of the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area, which includes Moorhead, West Fargo, Dilworth as well as outlying communities. Fargo sits on the western bank of the Red River of the North in a flat geographic region known as the Red River Valley; the Red River Valley resulted from the withdrawal of glacial Lake Agassiz, which drained away about 9,300 years ago. The lake sediments deposited from Lake Agassiz made the land around Fargo some of the richest in the world for agricultural uses. Fargo's largest challenge is the seasonal floods due to the rising water of the Red River, which flows from the United States into Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada; the Red flows northward, which means melting snow and river ice, as well as runoff from its tributaries create ice dams causing the river to overflow. Fargo's surrounding Red River Valley terrain is flat, leading to overland flooding. Since the devastating 2009 Red River flood, both Fargo and Moorhead have taken great strides in flood protection, only a near record flood would cause concern today.

Its location makes the city vulnerable to flooding during seasons with above average precipitation. The Red River's "minor" flood stage in Fargo begins at a level of 18 feet, with "major" flooding categorized at 30 feet and above. Many major downtown roadways and access to Moorhead are closed off at this level. Record snowfal


Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities and directionality. In this hierarchy, the single pitch or triadic chord with the greatest stability is called the tonic; the root of the tonic chord forms the name given to the key. Simple folk music songs start and end with the tonic note; the most common use of the term "is to designate the arrangement of musical phenomena around a referential tonic in European music from about 1600 to about 1910". Contemporary classical music from 1910 to the 2000s may practice or avoid any sort of tonality—but harmony in all Western popular music remains tonal. Harmony in jazz includes many but not all tonal characteristics of the European common practice period, sometimes known as "classical music". "All harmonic idioms in popular music are tonal, none is without function". Tonality is an organized system of tones in which one tone becomes the central point for the remaining tones; the other tones in a tonal piece are all defined in terms of their relationship to the tonic.

In tonality, the tonic is the tone of complete relaxation and stability, the target toward which other tones lead. The cadence in which the dominant chord or dominant seventh chord resolves to the tonic chord plays an important role in establishing the tonality of a piece. "Tonal music is music, unified and dimensional. Music is unified if it is exhaustively referable to a precompositional system generated by a single constructive principle derived from a basic scale-type; the term tonalité originated with Alexandre-Étienne Choron and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis in 1840. According to Carl Dahlhaus, the term tonalité was only coined by Castil-Blaze in 1821. Although Fétis used it as a general term for a system of musical organization and spoke of types de tonalités rather than a single system, today the term is most used to refer to major–minor tonality, the system of musical organization of the common practice period. Major-minor tonality is called harmonic tonality, diatonic tonality, common practice tonality, functional tonality, or just tonality.

At least eight distinct senses of the word "tonality", some mutually exclusive, have been identified: The word tonality may describe any systematic organization of pitch phenomena in any music at all, including pre-17th century western music as well as much non-western music, such as music based on the slendro and pelog pitch collections of Indonesian gamelan, or employing the modal nuclei of the Arabic maqam or the Indian raga system. This sense applies to the tonic/dominant/subdominant harmonic harmonic constellations in the theories of Jean-Philippe Rameau as well as the 144 basic transformations of twelve-tone technique. By the middle of the 20th century, it had become "evident that triadic structure does not generate a tone center, that non-triadic harmonic formations may be made to function as referential elements, that the assumption of a twelve-tone complex does not preclude the existence of tone centers". For the composer and theorist George Perle, tonality is not "a matter of'tone-centeredness', whether based on a'natural' hierarchy of pitches derived from the overtone series or an'artificial' pre compositional ordering of the pitch material.

This sense is susceptible to ideological employment, as Schoenberg, did by relying on the idea of a progressive development in musical resources "to compress divergent fin-de-siècle compositional practices into a single historical lineage in which his own music brings one historical era to a close and begins the next." From this point of view, twelve-tone music could be regarded "either as the natural and inevitable culmination of an organic motivic process or as a historical Aufhebung, the dialectical synthesis of late Romantic motivic practice on the one hand with a musical sublimation of tonality as pure system on the other". In another sense, tonality means any rational and self-contained theoretical arrangement of musical pitches, existing prior to any concrete embodiment in music. For example, "Sainsbury, who had Choron translated into English in 1825, rendered the first occurrence of tonalité as a'system of modes' before matching it with the neologism'tonality'. While tonality qua system constitutes a theoretical abstraction from actual music, it is hypostatized in musicological discourse, converted from a theoretical structure into a musical reality.

In this sense, it is understood as a Platonic form or prediscursive musical essence that suffuses music with intelligible sense, which exists before its concrete embodiment in music, can thus be theorized and discussed apart from actual musical contexts". To contrast with "modal" and "atonal", the term tonality is used to imply that tonal music is discontinuous as a form of cultural expression from modal music on the one hand and atonal music on the other. In some literature, tonality

Pavelló Barris Nord

Pavelló Barris Nord is an arena in Lleida, Spain. It is used for basketball games and the home arena of Força Lleida CE; the construction of the Pavelló Barris Nord began on 1 June 2001, after the promotion of CE Lleida Bàsquet to Liga ACB, with the aim to give to the club an arena that fulfills the requirements to play in the league. Built in four months, it was opened on 4 October 2001. From an initial capacity of 5,500 people, after being expanded in summer of 2003, its new capacity is of 6,100 seats; the pavilion is located in Barris Nord, an area of Lleida made out of parts of the neighborhoods of Pardinyes, Secà de Sant Pere and Balàfia, in the intersection of Rambla de Pardinyes with Avinguda de Prat de la Riba. When CE Lleida Bàsquet reached the ACB league, the team left the old Pavilion "Onze de Setembre" as the former did not fulfill the minimum requirements of capacity marked by league; the construction of a new pavilion was entrusted to a team of forty companies of Lleida, which achieved every a milestone: finishing it before the first day of the league, that is, 125 days afterwards.

The venue has hosted many musical events, including concerts by Fito & Fitipaldis, Miguel Bosé or El Canto del Loco, among others. On April 29, 2012, Barris Nord hosted the Final Four of the 2011–12 UEFA Futsal Cup. On 13 and 14 May 2017, Barris Nord hosted the Final Four of the rink hockey's 2016–17 CERH European League. Lleida Bàsquet